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THIRD DAY.
Saturday, August 28.
MoRNING SESSION, 9.30 A. M.

PRESIDING OFFICER, BERNARD N. BAKER, MEMBER, Joint CoMMITTEE ON CoNSERVATION.

The report of the Committee on Credentials was presented as follows:

That all representatives of national associations shall act with the States in which their central offices are situated and that representatives of Governmental Departments shall be included in the votes accorded to the District of Columbia.

That when formal votes are called for, which shall be by the request of three or more delegates, votes shall be by States, each State to be entitled to as many votes as there are delegates present and voting up to the number of ten. In case more than ten delegates are present, then the State to be limited to a total of ten votes, the votes, avoiding fractions, to be the nearest whole numbers, representing the relative votes pro and con in the delegation.

On motion of Ex-Governor Pardee, duly seconded and carried, it was resolved that any State having ten or more delegates present at the Congress should have ten votes, States having nine delegates should have nine votes, and States having five delegates or less should be entitled to five votes.

Mr. Baker then assumed the Chair and presided over the meeting.

Rev. Dr. J. L. Garvin, being called on, made the Invocation as follows:

Our Heavenly Father, we come before Thee this morning for the purpose of studying the great earth on which we live, in the interests of living men and women and the generations yet to come, and we do not forget Thee, as our hearts and minds are lifted up into this great and lofty sphere of thought where we love to dwell. As men and women with homes and wives and children, with loved ones depending upon us, we come to consider the great question of human life and everything that pertains to the value of our human earistence, and we ask Thee this morning to help us to consider, and have in our hearts three great principles which will enable us to so conduct ourselves that when this Convention shall be over we can look our own selves in the face and in our hearts know that we have fitly conducted öur thought and our deliberations, and we pray Thee, therefore, this morning, Our Father, that in studying the resources of this great earth, we do not forget the source from whence they come, that we do not forget that wonderful faith which we have in a supreme being, Thyself, and that linking our thoughts of Thee with those of things which we can touch and handle, we begin to understand something of the Divine relationship and the great opportunities which lie within our power, and as we deliberate here we pray Thee that we may not forget the helpless millions of men and women who are absolutely dependent upon the result of such a Convention as this, the results of whose deliberations affect the very lives they live for weal or woe, we pray Thee that we may not forget the helpless millions as we discuss these questions, and we also pray Thee that we may not forget that conscience within ourselves, that call of duty, that wonderful power that lifts us above personal matters and makes us look at everything in an impersonal way, so that when we are through and go back to our homes and loved ones, we may have the conscious pride of knowing it was for Thy glory and for the honor of our own lives, and so we, men and women, forgetting rank, position and wealth, forgetting learning, as humble children, bow at Thy feet and ask Thee to help us as we pray for wisdom that we may do the thing that is right and good, and in a way that will redown to the blessing of the human race forever. We ask it for Jesus Christ's sake, Amen.

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The following addresses were then delivered: CONSERVATION AND THE MANUFACTURER.

JAMEs A. EMERY, REPRESENTING THE NEw York MANUFACTURERs' Association.

I have been more than amply repaid for my long journey by the addresses I have listened to and, more than all, by the determined spirit and the lack of personal feeling that have characterized the deliberations of this body. I realize, as I think every man does who fully comprehends the purposes of this great gathering, that this meeting is, first of all, educational. Our difficulty is to get the great body of American citizens to understand what it is that Conservation seeks to conserve, why it seeks to conserve it, and how it proposes to do it. The subject is so vast and comprehensive that a speaker who endeavors to touch it finds himself adrift in a sea of temptation. I feel almost like the author of Knickerbocker's History, who prefaced the history of New York with a history of the world, giving as his reason for so doing that if there had not been any world New York would never have been in existence. In attempting to consider this subject, which touches on so many topics, I, as representative of a great trade organization, should prefer to confine myself, with your indulgence, to a very brief expression of the relation of the manufacturer to conservation.

The manufacturer comes in för many hard criticisms, but the great body of manufacturers is to be measured and judged not by isolated cases of individual members, but by the general tendencies of the class, by its general purposes and the actual means it takes to accomplish them. The American manufacturer, perhaps more than any other single example of American industrial, commercial, and business life, illustrates in his own person the great possibilities of a democratic country. The men who stand at the top of the industries of the country today are, as a rule, men who begin at the bench. The American manufacturer, more than any other class, is interested in conserving all the great natural resources of this country and in everything that makes for industrial and commercial efficiency and the higher types of citizenship. He has been indirectly and directly criticized during the course of the discussions here, and in so far as some of the criticisms have a foundation in fact they are justified; but I speak for a great organization, perhaps the greatest organization in the world, which represents an investment of over five billion dollars in manufactures and finds employment for three and a half millions of men, and which is extending its commercial supremacy not only through our own but through neighboring countries. Thanks to the sagacity and great ability and far-seeing commercial foresight of the distinguished gentleman on my right (the Hon. John Barrett), we are increasing our commercial and industrial relations with all the nations of the world. The American manufacturer believes in conserving natural resources of soil, forest, and stream not only because he wants to draw upon them and to use them wisely and justly, but also because he desires to be protected against the enrichment of great single persons, either corporate or individual, that seek to control natural resources for their own gain and to the detriment and injury of those who suffer from extravagant and wasteful use. More than that, he is a firm and determined believer in the conservation of child life in every form and in every place. He knows that when you keep the schools open you keep the jails closed; that he who preserves the child protects and makes more efficient the man. He is eager not only to protect and develop our natural resources in the present generation, but to preserve them for the future generations, and in that connection to conserve things moral and things educational with regard to our young men. Our chief competitors in foreign markets, with whom we most frequently jostle shoulders in the commercial world, are nations that are giving the greatest thought and concern, not only to protecting child life, but to providing it with practical instruments for future protection and support. Under our present school system, between six and seven million children annually enter our schools. A vast majority leave school between the ages of twelve and fourteen to enter on their struggle with the world, some from necessity, some from choice, some from the blindness, ignorance, or indifference of parents, some from the temptations of commercial life, the suggestion of rapid success; but are we today as a people preparing the American child to take up the responsibility of American manhood, not only from the moral but from the practical standpoint? With our much larger population and with far greater natural resources, we are doing far less in comparison with the great German Empire to prepare the vast army of growing boys to accept the responsibilities of manhood and to enter upon life prepared by training and education to take advantage of the opportunities of trade and commerce and to make for themselves a commanding place among mankind. The manufacturer is interested in the great question of conservation because the great body to which I refer represents in its membership, in its growth, in its aspirations and ambitions the desires and hopes, moral and industrial, of the great middle class of the American people. It does not require in its membership the representatives of those vast monopolies that in a single grasp possess the wealth that kings had not in centuries past; it does not hold in its

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