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Sec. 9. Each house shall keep a correct journal of its proceedings, which shall be published. At the desire of any two members, the yeas and nays shall be entered upon the journal; and, on the passage of every bill, in either house, the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and entered upon the journal; and no law shall be passed in either house without the concurrence of a majority of all the members elected thereto.

Sec. 10. Any member of either house shall have the right to protest against any act, or resolution thereof; and such protest, and the reasons therefor, shall, without alteration, commitment, or delay, be entered upon the journal.

Sec. II. All vacancies which may happen in either house shall, for the unexepired term, be filled by election, as shall be directed by law. SEC. 12.

Senators and representatives, during the session of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same, shall be privileged from arrest, in all cases, except treason, felony or breach of the peace; and for any speech, or debate, in either house, they shall not be questioned elsewhere.

SEC. 13. The proceedings of both houses shall be public, except in cases which, in the opinion of two-thirds of those present, require secrecy.

Sec. 14. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than two days, Sundays excluded; nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be in session.

Sec. 15. Bills may originate in either house; but may be altered, amended or rejected in the other.

Sec. 16. Every bill shall be fully and distinctly read on three different days, unless in case of urgency three-fourths of the house in which it shall be pending, shall dispense with the rule. No bill shall contain more than one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title, and no law shall be revived, or amended unless the new act contains the entire act revived, or the section or sections amended, and the section or sections so amended shall be repealed. Every bill passed by the general assembly shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the governor for his approval. If he approves, he shall sign it and thereupon it shall become a law and be filed with the secretary of state. If he does not approve it, he shall return it with his objections in writing, to the house in which it originated, which shall enter the objections at large upon its journal, and may then reconsider the vote on its passage. If three-fifths of the members elected to that house vote to repass the bill, it shall be sent, with the objections of the governor, to the other house, which may also reconsider the vote on its passage. If three-fifths of the members elected to that house vote to repass it, it shall become a law notwithstanding the objections of the governor, except that in no case shall a bill be repassed by a smaller vote than is required by the constitution on its original passage. In all such cases the vote of each house shall be determined by yeas and nays and the names of the members voting for


and against the bill shall be entered upon the journal. If a bill shall not be returned by the governor within ten days, Sundays excepted, after being presented to him, it shall become a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the general assembly by adjournment prevents its return; in which case, it shall become a law unless, within ten days after such adjournment, it shall be filed by him, with his objections in writing, in the office of the secretary of state. The governor may disapprove any item or items in any bill making an appropriation of money and the item or items, so disapproved, shall be void, unless repassed in the manner herein prescribed for the repassage of a bill. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

SEC. 17. The presiding officer of each house shall sign, publicly in the presence of the house over which he presides, while the same is in session and capable of transacting business, all bills, and joint resolutions passed by the General Assembly.

Sec. 18. The style of the laws of this state shall be, “Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio."

SEC. 19. No senator or representative shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, or for one year thereafter, be appointed to any civil office under this state, which shall be created or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during the term for which he shall have been elected.

Sec. 20. The General Assembly, in cases not provided for in this constitution, shall fix the term of office and the compensation of all officers; but no change therein shall effect the salary of any officer during his existing term, unless the office be abolished. Sec. 21.

The General Assembly shall determine, by law, before what authority, and in what manner, the trial of contested elections shall be conducted. Sec. 22.

No money shall be drawn from the treasury, except in pursuance of a specific appropriation, made by law; and no appropriation shall be made for a longer period than two years.

Sec. 23. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment, but a majority of the members elected must concur therein. Impeachments shall be tried by the Senate; and the senators, when sitting for that purpose, shall be upon oath or affirmation to do justice according to law and evidence. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators.

Sec. 24. The governor, judges, and all state officers, may be impeached for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment shall not extend further than removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office, under the authority of this state. The party impeached, whether convicted or not, shall be liable to indictment, trial and judgment, according to law.

Sec. 25. All regular sessions of the General Assembly shall commence on the first Monday of January, biennially. The first session,


under this constitution, shall commence on the first Monday of January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two.

SEC. 26. All laws, of a general nature, shall have a uniform operation throughout the state; nor, shall any act, except such as relates to public schools, be passed, to take effect upon the approval of any other authority than the General Assembly, except, as otherwise provided in this constitution.

SEC. 27. The election and appointment of all officers, and the filling of all vacancies, not otherwise provided for by this constitution, or the constitution of the United States, shall be made in such manner as may be directed by law; but no appointing power shall be exercised by the General Assembly, except as prescribed in this constitution, and in the election of the United States senators; and in these cases the vote shall be taken viva voce."

Sec. 28. The General Assembly shall have no power to pass retroactive laws, or laws impairing the obligation of contracts; but may, by general laws, authorize courts to carry into effect, upon such terms as shall be just and equitable, the manifest intention of parties, and officers, by curing omissions, defects, and errors, in instruments and proceedings, arising out of their want of conformity with the laws of this state.

SEC. 29. No extra compensation shall be made to any officer, public agent, or contractor, after the service shall have been rendered, or the contract entered into; nor shall any money be paid, on any claim, the subject matter of which shall not have been provided for by pre-existing law, unless such compensation, or claim, be allowed by two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the General Assembly.

Sec. 30. No new county shall contain less than four hundred square miles of territory, nor shall any county be reduced below that amount; and all laws creating new counties, changing county lines, or removing county seats, shall, before taking effect, be submitted to the electors of the several counties to be affected thereby, at the next general election after the passage thereof, and be adopted by a majority of all the electors voting at such election, in each of said counties; but any county now or hereafter containing one hundred thousand inhabitants, may be divided, whenever a majority of the voters residing in each of the proposed divisions shall approve of the law passed for that purpose; but no town or city within the same shall be divided, nor shall either of the divisions contain less than twenty thousand inhabitants.

Sec. 31. The members and officers of the General Assembly shall receive a fixed compensation, to be prescribed by law, and no other allowance or perquisites, either in the payment of postage or otherwise ; and no change in their compensation shall take effect during their term of office.

Sec. 32. The General Assembly shall grant no divorce, nor exercise any judicial power not herein expressly conferred.


Sec. 33. Laws may be passed to secure to mechanics, artisans, laborers, sub-contractors and material men, their just dues by direct lien upon the property, upon which they have bestowed labor or for which they have furnished material. No other provision of the constitution shall impair or limit this power. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

Sec. 34. Laws may be passed fixing and regulating the hours of labor, establishing a minimum wage, and providing for the comfort, health, safety and general welfare of all employes; and no other provision of the constitution shall impair or limit this power. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

Sec. 35. For the purpose of providing compensation to workmen and their dependents, for death, injuries or occupational diseases, occasioned in the course of such workmen's employment, laws may be passed establishing a state fund to be created by compulsory contribution thereto by employers, and administered by the state, determining the terms and conditions upon which payment shall be made therefrom, and taking away any or all rights of action or defenses from employes and employers; but no right of action shall be taken away from any employe when the injury, disease or death arises from failure of the employer to comply with any lawful requirement for the protection of the lives, health and safety of employes. Laws may be passed establishing a board which may be empowered to classify all occupations, according to their degree of hazard, to fix rates of contribution to such fund according to such classification, and to collect, administer and distribute such fund, and to determine all rights of claimants thereto. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

Sec. 36. Laws may be passed to encourage forestry, and to that end areas devoted exclusively to forestry may be exempted, in whole or in part, from taxation. Laws may also be passed to provide for converting into forest reserves such lands or parts of lands as have been or may be forfeited to the state, and to authorize the acquiring of other lands for that purpose; also, to provide for the conservation of the natural resources of the state, including streams, lakes, submerged and swamp lands and the development and regulation of water power and the formation of drainage and conservation districts; and to provide for the regulation of methods of mining, weighing, measuring and marketing coal, oil, gas and all other minerals. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

SEC. 37. Except in cases of extraordinary emergencies, not to exceed eight hours shall constitute a day's work, and not to exceed fortyeight hours a week's work, for workmen engaged on any public work carried on or aided by the state, or any political sub-division thereof, whether done by contract, or otherwise. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

Sec. 38. Laws shall be passed providing for the prompt removal from office, upon complaint and hearing, of all officers, including state officers, judges and members of the general assembly, for any misconduct involving moral turpitude or for other cause provided by law; and


this method of removal shall be in addition to impeachment or other method of removal authorized by the constitution. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

SEC. 39. Laws may be passed for the regulation of the use of expert witnesses and expert testimony in criminal trials and proceedings. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

SEC. 40. Laws may be passed providing for a system of registering, transferring, insuring and guaranteeing land titles by the state or by the counties thereof, and for settling and determining adverse or other claims to and interests in, lands the titles to which are so registered, insured or guaranteed, and for the creation and collection of guaranty funds by fees to be assessed against lands, the titles to which are registered; and judicial powers with right of appeal may by law be conferred upon county recorders or other officers in matters arising under the operation of such system. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

SEC. 41. Laws shall be passed providing for the occupation and employment of prisoners sentenced to the several penal institutions and reformatories in the state; and no person in any such penal institution or reformatory while under sentence thereto, shall be required or allo ved to work at any trade, industry or occupation, wherein or whereby his work, or the product or profit of his work, shall be sold, farmed out, contracted or given away; and goods made by persons under sentence to any penal institution or reformatory without the State of Ohio, and sucli goods made within the State of Ohio, excepting those disposed of to the state or any political sub-division thereof or to any public institution owned, managed or controlled by the state or any political sub-division thereof, shall not be sold within this state unless the same are conspicuously marked "prison made." Nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent the passage of laws providing that convicts may work for, and that the products of their labor may be disposed of to, the state or any political sub-division thereof, or for or to any public institution owned or managed and controlled by the state or any political sub-division thereof. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)



Sec. 1. The executive department shall consist of a governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, auditor of state, treasurer of state, and an attorney general, who shall be elected on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, by the electors of the state, and at the places for voting for members of the General Assembly. [As amended October 13, 1885; 82 v. 446.]

The governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, treasurer, and attorney general shall hold their offices for two years; and the

Sec. 2.

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