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SEC. 14

censes, and for the sale of land by executors, administrators, and guardians, and such other jurisdiction, in any county or counties, as may be provided by law.

Sec. 9. [Repealed September 3, 1912.]

Sec. io. All judges, other than those provided for in this constitution, shall be elected, by the electors of the judicial district for which they may be created, but not for a longer term of office than five years.

SEC. II. [Repealed October 9, 1883; 80 v. 382.]
SEC. 12.

The judges of the courts of common pleas shall, while in office, reside in the county for which they are elected; and their term of office shall be for six years. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

Sec. 13. In case the office of any judge shall become vacant, before the expiration of the regular term for which he was elected, the vacancy shall be filled by appointment by the governor, until a successor is elected and qualified; and such successor shall be elected for the unexpired term, at the first annual election that occurs more than thirty days after the vacancy shall have happened.

The judges of the supreme court, and of the court of common pleas, shall at stated times, receive, for their services, such compensation as may be provided by law; which shall not be diminished, or increased, during their term of office; but they shall receive no fees or perquisites, nor hold any other office of profit or trust, under the authority of this state, or of the United States. All votes for either of them, for any elective office, except a judicial office, under the authority of this state, given by the General Assembly, or the people, shall be void.

SEC. 15. Laws may be passed to increase or diminish the number of judges of the supreme court, to increase beyond one or diminish to one the number of judges of the court of common pleas in any county, and to establish other courts, whenever two-thirds of the members elected to each house shall concur therein; but no such change, addition or diminution shall vacate the office of any judge; and any existing court heretofore created by law shall continue in existence until otherwise provided. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

SEC. 16. There shall be elected in each county, by the electors thereof one clerk of the court of common pleas, who shall hold his office for the term of three years, and until his successor shall be elected and qualified. He shall, by virtue of his office, be clerk of all other courts of record held therein; but, the General Assembly may provide, by law, for the election of a clerk, with a like term of office, for each or any other of the courts of record, and may authorize the judge of the probate court to perform the duties of clerk for his court, under such regulations as may be directed by law. Clerks of courts shall be removable for such calist and in such manner as shall be prescribed by law


Sec. 17. Judges may Le removed from office, by concurrent resolutions of both houses of the General Assembly, if two-thirds of the members, elected to each house, concur therein; but no such removal shall be made, except upon complaint, the substance of which shall be entered on the journal, nor, until the party charged shall have had notice thereof, and an opportunity to be heard.

SEC. 18. The several judges of the supreme court, of the common pleas, and of such other courts as may be created, shall, respectively, have and exercise such power and jurisdiction, at chambers, or otherwise, as may be directed by law.

SEC. 19. The General Assembly may establish courts of conciliation, and prescribe their powers and duties; but such courts shall not render final judgment in any case, except upon submission, by the parties, of the matter in dispute, and their agreement to abide such judgment.

Sec. 20. The style of all process shall be “The State of Ohio;" all prosecutions shall be carried on, in the name, and by the authority, of the State of Ohio; and all indictments shall conclude, "against the peace and dignity of the State of Ohio."

SEC. 22. (21) A commission, which shall consist of five members, shall be appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, the members of which shall hold office for the term of three years from and after the first day of February, 1876, to dispose of such part of the business then on the dockets of the supreme court, as shall, by arrangement between said commission and said court, be transferred to such commission; and said commission shall have like jurisdiction and power in respect to such business as are or may be vested in said court; and the members of said commission shall receive a like compensation for the time being with the judges of said court. A majority of the members of said commission shall be necessary to form a quorum or pronounce a decision, and its decision shall be certified, entered, and enforced as the judgments of the supreme court, and at the expiration of the term of said commission, all business undisposed of, shall by it be certified to the supreme court and disposed of as if said commission had never existed. The clerk and reporter of said court shall be the clerk and reporter of said commission, and the commission shall have such other attendants not exceeding in number those provided by law for said court, which attendants said commission may appoint and remove at its pleas

Any vacancy occurring in said commission, shall be filled by appointment of the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, if the senate be in session, and if the senate be not in session, by the governor, but in such last case, such appointment shall expire at the end of the next session of the General Assembly. The General Assembly may, on application of the supreme court duly entered on the journal of the court and certified, provide by law, whenever two-thirds of such [each] house shall concur therein, from time to time, for the ap


pointment, in like manner, of a like commission with like powers, jurisdiction and duties; provided, that the term of any such commission shall not exceed two years, nor shall it be created oftener than once in ten years. [As adopted October 12, 1875; 72 v. 269.)



SEC. 1. Every white male citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been a resident of the state one year next preceding the election, and of the county, township, or ward, in which he resides, such time as may be provided by law, shall have the qualifications of an elector, and be entitled to vote at all elections.

SEC. 2. . All elections shall be by ballot.

Sec. 3. Electors, during their attendance at elections, and in going tu, and returning therefrom, shall be privileged from arrest, in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace.

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall have power to exclude from the privilege of voting, or of being eligible to office, any person convicted of bribery, perjury, or other infamous crime.

Sec. 5. No person in the military, naval, or marine service of the United States, shall, by being stationed in any garrison, or military, or naval station, within the state, be considered a resident of this state.

Sec. 6. No idiot, or insane person, shall be entitled to the privileges of an elector.

Sec. 7. All nominations for elective state, district, county and municipal offices shall be made at direct primary elections or by petition as. provided by law, and provision shall be made by law for a preferential vote for United States senator ; but direct primaries shall not be held for the nomination of township officers or for the officers of municipalities of less than two thousand population, unless petitioned for by a majority of the electors of such township or municipality. All delegates from this state to the national conventions of political parties shall be chosen by direct vote of the electors. Each candidate for such delegate shall state his first and second choices for the presidency, which preferences shall be printed upon the primary ballot below the name of such candidate, but the name of no candidate for the presidency shall be so used without his written authority. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)



SEC. 1. The principal of all funds, arising from the sale, or other disposition of lands, or other property, granted or entrusted to this state


for educational and religious purposes, shall forever be preserved inviolate, and undimished; and, the income arising therefrom, shall be faithfully applied to the specific objects of the original grants, or appropriations.

SEC. 2. The General Assembly shall make such provisions, by taxation, or otherwise, as, with the income arising from the school trust fund, will secure a thorough and efficient system of common schools throughout the state; but no religious or other sect, or sects, shall ever have any exclusive right to, or control of, any part of the school funds of this state.

Sec. 3. Provision shall be made by law for the organization, administration and control of the public school system of the state supported by public funds: provided, that each school district embraced wholly or in part within any city shall have the power by referendum vote to determine for itself the number of members and the organization of the district board of education, and provision shall be made by law for the exercise of this power by such school districts. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

SEC. 4. A superintendent of public instruction to replace the state commissioner of common schools, shall be included as one of the officers of the executive department to be appointed by the governor, for the term of four years, with the powers and duties now exercised by the state commissioner of common schools until otherwise provided by law, and with such other powers as may be provided by law. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)



Sec. I. Institutions for the benefit of the insane, blind, and deaf and dumb, shall always be fostered and supported by the state; and be subject to such regulations as may be prescribed by the General Assembly. SEC. 2.

The directors of the penitentiary shall be appointed or elected in such manner as the General Assembly may direct; and the trustees of the benevolent, and other state institutions, now elected by the General Assembly, and of such other state institutions, as may be hereafter created, shall be appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate; and upon all nominations made by the governor, the question shall be taken by yeas and nays, and entered upon the journals of the senate.

Sec. 3. The governor shall have power to fill all vacancies that may occur in the offices aforesaid, until the next session of the General Assembly, and, until a successor to his appointee shall be confirmed and qualified.




Sec. 1. The state may contract debts to supply casual deficits or failures in revenues, or to meet expenses not otherwise provided for; but the aggregate amount of such debts, direct and contingent, whether contractd by virtue of one or more acts of the General Assembly, or at different periods of time, shall never exceed seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars; and the money, arising from the creation of such debts, shall be applied to the purpose for which it was obtained, or to repay the debts so contracted, and to no other purpose whatever.

SEC. 2. In addition to the above limited power, the state may contract debts to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, defend the state in war, or to redeem the present outstanding indebtedness of the state; but the, money, arising from the contracting of such debts, shall be applied to the purpose for which it was raised, or to repay such debts, and to no other purpose whatever; and all debts, incurred to redeem the present outstanding indebtedness of the state, shall be so contracted as to be payable by the sinking fund, hereinafter provided for, as the same shall accumulate.

Sec. 3. Except the debts above specified in sections one and two of this article, no debt whatever shall hereafter be created by or on behalf of the state.

SEC. 4. The credit of the state shall not, in any manner be given or loaned to, or in aid of, any individual association or corporation whatever; nor shall the state ever hereafter become a joint owner, or stockholder, in any company or association in this state, or elsewhere, formed for any purpose whatever.

Sec. 5. The state shall never assume the debts of any county, city, town, or township, or of any corporation whatever, unless such debts shall have been created to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or defend the state in war.

Sec. 6. No laws shall be passed authorizing any county, city, town or township, by vote of its citizens, or otherwise, to become a stockholder in any joint stock company, corporation, or association whatever; or to raise money for, or to loan its credit to, or in aid of, any such company, corporation, or association: provided, that nothing in this section shall prevent the insuring of public buildings or property in mutual insurance associations or companies. Laws may be passed providing for the regulation of all rates charged or to be charged by any insurance company, corporation or association organized under the laws of this state or doing any insurance business in this state for profit. (Adopted Sept. 3, 1912.)

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