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Spaced out their suns, and round each radiant forth their armies to destruction, and sacrifice goal,
thousands after thousands to their restless am. Orb over orb, compelled their train to roll,
bition. Is not war a dreadful thing ?” Bade heaven's own harmony their force combine, Taught all their 'hosts symphonious strains to dous volcano which desolates the fields with
Certainly, very dreadful : War is a tremen. join, Gave to seraphic harps their sounding lays,
rivers of fire, and overwhelms the cities with Their joys to angels, and to men their praise. oceans of lava ; but do not the ashes of this Is not this very fine ?"
volcano fertilize the carth ? Does not the cenAy, very fine; but it will not enable us to tral heat hasten the progress of vegetation ? form an idea of peace. Here is a great show Do not trees bloom and fruit ripen round the . of words ; but the mind is fatigued and dis. base of the burning mountain ? In war every tressed when it endeavors to discover the death opens the way for a life; wounds and meaning that is intended to be conveyed. Did diseases afford cmployment for surgeons and peace recline, in blessed repose, veiled in the physicians; the meagerness of the half-starved splendors of the beamful mind of God ? did it soldier clothes the bones of the commissary live in his life, catch his inward sapience, trace with flesh; the wants and distresses of the and tone his universe of thought ?-Subject troops heap the table of the contractor with this tinsel to the chemical serntiny of reason, luxuries, and cause his cup to overflow. While and, what have we ?-Funum er fulgore. Did the belligerents are contending for empire, peace bid the unfolding worlds rejoice, lead neutral nations take advantage of their necesforth their systems, shape their curves, fashion sities, and grow rich by their calamities. their spheres, space out their suns, and compel Traders, adventurers, speculators, hyenas, their train, orb over orb, to roll? These were wolves, vultures, scent the blood from afár, and more properly the operations of war, the hasten to gorge themselves with the carnage. triumphs of the creator lover chaos. There The cultivator of the earth, whose fields are is no such thing as peace in nature : Atom is situated at a distance from the scene of con. at war with atom; planets contend with tention and consequently escape the ravages of planets ; suns dispute with suns for the em- war, rejoices that the produce of his labor com. pire of comets; and system exerts its influence mands a price corresponding to his avaricious in opposition to system. Man comes into life desires, and devoutly thanks God for the pro
vidential occurrence. fighting, and continues to contend with every
The merchant patheti. thing round him till the last moment of his cally laments over the sufferings of afflicted existence. What is peace ?
humanity, but in the mean time supplies the “When one nation ceases to carry on against contending parties with the ja’ulum of war another those operations which are known by thus enables them to continue the contest.
and with the instruments of destruction, and the name of war, that cessation is the com- Privateers range the seas, as wolves do the mencement of peace, which consists in the ab. sence of these operations."
desert, in search of their prey: they plunder Peace, then, is nothing: and it is not won.
the defenceless of every nation that fall in their derful that we should find it difficult to give a
way; they turn their arms against their coun. satisfactory definition of a nonentity. Every try and rise into consequence by the ruin of
. thing in nature is known by its qualities, by the influence it exerts over other beings, by ships on the barbarous coast of some civilized
When autumnal storms drive the frequent the war it maintains with surrounding objects. Were there peace in nature, we never should nation, the lawless inhabitants rush forward, be able to acquire any knowledge of the exis. the waves, seize greedily on the plunder, and
destroy the poor mariner while struggling with tence of things : the universe would consist of a multitude of isolated beings uninfluencing good wrecking season, as does the farmer for
praise God as piously for the blessings of a and uninfluenced, unknowing and unknown. “Let us lay aside these metaphysical sub- a house is in flames in the midst of some
the exuberance of a plentiful harvest. When tilities which are only calculated to perplex polished city, the civilized thieves of the vicinthe mind and lead it into labyrinths of error: ity, taking advantage of the confusion, approlet us use words agreeably to their usual ac. ceptation, unless we mean to speak a language ing owner, and, no doubt, lift up their hearts
priate to themselves the property of the suffer. wholly different from that of the rest of the in thankfulness to the bountiful giver of all world.”
good for his fatherly kindness. War then is the beating of drums, the roar
Horrible !" ing of cannons, the clashing of swords, the
Why that exclamation ? storming of forts, the burning of towns, the
-Mutato nomine de to shouts of the victórs, the despair of the van.
Fabula narratur: quished, and the groans of the dying.
Yes : such are the horrid operations of Thou art the man! O child of civilization ! War. Men exist for a moment: and that mo. thou art the man! When a nation is ship ment, alas, is employed in destroying each wrecked; when she is torn by intestine con osher! The mad tyrants of the world lead fusion; when the frame of society is disar.
ganized; when the whirlwind of popular com- die before long, we shall become as wicked as motion has torn her to pieces; when the flames a christian. of civil discord rage through her interior : Since you have given us what you deem a then, the neighboring nations say one to sufficient reason for your sudden abhorrence of another,
“Let us go up to war against our war, we will endeavor to believe you; but we sister : behold, bath not the Lord delivered her must acknowledge that we had previously ac. into our hands ?” The suffering nation sees counted for it in a different manner. We had herself surrounded by devourers: some menace supposed that not only your former admiration her with open violence; others mock her ca. of heroic deeds, but your present sympathetic lamity with insidious professions of friendship; sufferings, were occasioned by the state of your all take advantage of her necessities, and en- pecuniary concerns. deavor to aggrandize themselves by her de. Several years ago, the old world was, as well struction. The plunderers proceed gradually as it now is, the scene of contending armies ; to bring about her ruin : they seize her garri. but then you rejoiced in the prosperity of sops, rob her treasury, dispense with her laws; American comnierce; which was nourished usurp the power of legislation, and, finally, by the blood, and flourished throngh the mis. enslave her citizens, partition her territory, and fortunes of suffering Europe. If our memory blot out her name from under heaven.
be not treacherous, we heard you declare that These, my benevolent friend, are a few of they might, if they would let us alone, fight as the many advantages that flow from those long as they pleased : " By so doing,” said horrible contentions you affect to pursue with you with a smile of exultation, “they will open execrations. You may continue to express a good market for our beef and our flour.” your disapprobation ; but, in the mean time, But, as the belligerents, by their late restricdo not fail prudently to turn these events to tions and regulations, have nearly annihilated your personal emolument. When Lisbon was neutral commerce, we had uncharitably con. shattered by an earthquake, men were scen jectured that you had been led to conclude that darting through the ruins with torches in their a general peace would be more favorable, than hands and setting fire to those buildings that war, to commercial enterprise and enlightened had resisted the violence of the shocks, in order speculation ; and in consequence of these conthat they might be enabled to plunder amid siderations, we supposed that you began to the flames.
experience certain sympathetic sensations, and “ These were monsters, not men."
to mourn over the afflictions of your unfortu. They were men, and therefore munsters. nate fellow men. But, my good sir, how does it happen that your "I am sorry that you should have supposed detestation of war has risen to such an amazing me to be swayed by such unworthy motives : height within the course of a few years ? Do but you have as yet mentioned no good that we not remember the time when you not only results from war: all those consequences, of dwelt with complacency on the successes of a which you have taken notice, are evils of the certain belligerent nation, but recounted with most serious nature.” delight the thousands slain, the battles won, Think of the French revolution : think, as and the kingdoms conquered, by your favorite long as you please, of the rapine, cruelty, and hero? Have you not raised him above the murder, which it occasioned: but at the same Cæsars and Alexanders of the earth, and bound time do not fail to observe the godlike virtues, his brows with the wreath of immortality ? heroism, honor, friendship, contempt of death Did you not, moreover, celebrate his virtues as and of danger, which it awakened : a thousand well as his military achievements ? Tell me years of calın corrupting peace would not have candidly, what has occasioned this change in called into life so much active and energetic your sentiments ? What has made war your virtue. It is only in great convulsions and aversion, and sunk, in your estimation, the revolutions that the mind of man, having freed character of heroes ?
itself from the grasp of avarice, and shaken off “I have reflected coolly on the barbarities' the yoke of contracted sordid and grovelling practised in war, and on the sanguinary career passion, discovers something transcendently of a conqueror and a hero: and, as I am ad. great and imposing : we are ready to cry out, vancing in years, indeed am drawing near the as did a people of old, “The gods' have come end of my pilgrimage, my soul stands aghast down in the likeness of men ! with horror when I think of those atrocities “ Those virtues made the nation a poor com. which formerly made very little impression on pensation for the crimes and atrocities of the
sanguinary conflict: these faint twinkling stars Very well said. You therefore insinuate only rendered visible the gloom and horrors of that you become more humane and benevolent the revolutionary night. Did France derive as you grow old : a circumstance rather un. any positive good from this ferocious strugcommon! We, on the contrary, every year gle?" we dwell among civilized men, find ourself What good does a patient; borne down to more and more hardened in our errors, and the grave by a painful or loathsome disease more and more insensible to the cries of the receive from the efficacy of a powerful medi. afflicted: should we not be so fortunato 'as to cine, or from the bold but skillful operations of
the surgeon ? France was sick : the superior ens the draught with Hyblean honey. She is extremities of her body were weak, bloated, a sorceress. corrupt, and incapable of being applied to any valuable purpose. Her hands were no longer
LETTER III, able to supply her voracious jaws and her in. satiable stomach with the necessary susten.
From Chota hordee, a warrior of the Cherokee ance; and her feet moved heavily beneath a
nation, to Piomingo, a headman and war. burthen they no longer had the ability to sup:
rior of the Muscogulgee confederacy. port. The poison of civilization had pervaded Father! My beloved friend Dr. Calomel, every part of her system; the whole mass of who resides in our town, writes down this talk. her blood was corrupted, and moved sluggishly May it reach you in safety ! through her veins; there was no soundness in Father! Have you learned to love your ene. her flesh; there was no rest in her bones : her mies and hate your friends ? whole head was sick, and her whole heart faint. Have you learned to chatter like a jay about But nature understood the disease of her child, nothing? Do you tell every one you meet and administered the only efficacious remedy: that it is a beautiful day, and then listen to it threw the agonized patient into the most some intelligence equally interesting ? Every horrible convulsions : unskilful observers were time you encounter an acquaintance, do you ready to declare that the
hour of her final dis. cry, How d'ye do? or How do you stand it solution was at hand. These struggles, how. this morning? Do you ask every one you see ever, were only the prelude to renewed youth what news there is stirring, and then procced, and renovated strength: She arose and shook without waiting for an answer, to communicate herself: she went forth like a giant refreshed some important observation of your own ? with wine, and astonished the nations with the Do you sit several hours at dinner and slan. grandeur of her achievements. She will now der your neighbors who are absent, and speak go on rejoicing in her strength till she become smooth things to those who are present? Do again civilized and corrupted; till the superior you understand cookery more perfectly than parts of her body become too heavy to be borne the oldest of our squaws? Can you tell how by the inferior : then, she must again have much cream, how much butter, how much recourse to the revolutionary medicine, or pepper, how much salt, how much vinegar, perish.
and how much of an infinite number of ingre. “ What are the evils attendant on peace ?"
dicnts, for which we Indians have no name,
must enter into the composition of a single We have frequently mentioned some of the
civilized dish ? evils of civilized life: and peace is the nurse
Do you begin to carry before of civilization. Under her fostering care those walk up a hill? Do you begin to have a com
you a mountain of guts, and to pant when you arts flourish wbich enable man to impose upon fortable variety of fevers, gouts, consumptions, man. We have already said, there is no peace; chachexies, apoplexies, and rheumatisms? Do but we now add, that the deceitful calm, to which you have given the name of peace, is you begin to catch cold? Father ! inform me, concealed war.
Í beseech you, in your next letter, whether or
not you begin to catch cold. Do you have When Pallas has laid aside her spear, her what Doctor Calomel calls nervous diseases ? helmet, and terrifio shield, she smiles, and calls Are you occasionally troubled with imaginary herself Minerva: she becomes the patroness distempers ? Is your nose sometimes con. of science, presides at the loom, and cultivates verted into edible cheese, or your posteriors the olive! Her nature, however, is always into frangible glass ? Do you sometiines sup. the same; only she is much more dangerous pose you are the chieftan of heaven, and able in her pacific robes, than when she brandishes to regulate the motions of the stars? Have the gleamy spear and presents her snaky egis you sometimes the accursed disease which
a your to the terrified children of men. She teaches civilized friends long since made common in men how to fight in ambush, and carry on our villages ? their operations in the dark. She instructs Do you read the holy book and keep the holy her ingenious disciples how to practise the day? Do you tell the Great Spirit how to arts of deception, to lull their opponents into a govern the world ? Do you tease the Great fatal security, and to gain their purposes by Mingo of heaven with your songs and your the exhibition of false appearances. She throws psalms and your never-ending prayers; with round the shoulders of the sly plotting villian your kneeling and standing, your sobbing and the snow white mantle of piety and religion. crying, your shouting and howling, your cring. She covers intrigue and cunning with the sem. ing and wheedling ? blance of truth and simplicity; and she veils Father! Have you made yonrself acquainted the face of hatred and malignity with the with the civilized oaths ? can you curse like a smiles of innocence and love. She seduces the gentleman ? can you swear like a christian ? unwary, from the path of rectitude, by deceitful can you say God eternally damn your soul to lures and specious courtesy; and she strews hell, without feeling any savage hesitation, at with flowers the road that leads to destruction. making use of an expression 80 impious and She mixes poisons in a golden cup, and sweet profane, or, at uttering a curse so malignant
and so horrible ?. I had long known that chris. interrogations and responses concerning tho tians made use of these execrations; but I had health of themselves and their families, after no idea of the meaning until Blackcoat gare having coughed and complained of a cold, and us some interesting information concerning having given a circumstantial detail of the the God of the christians, favored us with an manner in which this cold was unfortunately accurate topographical description of hell, and caught; aster having whined about an aking instrueted us in the nature of eternal damna. head, a poor appetite, a sick stomach, a miser: tion. Piomingo! What shall we say? Do able digestion, a weakness of the back, a sore these white christians believe their own holy shin, a crick in the neck, a pain in the hip, talks? If they do, they are the most wicked, &c. &c., they proceed, “A cold day, sir." the most malevolent, demons that ever the “ Yes sir, quite cold.” “ It blows confound. Great Spirit permitted to exist ! if they do not, edly.” “Yes sir, a blustry day: a blustry duy why should they send their missionaries to indeed sir.” “Quite a deep snow this ” “ Yes propagate errors among the children of na- sir, quite a--quite a snowy day, sir: this is
what I call winter.” Piomingo! What is their Father! If you can answer all the questions, purpose (if they have any purpose at all) in I have asked, in the affirmative, I shall pro- relating these circumstances which must nenounce you in a fair way to be civilized, and cessarily be as well known to one as to the advise you to return no more to the hills of other ? Does it arise from habitual garrulity, the Cherokees or the clear streams of the or from an itching propensity to hear them. Muscogulgees.
selves talk ? Each one hastens to be delivered Father! I have often admired the importance of the important intelligence, lest his friend of the subjects which are discussed by these should begin, and consequently deprive him of enlightened and polished whites in their acci. the pleasure of exercising the organs of speech. dental concurrences and social assemblies. In Were not the whites an intelligent people, I the first place, they take particular care to in- should certainly suppose they were reduced, by quire into the state of each other's health : the paucity of their ideas, to the deplorable “My dear sir, how do you do? How do you necessity of talking nonsense or continuing feel this morning! I hope you are well.” silent. Piomingo! Why do they ask these preposter In the third place, they inquire for news ; ous questions? Do they feel any solicitude but, for the most part, they are much more for the health and prosperity of their friends anxious to circulate some story of their own, and acquaintances ?-No such thing, they than to listen to the curious anecdotes that may would send each other to the devil in a mo- have been gathered by others. ment if it were in their power. Do they wish
Father! In my next letter I shall give you to render each other unhappy by bringing to some account of the progress made by Blacktheir respective recollections the frailties, pains, coat in christianizing the Cherokee women, diseases, and infirmities of the body? Do and send you a talk which he held with our they wish to damp the general joy by calling chiefs and warriors, at which the high priest up ideas of death and the grave ?
of the nation was present. In the second place, they proceed to inform each other seriously and formally concerning
Piomingo! May the God of our fathers give the nature of the weather, the temperature of you prosperous days and peaceful nights! the air , the course of the wind and the changes quil: and may you at last find repose in the
May your life be long, and your death tranof the moon. “Well,” says one, this is a islands of bliss created by the author of our pleasant morning: the rain we had yesterday life for the everlasting abode of the souls of was extremely refreshing: and this warm sun, heroes and the spirits of the just! following the rain, will promote vegetation with rapidity." If it be summer, we hear,
Farewell. CHOTAHOWEE. “A very warm day this! is it not sir? My God! 'tis excessive bot: it makes me perspire
Chotahowce has taken notice of the insipi. like the devil!” Here I must remark that dity and frivolity of common conversation ; these polished beings are very apt to hook but he has not, perhaps, becn able to discover God and the devil into the same sentence:
the reason why the confabulations of civilized why they do so, I cannot tell, unless it be men are generally so dull and uninteresting. merely to embellish their discourse. Father ! In our remarks on a former letter,we proved I speak English fluently; but I never could that civilization fits men to fill a place in 80exactly discover when to introduce God, or ciety, but renders them altogether unable to when to have recourse to the devil, in my con. vary their conduct according to circumstances: versation : indeed, sometimes I am ready to and we now take the liberty to add that a mar conclude that those names are used without is not well qualified to discourse on any subthe least discrimination : thus, “Good God! ject which he does not understand. Hence it how it rains !" and " It rains like the devil: happens, that when a number of those prished seem to convey the same idea precisely. If individuals met tortor, one feels a two friends encounter each other in the street strony propensity to sprak of his own trade, in December or January, after the custolnary profession or employment.
The farmer would willingly inform you that Nothing is suficiently important to be dis. the season was favorable or unfavorable to the cussed by the merchant but the interests of growth of corn, or the culture of tobacco; that commerce : the state of the market, the risk the caterpillars had committed ravages on his incurred, the probable profits, and the rate of fruit trees ; that his wheat was mildewed; insurance. If he grow rich by trade, lawful that his rye was blighted ; and that his sheep or unlawful, then his country, of course, is in were dying with the rot.
a prosperous situation : and if he make an an. The grazier--(We acknowledge that the fortunate voyage, the nation is pronounced to business of a grazier is not of sufficient conse. be on the brink of destruction! quence to entitle him to particular notice in They,who belong to those professions which this place; but as he belongs to a respectable are honored with the appellation of learned, class of men in the vicinity of Philadelphia, have frequently some acquaintance with gene. and as we have often been compelled, by the ral literature, and are consequently better ornel and malignant fates, to sit with “ sad qualified, than the persons already mentioned, civility” and listen to tedious bucolic disquisi. to join in rational conversation ; but it unfor. tions, we think proper to say a few words on tunately happens that literary subjects can, this subject.) The grazier can descant inge, rarely be discussed unless we mean to exclude niously on the different breeds of cattle ; and the greater part of every mixed company from, on the “art and mystery" of fattening a bul. taking a share in the colloquial entertainment. lock. He can tell exactly how much grass an It must, however, be admitted that lawyers, ox must graze, and how much corn he must physicians and divines, as well as farmers, devour, in order to fill up his points, or clothe mechanics, merchants, soldiers and sailors, his frame with a specified quantity of fiesh. have their favorite subjects of discussion, and He can not only tell
, while the beast is yet are enabled, by the course of their studies, to alive, how much it will weigh when slaught. shine more resplendently in those parts which ered; but he can discover, with surprising they have frequently rehearsed, and which sagacity, what a quadruped, now poor, will have become familiar to their minds, than in weigh when properly and sufficiently fed. He those which are more generally interesting to can tell, from the food and attention bestowed mankind. on the animal, whether it will die well or ill; The lawyer is ever ready to join issue with whether it will rise above, or fall below, an those who dispute the infallibility of the les estimate formed from appearances agreeably scripta aut non scripta : he can praise those to the strict rules of art. He discovers uncom. venerable regulations sanctified by, time and, mon acuteness in distinguishing a New Eng, confirmed by experience—the accumulated land bullock from a Virginia steer or a Ten. wisdom of ages! If you oppose reason to any nessee lieifer. He knows that the Louisiana of his axioms, he immediately demurs, and cattle have long horns, and that they are una- objects to the competence or credibility of your ble to stand the rigors of our winter. Finally, witness : for the competency and credibility his conversation is replete with information of a witness are far from being the same in concerning the manner of striking a bargain the eye of the law. He informs you that the with a butcher, or carrying on a negociation law is superior to, nay, that it is, itself, the with a drover.
perfection of reason: lex est summa ratio. Ho The soldier loves to talk of battles, sieges, can talk wisely of rights, whether appertaining long, fatiguing marches, and other military to persons or things : and he can tell what achievemente. He boasts, with pride and remedy is afforded by the law, when theso pleasure, of the wonders he has performed, and rights are violated by any tortuous offender. exhibits his stumps and scars as testimonials But if the injuries be insignificant, (such as of his veracity. He speaks
assailing a gentleman with abusive and inso. of most disastrous chances, lent language, insulting the unfortunate, outof moving accidents by food and fie!d; raging the feelings of the sensitive, ridiculing of hairbreadth 'scapes i' th' imminent deadly the poor, aged, and infirm) there is no redress: breach;
de minimis non curat lex. He knows how to Of being taken by the insolent foe,
bar an entail, and how to confess lease entry And sold to slavery.
and ouster. He knows the difference between The sailor would talk of long and danger. de jure and de facto, and discovers vast erudi. ous voyages, of barbarous coasts, of dreadful tion when the nature of a chose in action is storms, of naval engagements, of floating ice, the subject of investigation. He can tell when of desert isles, of dangerous rocks and sands, a man may bring detinue, and when recourse interposing occasionally -encomium on his must be had to trover and conversion. He own courage and dexterity, and rendering the knows the difference between corporeal and whole nearly unintelligible by his nautical incorporeal hereditaments, and points out with phrases and peculiar modes of expression. astonishing precision, the distinction between
The several artificers delight to expatiate on an executory devise and a contingent remain. the ingenious productions of their hands, on der. the tools they employ, and on the craft which The physican--(But before we proceed any produces their wealth.
farther, wo take the liberty to observe that