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this air bubble paper money nobilityfootish witte, and extravagant family! Misa comwhich considers honest labor fit only for pound of ignorance, deception and envy and the serfs and bondmen. They seem tv for- dividuals, alone, it was a matter of trifling considget that the laborer is nature's nobleman, eration; but strange as it may appear,

its influence that his patent is from Jehovah himself. strikes at the very root of a virtuous and flourishThey do not recollect that the proudesting the shape of a nationai calamity, and merits the

ing community. Like intemperance, it is assumamong the ancients, of whom we hear so serious reflection of every refornier. Thousands much, were tillers of the ground. Cice- who have gone forth as armed knights upon a ro was not only an orator, but a farmer. crusade against manifestevils, Lave in themselves, Cincinnatus left his plough to lead his been slaves to this insiduous enemy. Self love

may prompt il man to do a good action, but false countrymen from glory to glory in the pride has never; it is incompatible with its nature. red battle field. Almost all the Poets of In our own conntry, its mischief consists in makold Rome, eulogised in exulting strains ing labor a degradation; thus striking at the very

foundation of our prosperous condition as a peothe pleasures of agriculture. The good

ple; there never was an age, perhaps, where so and the great delighted to quit the tur- much scheming was resorted to, to avoid hard moil of a smoky city to send out their work—no period that could exhibit so many Jerry hearts rejoicing among


leaves. Diddlers, above stairs and below, or manifest such In modern Europe the possession of land rich man of to day is the Lazarus of tomorrow!

a wild spirit of speculation, as the present. The is the highest aim of the privileged or- Fortunes are staked upon the rise and fall of stocks, ders, and is considered a sort of test of as upon the cast of a die. Cities are created by gentility. But in

fraudulence! in the morning all eyes are cast many parts of this

the master spirit of enterprise, and the eventry how sad is the reverse.

ing finds him a disgruced man within the walls must be made a gentlemanthat is he prison. Ingenuity itself is thunder struck at the must be an idler, or become a third or conntless method, acepted to retain soft hands.fourth rate lawyer, doctor, or parson, be- Why does this great disposition so extensively precause labor is vulgar, and agriculture un for it is fruitful with poignant anxiety-not for

vail? Certainly not for the security of happiness, genteel. How false is this—and perni- health for it frequently enervates and destroys.... cious as false. Why is it that our men Sir Walter Scott, I think, says that no man ought of wealth prefer that their sons should to want in this country, who can buy a hatchet and grow up in idleness, or enter some one of itcannot be from necessity! False pride whispers

fell a tree; consequently, the remark being true, the overcrowded professions, to their be- “it is not genteel to work. How banefully is this coming Farmers? Why is it that in illustrated. New England agriculture is beginning “Does the successful merchant make his son a to be avoided as something pestilentiale mechanic! very seldom. Does the professional the son sent to measure tape and bobbin man make his son a mechanic? more seldom stilt. behind a counter, and the daughter to the his son the guardian of cloths and calicoes? Why

But does not the more fortunate mechanic make factory, or the crowded city? Whence is this? ts the yard stick mwre honorable than the hath all this madness and folly its origin? jack plane? the gouse quill suore dignified than It is a melancholy infatuation that is lead- the type? but unfortunately the absurdity runs

further! Look back twenty or fifty years, and ing our land to ruin. It is a false pride, behold the barefooted adventures, at the prosent and the delusion, unless checked by a time rolling in wealth or spending his annual inwholesome reform in public opinion, will come of some three thousand dollars per annum ultimately cover our country with deso- in manufacturing ladies of his daughters. Does

he teach them the usual rudiments of housewifery? lation, and destroy the hardy virtues of a Very rarely. Is it because the healthful exercise free people. A writer in a respectable of domestic duties is disgraceful? Oh no! False periodical has some remarks upon this pride says “it would be ungenteel for ladies to hollow mockery, this false pride, this work”-as if it wonld tarnish the fair hands and

delicate fingers that bring such sweet sounds from cast off, second hand gentility, which we the piano, to dust the gorgeous instrument itself. here subjoin.

“How supremely ridiculous is this illegitiniate "It has always been a matter of regret with me pride! Thousands of daughters whose mothers that false pride could not be made, like theft, have bern raised in a kitchen, and their fathers in a criminal offence. It is the parent of abont as a stable--would feel insulted, if asked if they had many crimes as any other vice: for such I hold ever inade a loaf of bread or washed ont a pocket it to be—at least some descriptions of it. Where handkerchief? They would more likely prate it is a weakness it is much to be pitied, and general- about 'good society,' “mixed company, and the y leads to impropriety.--How many honest men dignity of their ancestors! A few years more roll have been made scoundrels by the false pride of a round, and the thristy but imprudent parent dies;

and then comes the scramble for some ten or, aral, healthy moans of gaio..that, aside from this, all de

preatwelve divisions of his well earned estate.--How pendence is uncertain and untenable..than would the

ching of an army of political economists. The basis of all small does a large fortune appear when apportion industry, of prosperity, must be the pursuit of agriculture. ed to numerous heirs. The daughters must of That veglected, it is impious to charge upon the seasons course marry gentlemen, for pride dictates it; ard that portion of mis oriune uhich is clearly attributable to the gentlemen of course, musi squander their pat- vagamily high: the consumer is threatened with starvation;

All the productions of the earth are extrarimony. And what has the parent bequeathed to and the producer is not bettered by the emergency, for he society and his country? Children raised in idle- has but little to sell.. he has rieglected liis fields, has left the ness; without the stimulant to add one iota to the most dignified and exalted of all human pursuits, to chase general, substantial prosperity of the community, the bitter les con of experiene; let us suppose, for such re

the retreating shadow of unnatural gain! Let us profit by "Can there be a doubi but what honest labor is liance is at all times the dictate of wisdom, that the season becoming every day more and more stigmatized ? now opening on us is to be one of plenty, that the earth and what follows ? A grovelling imitation from the will give good returns for all that is committed to its charge

..and then, if we come short of abundance, we shall at cellar to the garret! A spirit of extravagance in least have the consolation that we have neglected no duty all classes; to indulge in which the most unpriuci- necessary to the accomplishment of our designs." pled means are resorted to! Let it proceed with the same rapid march that it has commenced and venient motto of the age—and of this age

• Every man for bimself,” is the conit will be a stigma to earn your bread by the sweat of your brow. Infect the country--the farmer- especially, above all its predecessors. with the same poison that flows through our larger There prevails, at this time, a spirit of cities, and you make the country of Franklin a cold calculation, which is carried into all parallel to that of Montezuma! “With us labor is every thing! It is more pre

the relations of society, making barter and cious than the mines of Mexico-more valuable merchandise of the best feelings of the than countless wealth. It is not only the founda- heart. Do you wish to know the strength tion, but ihe main arch of our confederacy; unite and duration of a man's friendship ? guage it with education, and they form a ower of strength the depth and dimensions of your purse. upon which our liberties may remain forever. The precious metals of the earth may exalt a nation to For it is an universal proposition, that the highest altitude of transient glory; but like money and friendship are co-eternal. the brilliant phenomena that illuminate the heavens they dazzle but for a moment; and as is the case

· We live in an age of selfishness. It with Spain, sink into darkness and gloom. Not requires not the frost and storms of sixty so with the labor of man--its glory is centered in winters to convice us of this fact. It the earth, and we behold it in the strides of internal meets us at every turn of our pilgrimage, improvement--the success of invention--the perfection of mechanical skill, and the inculation of as with an unresting tread we hurry on those exalted moral principles which give durability through the great thorough-fare of life. to our institutions, and raise mankind in their own Boast as we will of our many charitable nature and existence. Industry is the grand lever societies and benevolent operations--blaupon which this nation must depend for its continued growth, and indolence does not more retard zun as.we may of our Samaritan deeds its usefulness than false pride does to bring it into and munificent donations—it avails not: disrepute-just as the turning a simple valve makes the leaven of a sordid spirit runs through powerless the mightiest engine.”. Another writer, upon a similar subject, whole lump.

all the channels of society, and infects the

It is an era of universal has the following just remarks: "How forcibly should the present scarcity of all the pro

barter. Every thing has its price. The ductions of the earth tend to draw the attention of the smile of friendship and the words of love, tion to introduce a system of more industrious and thor- consideration,character and public esteem, ough husbandry! True, the season hus heen unpropitious may all be bought and sold for cash. It ..but the present crisis in agricultural productions through out the country, is in a great degree to be attributed to ano is the ordinary trafic of these merchandisther cause..a neglect of agriculture. Our whole system ing times, which with a Midas-like touch, tion. It has drawn the mechanic from his shop, the protes- would convert every thing into gold. All soil to look for wealth in the infiated bubbles of artificial are bent with an undivided aim upon value, and build their hopes upon the sandy foundatious of schemes of gain.' imaginary sudden gain, rather than by the patient but sure process the use of the plough. Among the types that the What is the procuring cause of the diseases has put on, was one which created a species of contempt for ordinary pursuits of industry. Those who growing distaste to agricultural pursuits, have been wrapped in this cloud of airy nothing, have look that so many resort to ed clown upon plodding labor, as if it was out of fashion,


and obsolete and unnecessary. its own cure; the whole machinery of the social fabric, so the reproach of being engaged in what

But the disease is working out er kind of employment, in order to avoid and unnatural gain, is undergoing repair. A salutary retri- should be considered the most honorable bution has inflicted the penalty of transgression, and is enforcing the fiat of the Creator, founded, as are all his decrees, calling upon earth? What has covered in immufable justice.

the land with speculators and stock.job“The retrospection of the last three years, will in the end do more to convinco us that patient industry is the only nat-bers, like swarms of locusts, what has

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thinned the ranks of honest industry, over-tions to this as to almost every other genestocking the learned professions, decreas- ral assertion, and I rejoice at the idea of ing producers and increasing idlers, until saying so. But the most, I fear, is not consumption so greatly exceeds produc- productive of public benefit. tion that we have been compelled to im “I am very suspicious of the moral hoport our bread stuffs from Europe? The nesty that guides the transactions of the answer is ready. The cause of all this, MONEY MARKET; of men who

grow and almost countless other evils which wealthy not by producing wealth, but by might be named, is the improper facilities shufiling the cards. afforded to speculating gamesters by the

“I consider merchantile enterprise paper money Banks, to live without labor carried to the extent of the last three and to grow rich without industry. Who years, as putting on too much the charamong us would perform any more labor acter of gambling-putting honest prinif we could pay all our debts in promises ciples in jeopardy,-destructive of real, -and what else is a Bank note ? Ifour wealth-producing industry, and wholepromises would enable us to live in 11xu- some frugality. Excessive importations

and idleness, would not labor be ban- are tempted by the facilities of bank ished from the earth?

competition. The consumer is templed The vast expansion of paper money beyond his means of paying. Overtrad.. within the last two years, induced a reck-ling and wasteful consumption, lead to the less fanatical spirit of speculation, unpar- direct and downward road to insolvency. alleled, perhaps, in the history of the These are common-place remarks: so world. The temple of Mammon has are all important truths. been crowded with worshippers, morning. “ We are becoming a nation of law-' noon, and night. Splendid fortunes were yers, merchants and clerks. The labor floating in every breeze, dazzling the eye of the hands is considered disgraceful. of the beholder; hundreds and thousands Our young men are no longer agricultuleft their farms and workshops, plunged ralists and manufacturers. We import into the maddening vortex with the vain our hread and' meat, and corn arid hay. hope of growing rich in a day. The Gradual and moderate gains are for country is now reaping the bitter fruits grovelling spirits only." of this universal insanity and folly. The The eloquent and talented Editor of mournful lesson has been learned that we the Plaindealer, has an essay upon

this have too many merchants, clerks, law- subject to which we invite attentionyers, doctors, parsons, in short too many “It is to the farming and mechanic interests of almost every class but farmers and we must look, in these days of extraordinary demechanics. We have found that “ all lusion among mercantitlemen, for sound views the means of enjoyment and all the accu

as to the causes of the evils which distract the mulation of wealth, are the products of the affairs to their former prosperity. If the

country, as to the proper means of bringing böck human labor." To diminish labor then, farmers and mechanics of the Confederacy were is to diminish the amount of human hap- subject to the same periodical madness which afpiness—the enjoyments of human life- flicts the merchants, we hould t'ink there was the greater the number of those who live but too much reason to despair of the republic. without labor, the greater the diminution of sound minds in sound bodies, for such a mul

But while we may look to them for such a host of production, and the wider and more titude of men who, like the Roman Mutus are universal is the consequent ruin.

not only able and willing to act, but to suffer for Dr. Thomas Cooper, late President of their country, we shall not lose our confidence in the South-Carolina College, in his late es. cultivators of the soil, and to the bardy followers

the stability of democratic insitutions. To the say on Banks and Banking, has the fol- of the mechanic arts, we turn our eyes, in these lowing introductory paragraphs. days of passion and prejudice, for that calm good

“I am no friend to either, such as I sense and intrepidity, which are necessary for the see them under their present organiza protection of the great blessing of equal political

rights. tion and operation. A faithful portrait

The traders, as a body, are a useful class, but of them presents an ugly likeness for the not the most patriotic. The spirit of traffic is public to dwell on. There are excep- always adverse to the spirit of liberty. We care

not whom the remark pleases nor whom it offends; charged with the crime but of the fránk utterance of but it is a truth, which all history corroborates, their sentiments on a subject of general discussion, that the mercantile community, in the aggregate, to abandon their homes, and seek elsewhere a is ever impelled by sordid motives of action. The place of refuge, if they would escape immolation immediated interests of trade, not the permanent in the public streets ? We are forced to repeat interest of their country, supply their strongest that this audacious conduct proceeds from the impulse. They peruse their ledger with more mercantile community. It springs from the selfdevotion than the Constitution; they regard pe- ish, grovelling, debasing spirit of trade--from' cuniary independence more than political; and that spirit which venerates its desk more than the they would be content to wear ignominious chains, altar, its list of balances more than the decalogue, so that the links were forged of gold.

and its book of accounts more than the book of The American people have tested. by a redupli- God. cated experiment, continued through a long se- To the farmers and mechanics, then, we look ries of years, the good and evil of a federal bank, for safety in these days of mercantile frenzy and they have seen that the evil far outweighs They gain their livelihood by wholesome industthe good. They have seen it fail in the cardinal ry not by maddening speculati n, and they know objects for which it was created. They have the value of equal laws. Blacker than the clouds seen that it could not prevent the alternate expan- which lower over our shattered commerce, would sions and contractions of the currency, and ruinous be the boding tempest of the political horizon, fluctuations in commercial affairs. They have had we no surer trust, in the midst of our difficulseen, also, that it could not resist the temptation ties, than the patriotism of those who regard the to turn its pecuniary means into political chan- prosperity of trade more than the prosperity of nels, and, through the corrupting influence of their country, and, like true sons of Esau, would money, attempt to rule the destinies of freemen. sell their birthright for a mess of pottage. They have seen it purchase presses, bribe public In aldition to the pride and indolence, men, and endeavor to pollute the streams of popu- created and nourished by our present lar intelligence at the fountain head facts not merely conjectured by suspicion. They banking system, may be mentioned the rest not on uncertain evidence of probability. - habits of luxury and extravagance it en. They are corroborated by proofs which defy re. genders and fosters. That we are fast futation, and stand indelibly recorded on the en- loosing the republican simplicity of our during archives of the federal legislatore. It was forefathers will hardly be questioned by for these reasons the people decided there should be no federal bank.

any. It has been said that the whole But the mercantile community acquiesced not history of the world can furnish no exin this decision. “We must have a national bank ample of such precipitate decay of insti. to regulate the exchanges!” is now their cry. -tutions and manners, as the This is the proposition with which they meet and morals of a large portion of the peo

government every argument, the answer they deem sufficient for every objection. Tell them of a constitutional ple of this Union. Corruption, treach. impediment, and they reply that they can see only ery, double dealing, are threatening the the impediments to trade. Point to the political utter extinction of honesty, simplicity, evils of a federal bank, and they talk of its finan: intelligence and virtue. We are rapidly cial advantages. Tell them of the danger it

falling into the weakness and imbecility would threaten to liberty, and they descant on the facilities it would render to credit

. An equal of exhausted old age in the days of our currency is, with them, a phrase of better import youth.

It becomes us to pause in our than equal rights ; a uniform system of exchange career of overwhelming ruin. It belongs a grander object than a uniform system of free to the reformers of the present generadom.

tion to check the tide in its impetuous Why is it that large cities are justly considered, according to the expressive metaphor of Mr. course, and to purge the land from the Jefferson, the sore places in the body politic? Be-contagion that now threatens us with cause the sordid spirit of trade gives them their dissolution. We once more invite attentone, and fixes the standard of their political tion to what the eminent Ricardo said freedom of public opinion, who are the chief upon this subject many years ago. actors in the outrage? The sons of traffic.

Luxury has been considered a cause of When the equal right of suffrage is invaded, and wealth. Luxury is superfluous, exaggeraproscription dictates to the poor man how he shall ted consumption-consumption is the destrucvote under the penalty of starvation, who are tion of utility. Conceive then if you can they who thus iyrranize over their fellow men ? that exaggerated destruction can be the cause the merchants. What class of society now of riches--can be production! It is repugthreatens tumult and insurrection, if the federal nant to sound reason and good sense. executive dares insist on the fulfillment of the destroy be a good, we cannot destroy too laws? What class is it that warns freemen, I much, and we ought to think with him who


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his furniture to encourage industry. | believe that they render great service to the But Luxury supports numerous popula- state, by swallowing up a great portion of the tion it is said. Without doubt not only the means of existence, and that there is much luxury of the rich, but likewise the simple merit in knowing how to dissipate great richconsumption of all the idle who live on their es. And those who live upon this prodigalirevenues,supports a great number of hirelings. ty firmly believe that if it should diminish But what becomes of the labor of these hire- they would be without resources; they delings? Those who employ them consume sire it should continue, and that it should be its result and nothing of it remains; and with as great as possible. Thus are we led astray, what do they pay for this labor? With their and even those who suffer are ignorant of the revenues, that is to say with riches already cause of their evils. Nevertheless, it is ceracquired, of which in a short time nothing tain that the vicious consumption called luxwill remain. There then is destruction, not ury, and in general all the consumption of augmentation of riches, by means of luxu- idle capitalists, so far from being useful, dery:

stroys the greater part of a nation's prosperity; But luxury it is said again animates circu- and this is so true that from the moment in lation. These words have no meaning.-- whieh a country which has industry and They forget what is circulation. It is funds knowledge, is by any means delivered from produced by industry. By ruining them- this scourge, we see there immediately an selves, the men who live upon their revenues increase of riches and of strength truly procannot increase the mass of wages and of cir- digious. What reason demonstrates, history culation. The revenues of the idle rich, are proves by facts. When was Holland capabut rents levied upon industry; it is industry ble of effects truly incredible? When her alone which gives them birth.

Admirals lived as her sailors did-when the Luxury, exaggerated and superfluous con- arms of her citizens were employed in ensumption, is therefore never good for any riching or defending the state; and none in thing, economically speaking. A taste for cultivating tulips or paying for pictures.superfluous expenses has its foundation in Make of Amsterdam the residence of a magvanity, and it cannot exist in the superior nificent court, transform its vessels into emclass without gradually extending itself into broidered clothes, its magazines into ball all the others; and there it is still more fatal, rooms; and you see in a few years they will because the means are less, and because it not have the means remaining of defending absorbs funds of which they made a beiter themselvei against the irruptions of the sea. use; and thus every where institutes useless Why have the citizens of the United States for useful expenses, and dries up the source doubled every twenty-five years their culof riches.

ture, their commerce, their riches, their popThese men dare not always positively say usation? It is because there are so few idlers that the more a nation consumes, the more it among them, and the rich go to little superenriches itself—they dare not say it is an fluous expense. Let this be changed, let evidence of a narrow mind to believe that it there be idlers, banks, luxury, and how melis good economy to be economical. It does ancholy would be the result. Their neighnot follow that because consumption is the bors, the Canadians, do they make the same cause of production, that to expend is to en- progress? They are gentlemen living nobly rich, any more for a nation than for an indi- and doing nothing. vidual. The more of our wealth we em- Look at France for an instant in corroborploy in useless things, the less will remain ation of the foregoing.. Her revolution takes for those which are useful.

place ; she suffers all imaginable evils ; she We have seen that when a nation becomes has been torn by atrocious wars, civil and rich, a great inequality of fortune is estab- foreign ; her provinces laid waste, her cities lished, and that the possessors of large for- reduced to ashes, pillaged by brigands, and tunes addict themselves 10 luxury. It has by the furnishers of troops; her exterior combeen believed by some, claiming to be intel- merce annihilated; herfleets totally desligent, that this causes a country to prosper; troyed, though often renewed; her colonies, and thus hastily conclude that inequality and believed so necessary to her prosperity, have luxury are two very good things. Strong been prostrated; the men and money lavishpersonal interests contribute to strengthen, ed to subjugate them all lost; her specie and to give credit to this error. Powerful nearly all exported, by paper money and emmen are unwilling to admit that their exist- igratión; supporting fourteen armies during ence is an evil, a burden, a curse, and that a season of famine; and yet augmenting her their expense is as useless as their persons. population and agriculture-supporting enorOn the contrary, they endeavor to impose by mous taxes, and yet making immense expomp; and it is not their fault if we do not penditures in public works and all this ef

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