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AN ESSAY, In answer to the Question: Whether does the Principle of Competition, with separate Individual

Interests ; or, the Principle of United Exertions, with combined and Equal Interests ; form the most Secure Basis for the Formation of Society ? "THINGS as they are," seems to be the motto On a question of such magnitude. I express my of the world in general ; innovations and inno- opinions with diffidence. it requires a better anvators; are regarded with suspicion and contempt. swer than inexperience can make. I teel diffiThis is not strange. Our ideas of propriety are dent, too, because I adopt the least popular side, formed according to existing institutions we and hold opinions which are condemned by the were horn, and bred, and our prejudices were mildest of its opponents as visionary; by many as formed under their influence ; it is not strange, insane; yet I will not blush to avow the concluthen, that we should look with fondness and sion at which I have arrived. After examining partiality on institutions so intimately connected the question attentively and with all the ability with ourselves. { "They are guaranteed by cus- could, my conviction is that the best basis on tom, and we do not stay to inquire into their cor: which to found society, is that of united exertions reciness. “By far," says Dugald Stewart

, "the with combined and equal interests. I am sure greater part of the opinions on which we act in such conviction is not the effeet of a youthful imlife, are not the results of our own investigations; agination I had no party to serve-no prejudice bint are adopted implicitly, in infancy and youth, on this side at least-to sway me, I examined the upon the authority of others.''(a) Habit assumes subject coolly, impartially, and dispassionately ; the air of propriety, and we obey its dictates with and in such a state of mind on the part of my out' examination, making it in some reasure the judges. I hope to be judged. test of all questions proposed to our consideration. The object of universal desire is happiness. -1 A verseness to change, doubtless, possesses ad. However different, or however varied our actions vantages; we are more stable, frivolitý is check. may be, the object in view is the same. We seek ed. The proverb says, A rolling stone gathers happiness, nor can we conceive any other motive no moss; so far it is good, but if carried to such an for the actions of rational beings. Happiness, then, excess as to reject every proposal because it is being the great desideratum of mankind; that form nosel, improvement is at all end. Attention of society which secures to its members the largest -should be paid to those who have plans for the share thereof, is the best, and therefore, the most amelioration of society, the merits of such plans secure," for where can society find a better pledge should be discussed, and if they produce a conviou of its security, than in the hearts of its members tion of their truth ; should be acted upon. "Every where a higher

eulogium than in their happiness! man carries about him a touchstone, if he will There is indeed no other mode of judging of the make use of it, to distinguish substantial gold excellence, or the depravity of a suciety then as it from superficial glitterings, truth from appear tends to the happiness, or the misery of the indiances. And indeed the use and benefit of this viduals of which it is composed. touchstone, which is natural reason, is spoiled and Utility; then, as conducing to happiness, must Jost only by assumed prejudices, overweening be the test of our institutions : all other stenpresumption, and narrowing our minds."(6) Yet dards are factitious, and deceitful: that which we do not apply this touchstone. Custom too of will not bear the Ithuriel touch of utility is worthten exerts a tyranny over our minds, which makes less, and undeserving support, though it be enus deaf to the voice of reason. How numerous shrined in the venerated rust of antiquity. In the is the list of those, whom prejudice has punished investigation, therefore, of a subject so important for advancing and maintaining truths now ad- as that involved in the present Essay, we must mitted and subscribed to by all! Galileo de rise superior to the elogs and waymarks of prejuclared that the earth revolved round the sun: dice, and not believe anything to be good, but in

men had been taught to believe the contrary; asmuch as it is useful; nor condenan anything Galileo was imprisoned, compeided to retract his really useful as wrong, merely because it does not statement, and admit that the sun whirled round coincide with our habits or pre-conceived opin, the earth. The bane of his persecutors, and in- ions; for whatever shall tend to the unmixed deed of all who have persecuted the truth, was, happiness of mankind, must, alas! be novel inin presuming that they could not be wrong: Their deed. opinions had descended to them from their fa- Here the question. What is happiness ? natuthers, and what had been believed so long, pre- rally arises. "Happiness is a word as frequently, judice persuaded them must be right. Let us as familiarly, and I may add, as thoughtlessly used beware lest we fall into the same error, for we as any in language. It is a " household word," are not less fallible than they How requisite it yet

we seldom find persons possessing just ideas is then that we should divest ourselves as far as of its nature. It is the object of general pursuit, possible of prejudice," while investigating the yet each individual seems to seek it by a different present question a question, which enlists all mode; how unsuccessfully may be imagined, our prejudices on ene side-a question involving when we hear many declare that the evil in the no less than a total change in the formation and world balances

the good; others lamenting that constitution of society.. tium

* all is vanity," exclaim that this life is indeed D

but a state of probation and of suffering. The si ca Philosophy of the Human Mindossa paino dan difference of opiniun on the nature

of happinesa. (6) Locke.

seems however to arise from our mal-education,

: وان کرد و از ريين

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rather than the impossibility of defining the go all present enjoyment, and devote all his early
term. It has, I think, heen justly defined as de- life to confinement and anxiety, that he may in
noting “hat continued state of well-being, which his old age gratify his palate and encompass him-
is compounded of the different items of pleasura- self in luxury? Such, indeed, seem the objects of
ble feeling experienced during a considerable his ambition, but not for themselves are they
space of time. Pleasures being the component thus prized: it is because they draw the esteem
parts of which happiness is the aggregate or re. of the world on their possessor. Wealth and
sult.”). These items of pleasure, (as being expe- splendour are the high roads to admiration, and to
rienced by the mind or by the senses,) are either find a distingnished place in the thoughts of his
mental or sensual. This latter, if we may judge fellow-creatures, is the endeavour of him whose
by the pursuits of the world, is the species whole mind seems bent on the accumulation of
more generally desireil, although it is difficult to wealth. Ifsuch be not the truth, why is not the
conceiv why a rational being should consider his hireling, who rides behind his master, as much
mind as le 33 pertaining to himself than his body. the object of ambition as the master himself?
The pleasures of sense, though so decidedly infe. The physical circumstances which surround them
rior both in intensity and duration, onr only crite are for the time--and of that only I speak-alike.
rions in estimating happiness, are certainly more The lacquey who follows royalty in a procession
tangible than those which are purely mental : through gaping crowds, is no object of ambition,
this, and knowing that the uncultivated can appre yet the splendour of the procession equally sur-
ciate them almost equally with the cultivated, rounds the monarch and himself, but the eyes ot
while the mind l'equires some culture before it the spectators are not fixed upon him, and the
can enjoy thuse pleasures which are purely men- consciousness of his own insignificance prevents
tal, may probably account for this strange partiali, him enjoying the magnificence of the scene.
ty for matter in preference to mind.

Can we doubt of the mutual dependence of Some philosophers have denounced animal man on his fellow-men for happiness, when we graufications as unworthy an intellectual being; find so numerous a portion of the species, the but these seem as much al fauli as those who plase avowed pursuit of whose lives is the possession happiness solely therein. Man receives the sen of honour, whose only aim is to obtain the notice sation of pleasure or of pain from external objects, of mankind? Open the page ofhistory; it abounds through the medium of his senses. To increase with instances of men who have braved, who the one and to lessen the other must be productive have sought death, that they might live in the of happiness: his animal delights should, there, memory and the esteem of posterity. Why does fore, be carefully cultivated.

the suicide prefer death to the difficulties that Attaching to sensual pleasure, then, all the im- surround him? Is life intolerable because, perportance which its votaries can demand, ac, haps, his food and his raiment must be coarser; knowledging the addition to our happiness from or because any circumstances which may have wealth, as productive of elegance of taste, or of occurred, affect him physically? Surely not; but whatever can gratify the senses, it is evident that he sees their effects will be to debase him in the these alone cannot render a being happy, we may eyes of the world ; prospeetively he sinks in the sigh for them, but possession lessens them in our esteem of those on whose sympathy he depends, estimation, till from cusion, and that organization and, therefore, his life is burdensome, death reof the mind by which it always harmonizes and leases him from the contempt of the world, finds an equilibrium with the circumstances and he prefers it to life. So extensive is the inwhich surround it, the palace and the cottage yield fluence of this dependent feeling, that, perhaps, nearly equal happiness to its possessor: or, if we no man can, or ever could, say, “I am careless consider the shori duration of actual animal plear what opinion such an one entertains of me.” sures, we shall have a tolerable idea of the insig. Difference of rank or enmity may make us think nificant portion, they of themselves contribute we are thus indifferent, but we are then anxious towards the sum total of our happiness or misery. that the person in question should be sensible Between any one item of pleasure, or pain, and of our indifference--a proof that such indiffer its successor, an interval exists of far longer dura, ence does not exist. tion than the sensation itself; this interval is not Thismiitaal dependence of man is attributable a state of torpor, or of apathy. The vacant mind to a sympathetic feeling which pervades human which in itself possess no resources may, when nature a feeling which mingles and connects us no longer under the influence of external excite, with the whole species, proving that a state of ments; sink into a state of listlessness, and feel ex unity and brotherhood is most consonant to our istence a burden;(d) but the cultivated and active nature. 1 The design manifested, certainly, is to mind enjoys intellectual pleasures, which were ill be pre-eminent, but we must remember, that by exchanged, for all ihat wealth or pomp can be the forms of society, a man is necessarily stow.

estranged from the majority of his species. With The most prolific source of pleasure or pain but a small portion, indeed, can he interchange which can operate on a human being, is the rela- the reciprocal delights of friendship, and as it is tion in which he stands with his fellow-creatures, impossible, by the operation of the feeling alludOn this relation all his happiness depends, and to ed to, for him to be indifferent to their sentiments maintain it is the end of all his exertions. Why respecting him; he endeavours to obtain their does he seek to obtain riches ? Is it for their own notice and approbation by such means as custom intrinsic value? Does the man of business fore and fashion prescribe.it

* Every individual is more highly gratified by (c) Thompson's Distribution of Wealth. the approbation of his friends, than by that of an 31 (d) This is one great cause of the dissipation equal number of strangers. If he abtain their which so extensively prevails I believe that the approval, he can endure, with some degree of rich rush into excess froin want of occupations, complacency, the scoffs of the rest of the world; merely to rid themselves of ennui. I know that if a fortunate circunstance oceur to him, his first it is the case with the poor man when toil is foi a impulse is to make them sharers of his joy; if he moment remitted,--his mind is indeed a waste. be unfortunate, in them he seeks for consolation. We shall see how these may be avoided.tit If, then, the circumstances by which a man is suttit : 9530 Woni si ***

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surrounded, did not fetter his natural inclinations, is the system which at present almost exclusively if no extraneous influence warped his sympathy obtains throughout the world; if, indeed, that and checked the benevolence inherent in his bo- may be called a system which is the sediment som, it is evident that he would, by all possible left by a jumble of adventitious circumstances, mearis extend and strengthen the circle of his each of which has left its scar, and contributed friendships. Much as a man is now debarred to form the heterogeneous mass of congregation from the enjoyment of free social intercourse, it miscalled society. In the construction of the is in his friends that he may be said to live, to meanest and most inconsiderable article, a consimove, and to have his being: A man's happiness derable degree of skill and method is employed, may be estimated by the intensity with which he while the most important of earthly affairs the loves and is beloved,

constitution of human society--is left to the conIf we examine many of the sentiments that trol, and suffered to be formed by. unconnected prevail in society, concerning propriety, we shall circumstances, without order or regularity, even find that they take their rise from sympathy. without any consideration of the natural and im. Against all excesses we are indignant, save that mutable principles of those beings on whom it is of kindness and benevolence; towards him to operate. The legislator does not produce or whose only failing is indiscriminate or impru- improve any system of action. Circumstances dent generosity, our only emotion is pity for his impel him, and he gives a factitious legality to weakness, and that weakness but places him their proceedure. He endeavours, too, to render firmer in our affection. Why do we regard him them permanent, and, in his attempts, bat checks with these feelings of approbation? Self-interest the advance of improvement, till gradually achas no influence; for we admire him whose quiring force, it' carries him, too, in its course, actions produce good to others, although we may hurrying his former dogmas and sometimes himnot individually receive any benefit from his ex. self into disgrace or oblivion. ertions; we admire him because his labourrs have

But though the present state of society has been a beneficent tendency, and ourown hearts vibrate thus irregularly and unmethodically produced, in unison with his. We consider an action as any form of society, based on competition, with more or less virtuous, according as its tendency separate and individual interests, must, after long is more or less benevolent. An action which continuance, be subject to all the evils we at terminates to the exclusive benefit of the per- present deplore, but may not possess many of the former, receives but a small share of our praise; advantages we now enjoy. A system of purely sympathy has a higher and a wider aim. We individual interests, if it could exist at all, would have not any ideas of a deity but as a being of deprive us of many of our most valuable instituunlimited benevolence and power; or of a demon tions,-those which have been founded when the but as a character in which malevolence is benevolence of natore has triumphed over the sel. mingled with his power.

fishness of prostituted art. From the foregoing investigation, it appears) The principle feature of this form of society is that the best form of society is that which, while the stimulus it gives to exertion. It supposes that it secures to its members the amplest share of each and every individual has within him a prinwealth, also gives them room and opportunity to ciple of self-preservation, an innate desire to secultivate their intellectual farulties, and above all cure his own happiness—that self is the most im. tends to cherish and expand their sympathy and portant consideration possible, and consequently, benevolence; in the exercise of which happiness that self-interest is the surest guarantee for the principally consists. It is frequently and truly developement of his powers, and that, if each observed that virtue is happiness, and that the and every individual of a number, secumost virtuous nation is also the most happy, and ed his own happiness, the whole must bó hap what is virtue? It is, when divested of the dis

?y: guises with which superstition and ignorance But it is here forgotten, that man is a social behave loaded and disfigured it, simply that line of ing in a state of society, and that many whose conduct which tends most to the general happi- happiness is of equal importance may be, and are ness, it is contained in the exercise of benevo. very materially affected by his actions, and that, lence guided by wisdom. No action is virtuous by treating him as an isolated being, one of the abstractedly considered ; its tendency alone de. most evident and strongest principles of his natermines its quality.

ture is violated. Separate and individual interest And in the above criterion of the merits of might, and doubtless would be, a very proper criany form of society there is nothing, I apprehend, terion for his conduct, if a man existed separateat all objectionable. The possession of wealth ly, and individually, and without at all interfering is allowed to be an important ingredient in the with the interests of his fellows; but this is supproduction of happiness-important not only be posing a case diametrically opposed to his nature cause it furnishes the means of animal gratifica and to facts, and what would, in such a state, be tion, but also because the want of it debars the in- proper and advisable, fails when employed as the dividual so situated from much mental improve basis of society. ment; and knowledge allowed to be an ingre This may be considered as an a priori concludient of still greater importance, for surely there sion unbecoming an impartial examiner, but beis nothing unreasonable in endeavoaring to raise fore I expressed my opinions on the subject, I of the "lords of the creation" somewhat above the course resolved, and have now only to place belevel of brutes, to make the routine of their fore the reader, as nearly as possible, the process lives somewhat superior to mere animal exist- of ratiocination, by which I was led to such conence; neither is there any thing unreasonable in clusion. I shall, therefore, proceed to point out cherishing those feelings which bind man to man. what I consider the defects of the system of comand make them really brothers; in leading them petition, with seperate and unequal interests ; to do unto others as they would be done by, and its beauties I would point out as readily as its making each seek his happiness in the happiness blemishes, but unhappily neither theory nor prac. of those who surround him.

tice disclose these ; while these theoretically, and To the consideration of competition with sepa. practically, constantly obtrude upon my notice rate and unequal interests, we now proceed. It and occasion my regret.

Leaving for a time the consideration of this

“Nests of slaves, system as a stimulus to exertion, let us now exa. Where fortune smiles not but on fools and mine its effects upon the morals of those who are

knaves.' under its operation.

If virtuous conduct be that which tends to proEvery man in competitive society is aware that duce the greatest general good-and such it must his neighbour is seeking his own private interest; signify, we having no tesi of good or bad, but as he is also aware that his own and his neighbour's happiness or misery is thereby generated—what interests are different,and that, if they interfere, can possibly be more inimical to the progress of bour will secure his own interest even to the pre

a state of war with each other, and depriving judice of all others. This occurs in every deal- virtue of its natural reward to bestow it upon ing between men. Their interests are different, wealth; which may be obtained by means very and the aim of each is to overreach each other. far from honorable, or conducive to the good of

This is somewhat modified by the sympathy inhe- the community ? and wealth is now the symbol of rent in men, and existing under the name of hou merit.(e) He who is possessed of this needs no nour, &c.; but the result of competition is such other recommendation to the majority of man, as to check, nay, eradicate that sympathy which kind, unless indeed he be notorious for extreme cannot then be considered as an effeci of that moral turpitude, and even this is generally counsystem which is in itselt a source of mutual and terbalanced, if, in addition to wealth, rank be universal distrust ; each mistrusts, and is mis- thrown into the scale (of which we have living trusted, suspicion is the inmate of every

instances.) breast, usurping the place of benevolence and · Where numbers are competirig for the same friendship.

prize, only one can be gratified by the possession Bý, this system we are taught to estimate our of it. It is not in human nature io sit down con happiness relatively, not absolutely. Our neigh. tented after failure; disappointment must neces. bours are to ys objects which we must excel; if sarily be felt, and in addition to ihis, at least in we be superior to them, we are happy; if inferior, many cases, envy towards those who have supmiserable. In such a state of things, it may per' planted us in the objects of our wishes. In the chance happen, that in endeavouring to obtain a

world, though the prizes are numerous, the blanks relative height, some would noi scruple to lower and disappointments are numerous too; and envy those with whom they are competing, at any rate

too frequently rankles in the bosom of those who they must view with a jealous eye any improve experience them. We have daily proots of the ment, in others, when it is construed into a disé envy and concomiant hatred entertained by the grace to themselves, and opposition of in. poor towards the rich, exhibiting itself in open terests and mutual jealousy are and ever must insult

, when unresrained by the fear of punishbe; the effects of a system of society founded on

ishment, and is, doubtless, as general and as hear.. the competition among its members. This un- ty, as the contempt which the rich manifest to ceasing desire to rise, or, as it is generally term wards the poor. ed, "get on in the world,” effectually debars all

And wherein does competition place human from the enjoyment of happiness; for we can ne happiness? In antipathy! in being an object of ver possibly be contented. It is true that the envy and hatred, (f) and consequently, a source mind acquires its equilibrium, and generally con

of misery to all around us, for envy cannot exist fines its wishes within the bounds of probability without these attendants. An object of desire, but these extend with progressive step. Wher

more unnatural, more vicious. could not possibly one point is gained, another and again anothe be devised as a stimulant to human exertions, yet becomes the object of ambition, and a source of such is the happiness to which we are taught to restless discontent and disquietude, making our aspire; but before we can enjoy it, every considlives a continued and impatient struggle for pre eration that extends beyond mere self

, every eminence. Here let me not be thought advoca- generous and humane sentiment, must be eradi. ting mental or corporeal lethargy. I am aware

cated. It is true that a man may enjoy social that on action all our happiness depends, but pleasures among his friends, in the bosom of his when there is a system which could develope all family, but how contracted is this circle to feel our energies, in conjunction with unlimited beings that should embrace and sympathize with nevolence, I do object to that system which pro

all that has life; and this domestic or friendly in. duces activity,at the expense of all generons feel tercourse can only be enjoyed during a cessation ings.

of the first principle of the system in question. If And these certainly are såcrificed. The only How frequently are the tenderest ties sacrificed

their interests clash, friends are turned to foes. stimulus to action is a hope of obtaining su

at the shrine of selfishness; how totally are the periority in some particular respect. To excel in purest of all pleasures, those attending the exervalour was generally the desire of the ancients; cise of benevolence, neglected ! the moderns have torn the idol of chivalry from its base. and placed Mammon in its stead.' Gold hatred among its members; it misplaces the idea

Thus does society generate mistrust, envy, and is the desire of all who seek to make a figure in of merit; it opposes instead of uniting and amal.

the world, and did not the natural benevolence gamating the interests of individuals, and makes of man sometimes rise superior to the trammels by which he is fettered, every thing which should

"happiness" most unhappy,

Those extensive causes of moral degradation; be held sacred, would be sacrificed to obtain it, for benevolence is exiled from the breast of the sordid calculating plodder, whose only aim is to (e) Question. What do you mean by ' "respect. amass wealih; profit is his touchstone, and by able?" that all things are tried. “Trade knows no friends Witness. He always kept a gig." Cor kirdred; avarice no compassion; gain no

(Thurtell's Trial." bounds." Our cities, the most thriving soil of the () “Wealth is acquired by overreaching our competitive principle, are as the poet but justly neighbours, and spent in insulting them."... GOD styles they,

WIN-"Political Justice."

*

excessive wealth and excessive poverty, are en: ly renders him incapable of relishing, or bearing to be dreaded. In wealth itself, however super- ceiving any generous, noble, or tender sentime fluous, there is nothing injurious, it is beneficial; and, consequently, of forming any just judgmem but, when wealth, and the gratifications it affords, concerning many even of the ordinary duties of

become the sole objects of our thoughts, and am- private lile. Os the great extensive inte - arise, it is highly detrimental; the mind is stary judging; and, unless very particular pains have places honour, and all that men hold estimable, ly incapable of defending his country in war. on the possessor of wealth, must have the effect of The uniformity of his stationary life naturally withdrawing all attention from the mind, which corrupts the courage of his mind; it corrupts even is consequently enervated, and if not destroyed, the activity of his body, and renders him incapaprostituted to the most unworthy purposes; it gen. ble of exerting his strength with vigour and per. erates, too, a false pride, destructive of morality severance, in any other employment than that to and virtue! 'The ill effects of excessive wealth which he has been bred. His dexterity at his have ever been lamented by those who would own particular trade seems, in this manner, to be make men moral and intellectual beings, and has acquired at the expence of his intellectual, social furnished the satirist and the misanthrope with a and martial virtues. But, in every improved(?) fertile source of sarcasm, or malevolent invective; and civilized(1) society, this is the state into which and assuredly the follies, and vain (not to say ri- the labouring poor, that is, the great body of the diculous) pursuits of the excessively wealthy, people, must necessarily fall unless government must give cause for regret to every rational ob- takes some pains lo prevent it.”($)-Such are server, and to every well-wisher of his species. some of the effects of competition. It will They consider themselves as a separate and su- shortly be shown that such a state of miserable perior species. To sympathize with a casto infe existence of the labourers is not, as generally rior to themselves, whether by participation of supposed, necessary to the happiness of the rest

by rows, would be derogatory to themselves, and tion, not of necessity. The interests of the maswould subject them to the reproaches or contempt ters and their workmen, like all individuals who of their equals. Their patronage of benevolent have dealings with each other, are opposed. It institutions may more readily be accounted for is the endeavour of each to take advantage on the score of ostentation, than of genuine chari- of the other. By the competition among workty. I hope this will not be deemed an uncharit. men to obtain employment, and the desire of the able construction, but such is, I fear, too fre master to give them as little as possible, in requently the case; but if they are actuated by mo, turn for their services, they are compelled to toil tives of kindness, it is an emanation from natural as long as nature will permit,(h) to obtain a scanty benevolence, not from the system of individual subsistence-a subs stence so scanty indeed, and competition, for it throws a circle of antipathy wretchedness so extreme, that when we contem. around every class and grade of society.

plate the condition of a great, perhaps the greatof the evils of excessive poverty little need be er part of the population, we cannot but exclaim, said, they are evident to the most

superficial ob- What has our boasted civilization done for these? server; they thrust themselves on the notice of the They are precisely in the state of those barbamost cnreless. The life of the poor man is one rous nations, who have just sufficient dealings continued scene of privation, and unremitted toil, with Europeans to imbibe the vices of civilized he is only valued as he possesses powers of pro- life, without any of its benefits, while at the same duction, and by this test he is tried by many arro. time they experience all the wants and privations gating to themselves the

title of legislators. In of savage life-a state infinitely worse than the reading their works, we might suppose they were grossest barbarism. The labourer in a civilized calculating the powers of production and con- country certainly has his life protected by the sumption, possessed by so many irrational, and laws, but who would rob him of that? To tell even inanimate machines ; so little is the nature him that his property is protected, is a mockery. of man considered by those who profess to benefit

icone him; the mind of a brute could not possibly be more neglected. The poor man, by the misfortune of his birth, is condemned to consume his he wrote the above, he had not seen such deplor:

(g) Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations. When life in one stated mechanical operation, and such able instances of degenerated humanity as our of his faculties only as conduce to facility or per- manufacturing districts now present. How' he fection therein, are cultivated.

"In the progress of the division of labour, the could call that improved and civilized society in employment of the far greater part of those who which the great body of the people are, as he live by labour, that is, of the great body of the has described them, is incomprehensible; it is an people, comes to be confined to a few very sim

abuse of terms.

by artery w ple operations; frequently to one or two. But

Balm oila bidhaa the understandings of the greater part of man- (h) I am certain that in many employments, the kind are necessarily formed by their ordinary workmen frequently work Tonger than their employments. The man whose whole life is strength can bear, without having recourse to arspent in performing a few simple operations, of tificial stimulants. I have known instances of which the effects, too, are perhaps always the men drinking quantities of stimulating liquors, to same, has no ocrasiou to exert his understanding, enable them to complete their task; a consequent or to exercise his invention in finding out expe- debilitation ensues, and they have again recousse dients for removing difficulties which never oc- to the same expedient. A diseased life, and an cur. He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of early death are the consequences; but perhaps such exertion, and, generally becomes as stupid misery and mortality are counterbalanced by the and ignorant as it is possible for a human crea- additlonal wealth and splendour of the nation. ture to become. The torpor of his mind, not on. The sufferers of course go for nothing. Soda

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