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ENTERED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS, IN THE YEAR 1851, BY

SAMUEL ECESTON,
IN DE CLERE'S OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE

SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW-YORK.

JOHN A. GRAY, PRINTER, 79 FULTON, CORNER OF GOLD STREET

INDE X.

...........

16

PAGE
PAGE Annihilator, 459; More Last Words
African Legend, An. By Miss Mary E. *** from CARL BENSON, 550 ; Under the
TUTTLE.

................. 13 Owl, Number One, 551; •ALBAN,' 636;
Arundines Cami. By F. W. Shelton.... 95 A Leaf from the Georgia Lawyer,'
Answered Prayer. By RUFUS HENRY

638; The Soul-Whisper' of Pine

BACON...............................

.. 132

13

Trees, 641; An Original Sketch by the

Answer to Blackwood's Model Republic.. 205

Reverie Bachelor, 642.

Anacreontic Stanzas. By Dr. DICKSON...

Ashuelot River: A Song.........

525

Affection's Tribute : Stanzas...... .. 534

Adventoor on Coneyn Iland......

Fancies on Females. By a New Contrib-

utor,.............

B.

Flattery, Friendship and Love.............

Fair Boy LEONATUS, The. By R. H. Stop-

Burial of FRAZER. By E. W. B. CANNING. 122 DARD ................................

.. 535

Battle of Bushy Run. By F. PARKMAN, Jr. 153

Bridge and the Brook, The. By CHARLES

G. LELAND.........................

411

Birth day Tribute. By R. S. Chilton..... 442

| Glimpse of the World, A. By JAMES LINEN. 42

Gulf-Service, A Sketch of. By The WAN-

DERER............................... 112

Glance at the Past, Present and Future.... 138

Courtship and Marriage. From the Swed Glimpses of Life in Florida during the
ish of TEGNER......

Seminole War....................... 214
Childhood and Manhood. By C.D. STUART. 151 Golden Dreams. By HENRY P. LELAND... 448
Contentment: A Fragment......

349 | Glimpse at the Sandwich Islands......... 477
Crossing the Border. By SAMUEL S. COXE,

"Grave' Stanzas....

... 621

504 | Gossip with Readers and Correspondents,

Cape Cottage at Sunset. By W. B. GLAZIER. 593

76, 169, 371, 460, 552, 644

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J.

Isle of Life: A Fragment................ 512
Eves. Translated from the Swedish.....

Indian Maid, The. By E. PLURIBUS UNUM,
Earth-Angels. By THEODORE S. FAY..... 338

Ls .......... ...................... 541

Epigram on a Scold....................

364

Essay on Buckwheat Cakes............... 390
EDITOR'S TABLE-A View from Telegraph
Hill, San Francisco, 74; North-Ameri-

John Bull in His Own Pastures. .... 125,
can Review for the April quarter, 169;

Journey of Life, The. By SIGMA.........
Miss CATHERINE HAYES, 363; Words

Jacobin of Paris, The...

of Wisdom from Afar, 370 ; Compan-

ions of my Solitude, a rare new book,

K.

452 ; An Epistle to the EDITOR by
CARL BENSON, 456 ; PHILLIPS', Firo | King James the Second .. ......

.......... 607

12

.........

6: 234

R.

18

48

PAGE.

PAGE.
LUCY: A Portrait....

Pagan questioning Death, The....
Lakes of New York, The. Cayuga: Codar Picture of Life and Death. By Sigma..... 204
Heights.......

.. 20 Philosophical Sparrow, The. By A. B.
Lakes or New-York, The. Cayuga Bridge.. 221 1 JOHNSON, Esq............
Lines to a Bereived Father...

224 Prairies: Lines written on. By WASHING-
Lines addressed to a Wife... ....... 357 TON CHILTON........................ 326
Lines on the Death of an Only Son. By
Mrs. L. A SIGOURNEY...............

380
Lines to One Unseen ..................... 395
Life of Captain John UNDERHILL, Ye..... 48 | Quebec.....
Lines on Revisiting Berkshire late in Au-

tumn. By WILLIAM Pitt PALMER... 615
Low-born Squire's Unhappy Love, Ye..... 434
Lines to the Greek Slave By Mrs. L. H. Reverie, A. By a New Ione.........
SIGOURNEY...

...... 436 Recluse, The. By RALPH SEAWULF......
La Bella Entristecida. By RICHARD HAY Rising with the Lark. By J. E. OTIS.....
WARDE......

Rough Sketches of Female Figures........ 590
Lament fur Bishop ANDREWS. From the
Latin of MILTON. By Rev.J.G. LYONS,

S.
LL.D................................
LITERARY NOTICES. - History of the Con-

Stanzas: Repentance. By HAL.....
spiracy of PONTIAC, 67 : Para, or Scenes

Truth. By Miss A. C. CHAMBER-
and Adventures on the Amazon, 70;

LAIN......
BULWER and Forbes on Water Treat-

Duty: An Extract....... .. 145
ment, 71; COGGESHALL's Voyages,

Star-Gazing ........
72; Wayside Flowers, 73; Memoirs of

The River........

427
WILLIAM WORDS WORTH, 161 ; Fresh

To My Wife...

502
Gleanings, 162; Inquiry into the Causes

Alone, By SIGMA....

599
of Natural Death, 163 : GENEVRA or

-By R. S. CHILTON...

6:22
the History of a Portrait, 164; Scenes Summer Rain. By E.M. BOURNE.......
in our Parish, 166; Mexican Service Soul's Refuge, The By THOMAS MACKEL-
Afloat and Ashore, 365; Popular Cy-

LAR.................................
clopædia of Biblical Literature, 366 ; Sublime Porte, The. By J.P. BROWNE, Esq. 34
WÁre's Sketches of European Capi Serinade. By CLARENCE ELwin......... 472
tals, 366; The Sea and the sailor, &c., Sequel to Saint Leger. By RB KIMBALL,
449; Scenery and Mind, 450; Repor s

Esq...................

...... 608, 444
of the New York State Engineer and Sketches in South Africa, By MONTGOM-
Surveyor, 451; Lectures on the Lord's

ERY D, PARKER.. ............. 147, 571
Prayer, 451; Essays by RICHARD H. Song of the Mermaid, The................ 337
DANA, 542; Epoch of the Creation,

Summer Twilight: A Sonnet. By " NELL" 420
546; Outlines of a System of Mechani-

Seeking Dinner Under Difficulties. By
cal Philosophy, 547 : The Ladies of the

Francis COPCUTT.....
Covenant, 549; History of Alabama,

Some Account of SMITII...
632: Fall of Poland. 633; The Captains

Steadfastness......

... 589
of the Old World, 633; American Poe-

Sailor Boy's Death-Bed. By THE WAN-
try, by A. B. STREKT, 634; Swallow-

DERER.............................. 608
Barn, 834; PUTNAM's Home Cyclopæ-

Schediasms. Lake Rye: A Summer's Day
dia, 635.

D ream ..............................

. 616
M.

100

..

19

......... 493
........, 537

T.

Meister Karl's Sketch-Book. By CHARLES

G. LELAND...... 49, 134, 330, 431, 5:27, 62
Minstrel's Curse, The. From the German

of UHLAND..........................
MARIE LAFORET. By the author of Saint

Leger............................... 35
Music of the Dollars and the Dimes.......

...........

223

The Three-fold Nature of Man: A Legend. 139
The Two Roads. By lloRACE RUBLEE.... 152
Things I Love. By CHARLES LELAND

PORTER...........
The Two Fishermen. From the Greek.... 23
Tyrants in Tartarus. By C. D. STUART.... 588
Tribute, A........
Thunder-Storm on the Tappuan Zee. By

MARY E. HEWITT ...................

.... 608

N.

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The Scalds were the bards of the north, who, like the Celtic poets and Grecian rhapsodists, celebrated the history of gods and heroes. Like the composers of the Spanish romanceros,' they sung of glory and the battlefield. As did the Mennisingers, they too indulged in pride of ancestry, and walked by the side of earls and princes. Like Tailefero, the Norman troubadour, and Veit-Weter, the Swiss soldier, they personally mingled in the combats they described, fighting in the front rank of the battle.

The poetry of Scandinavia, like its history, dates from the migration of the Asiatic tribes, and is lost amid obscure tales or fabulous traditions. These tribes, so long called barbarous, exhibited nevertheless great veneration for poetry, which they attributed directly to the gods. They could well exclaim with Ovid :

"Est Deus in nobis, et sunt commencia cæli

Sedibusque ætheris spiritus ille venit.' Their tradition as to the origin of poetry, though abounding in absurdities, is yet strongly characteristic, and deserves a passing notice.

There was formerly a man called Kvaser, who became a god by his wisdom and intelligence. Two dwarfs, jealous of his reputation, slew him; and collecting his blood in a large vase, mingled it with honey. The blood of the sage, thus mixed with the virtue of flowers, became the source of poetry — the hipprocras of the Scandinavians. Whoever drank of it was immediately inspired, and capable of producing most harmonious tones upon the harp. The giant Sutting obtained this precious treasure, to which he attached a countless price, though he used it not, but gave it to the guardianship of his daughter Gunlæda, whom he shut up in a mountain. Meanwhile Odin, one of the chief gods,* was seized

* ELSEWHERE described as chief of the Scandinavian divinities. VOL. XXXVIII.

with a desire to add to his other attributes the power of poetry. To accomplish this, it was necessary to seduce Sutting, whom neither flattery nor promises could soften, and who, barbarian-like, without enjoying his treasure, kept it closely from all others. Odin quitted his celestial abode, and, like Apollo with Admetus, passed a summer at the home of Sutting, busied with the care of flocks and harvests. He demanded as a recompense a few drops of the poetic honey. These were peremptorily refused, and Odin, in despair of overcoming the obstinacy of the giant, had recourse to stratagem. Changing himself to a serpent, he penetrated the mountain which contained the goblet, and approached Gunlæda, whom he flattered with attentions. The poor Gunlæda, as Eve did also, believed the persuasions of the serpent, and forgot the trust committed by her father. Odin obtained permission to take three draughts from the goblet, and in so doing drained its contents. But he forgot the sweet vows he had murmured to Gunlæda, and leaving the poor girl in tears, flew away as an eagle, to which he had transformed himself. Sutting, however, was a skilful magician, and discovering the robbery, pursued the ravisher, whom he was about to seize. While Odin was trembling with the fear of paying dearly for his treachery, he was surrounded by the Asers — his celestial companions— presenting a large cup, into which he returned the mixture he had drank; though in the terror caused by Sutting, he suffered a few drops to fall upon the earth.* These constitute the beverage of inferior poets, who have only to embrace the earth for its attainment, while the goblet of the gods is preserved on high, beyond all reach but that of genius and true inspiration. Odin alone distributes from the goblet, and has hence become the god of poetry.t

In the reigns of the three earliest Scandinavian monarchs, we find nothing but incomplete references to the Scalds, and mere fragments of their productions. In the sixth and seventh centuries they occupy a distinct place in history, and from the ninth to the thirteenth follow in regular succession, with ample details as to their names, lives, and compositions. The reign of Harald of the Fair Hair' was the golden era of the Scalds. This ambitious monarch, for the purpose of adding more solemnity to his battles and greater glory to his conquests, surrounded himself with poets. He collected the most renowned Scalds at his court, whom he retained by costly presents and attentions, receiving in return their tributes to his power and greatness. His successors manifested similar tastes; and some, as Magnus the Good and Harald Sigurdson, were themselves composers.

The Scalds resisted for a long time the anathemas launched by the first missionaries of Christianity. Olaf the Saint condemned their mythological superstitions, yet regarded it as due to his royal dignity to have numerous Scalds in attendance at his court. It was he who, when going forth to battle, thus addressed them : ‘Place yourselves in the front rank of the army, that you may witness what you must describe, and do not receive the history from others.' Gradually, however, the spirit of Christianity was diffused amid the Northmen, and Scaldic poetry, the

* From respect to poets, the original expression has been somewhat softened. + BRAGA was generally regarded as the god of poetry.

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