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Explanation of The Youth and the Philosopher.

Elegy, supposed to be written in a

Country Churchyard, by Gray.. 7 L'Allegro.

31 Il Penseroso


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P.23. 1. 9. aftcr "stanza insert is..


P. 9, 1. 13, after singular insert number raises the idea,

14, 1. 21, dele to raise. 26, 1. 5 from bottom, for and even after dealh men roish that

their memory, read, and men wish that their memory

even after death, 31, 1. 9, for with read in. 43, 1.9, dele small. 50, last line but two, for soul in lengthened, read, soul

whose lengthened. 51, 1. 6, dele to him, 54, l. 12, for discernable read discernible. 63, I. 2, dele seems.

1. 3, for appears read seems. m, l. 4, dele to sing. 67, 1.3, dele which is less complete. 69, 1. 16, dele zwhich. 72, 1. 3, after. virtuous is, insert, in this sense.



GRECIAN youth, of talents rare,
Whom Plato's philosophic care

i Philosophic care neans the care of a philosopher.

ri Hadi formed for virtue's noblcr view,
By, precept and example too,
Would often boast his matchless skill

To curb the steed and guide the wheel. Nobler view. More noble than what? than curbing the steed or guiding the wheel-What wheel? the wheel of the youth's chariot or carriage it does not particularly allude to the wheel ; it means the whole carriage.

“ And as he passed the gazing throng
With graceful ease, and smack'd the thong)

Throng-means a crowd, or collection of people.

Graceful ease, like philosophic care, does not mean that ease was graceful, but that the ease with which he moved made him appear graceful.

« The idiot wonder they express'd Was praise and transport to his breast. Idiot wonder.-The word idiot is here converted into an adjective, for idiotic wonder.

“ At length quite vain lie needs would show
His master what his art could do,

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His master--was Plato ; and as the youth saw that the skill he showed in driving a chariot had excited the wonder and admiration of others, he thought that it would equally delight his master.

And bade his slaves the chariot lead
To Academus' sacred shade.

The Grecians had slaves; that is, people who were sometimes bought and sold, and who sometimes were captives taken in war : they were under the absolute dominion of their masters for life, and were governed by the fear of blows, like our 'cattle.

Sacred shade is the shade of the sacred grove which surrounded Academus.

Academus was the name of the place where Plato taught philosophy; from which name Academy is derived.

“ The trembling grove confess'd it's fright, The wood-nymphs started at the sight, Here the trees are personified, and represented as feeling the human passion of fear; and the wood-nymphs are also supposed to be terrified at the unaccustomed appearance of the chariot and horses.

" The muses drop the learned lyre,
And to their inmost shades retire.

The muses are supposed by the poet to frequent unseen this sacred grove, to listen to the divine philosophy of Plato ; and are represented as retiring with disgust from the intrusion of the youthful charioteer.

“Howe'er, the youth with forward air
Bows to the sage, and mounts the car,
The lash resounds, the coursers spring,

The chariot marks the rolling ring, Howe'er-means, notwithstanding that the youth must have seen, that the philosophers who assembled to hear Plato were shocked at this intrusion,

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