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The following terms denote the time, or degree of rapidity or slowness of movement, to be adopted: adagio.

.very slow-for solemn delivery.
allegro (allo.).......quick-for brisk, lively delivery.
presto.... ..still quicker.

.middle time, and distinct.

..slowly, with fullness of tone. moderato. in ordinary or middle time. retard..

..slackening the time. accelerando... ...quickening the time.

Using these terms and abbreviations, the same passage will be thus marked for expression, in addition to the previous marks of pause, &c. Largo p.

p. afo.

allo, m. S. M As Cæsar loved me,

:7 I weep for him ; as he was fortu


nate," I rejoice at it; as he was valiant," I honor him; but as

f.b he was ambitious, – I slew him. There is tears for his love,

largo p.


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joy for his fortune ;-– honor for his valor, and death- for his


In narration, what force, what reality can be given to description by a speaker who, as it were, throws himself into the scene, and by the vivacity and energy of his delivery brings the action graphically before your eyes, hurries you into the heat of it, and makes you feel as if personally engaged in what is so stirringly related to you.

As in that beautiful description, in Shakspeare's Henry IV. of the gallant Prince Henry and his comrades armed for battle:

Andante, con spirito,


All furnish’d, all in arms,
Glittring in golden coats like images;
As full of spirit as the month of May,
And gorgeous as the sun at midsummer;
Wanton as youthful goats, wild as young bulls.
I saw young Harry,—with his beaver on,

His cuisses on his thighs, gallantly arm’d, -
A Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury,

Ánd vaulted with such ease into his seat,

As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds,
M To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus,

And witch the world with noble horsemanship!

con amina,



Unless this description, full of poetic imagination and coloring as it is, be delivered with warmth, energy, and the pitch or tone of enthusiasm, it will fall very short of its due impression; and thus the poet will be deprived, by the speaker's coldness, of the full appreciation, by the hearer, of the exquisite beauty of the picture. The reader must catch the spirit of the language, in order to be a fit interpreter of the poet's conception ; as he proceeds, he must warm and kindle with the glowing coloring of the picture, till the finishing touch is given to it, in the closing, crowning line.

But the force of his elocution must be greatly increased, and the expression must become impassioned, and rise almost to fierceness, to produce the full effect of Hotspur's heroic and inspiring answer: which breathes the highest enthusiasm of confident and daring valor, undaunted resolution, and impatient thirst of glory,


con fuoco.
a Let them come!
3 They come like sacrifices in their trim,
a And to the fire-eyed maid of smoky war,

All hot, and bleeding, will we offer them!
The mailed Mars shall on his altar sit

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staccato, f.

b Up to the ears in blood. I am on fire,

To hear this rich reprisal is so nigh,
And yet not ours! Come, let me take my horse,
Which is to bear me like a thunderbolt
Against the bosom of the Prince of Wales:
Harry to Harry shall, hot horse to horse,

retard. b f. Meet, and ne'er part“ till one drop down a corse! Thus we see that Pitch, Force, and Time constitute expression: united, with just discrimination and in perfect keeping, they reach the climax of the power of Elocution, the acme of its art,-Passion.

The mimicry of Passion, by the simultaneous expression of voice, gesture, face, and attitude, is the Actor's study. It is not my design to form a theatrical style ; but it is desirable that the student should make himself master of certain tones and variations of expression, a judicious use of which will add much to the beauty and power of his declamation, and is, in fact, absolutely necessary to be attained before he can aspire to the high character of a perfect ORATOR.

With a view to assist him in this object, I have prepared the PRACTICE which follows.






Begin in a deep tone, and gather force and volume in progressing.



B Ye Elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes, and groves ;

And ye that on the sands with printless foot, the ebbing Neptune, and do fly him
When he comes back; you demi-puppets, that
By moonshine do the green, sour ringlets make,
Whereof the ewe not bites; and you whose pastime
Is to make midnight mushrooms; that rejoice
To hear the solemn curfew: by whose aid,
(Weak masters though ye be,) I have bedimm’d
The noon-tide sun,-callid forth the mutinous winds,
And twist the green sea and the azure vault
Šet roaring war; to the dread rattling thunder
Have I given fire, and rifted Jove's stout oak
With his own

bolt: the strong-bas'd promontory
Have I made shake, and by the spurs


808. f. c

Pluck'd up the pine and cedar: graves at my command
Have wak’d their sleepers; opa and let them forth
By my so potent art.

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But this rough magic
I here abjure; and when I have requir'd
Some heavenly music, (which even now I do,)
To work mine end


This airy charm is for, I'll break my staff,

Bury it certain fathoms in the earth,
B And deeper than did ever plummet sound,

I'll drown my book.


This being narrative, does not admit of so solemn a tone as the preceding :


M The building was a spacious theatre,

Half-round, on two main pillars vaulted high,
With seats where all the lords, and each degree
Of sort, might sit in order to behold.
The other side was open, where the throng
On banks and scaffolds under sky might stand.
The feast and noise grew high; and sacrifice
Had fill'd their hearts with mirth, high cheer, and wine,

m. f.

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