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I

6 fiend-field-wield. has three tonics—two

6

ill-in-it-list. borrowed, pure; one 9 4) fir-first-thirst. mixed or diphth.(ui) (diph. 9.6. 1-sigh-mine-lie.

7

old-no-bold-go. has four tonics-one 1(-) on-rot-for-lord-cough. pure and proper, and 8 ) do—whom-boot-fool. three borrowed.

son-none-come-other.

US

U

urn-burn-curd-purse. has three tonics-one 9

8—bun-cut-blush. pure and proper, one 8

true-rude. borrowed, one mixed 8

bull-bush. or diphthongal (6.8.) Lidiph. 6.8. Ü-union-tune--duke.

Y has two tonics, both

6 pity-army--nymph. borrowed—one pure, (diph. 9.6. Y-by-my--dye. one diphth. (9.6)

has one tonic sound, borrowed.

8(-) nov-cow_bow.

NOTES ON THE MIXED OR DIPHTHONGAL TONICS.

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6

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Î.—The diphthongal sound of i has been by some writers resolved into the tonic sounds of a and e; a being given as the radical or opening, and e as the vanish or close of the sound. But this combination (a e) would produce the diphthongal sound oi, as in voice; which is, in fact, a provincial pronunciation of the diphthongal sound of ï (in such words as find, mind, &c.) prevalent among the vulgar in some of the northern counties in England, where we may hear foind for find, koind for kënd, &c. The true radical of ï is u, as in us, and its vanish e, as in eve. This will be manifest by articulating these two sounds, separately and slowly at first, and gradually blending them by a closer and more rapid utterance, till the two tonics run together, and are lost in each other, thus :

16

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Ü.—The diphthongal sound of u, as in ünion, tüne, has for its radical, e, and for its vanish, o; that is, is produced by the blending of the e, in eve, with the o, in do, thus:

6

8

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Y.—The diphthongal sound of y, as in by, try, is resolvable into the same elements as that of ï, as above given.

W.-The character of the sound of this sign, as in the above examples, is clearly diphthongal, though its elements are difficult to trace with exactitude ; perhaps its radical is a, its vanish 8. This sign is also frequently mute in its diphthongal figure, as in awe: here are three vowel signs with one elementary sound, viz.

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7

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the tonic sound heard in all. Again, in low, the w is mute, and also in bow (arcus), though heard in the verb to bow.

We shall see hereafter the sub-tonic character of W and Y.

4

AI.—This diphthong is composed of a and č, as in pain, ail, which are distinguishable to a fine ear from the pure tonic in ale, pane, &c.; but the distinction is really very slight--still it exists.

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OU-as in our, out, &c., is of a complex nature, and appears to be triph-thongal. It seems to my ear to be compounded of aou; but I am not quite clear as to its elements. For reference to the eye, I shall distinguish it thus, , (to denote its triphthongal character,) in the following

EXERCISE ON THE TONICS.

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2

3

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5 9

9

9

All art as natüre běttěr understood.

Ảnd thắt thếre is all nåtüre crïes åloüd through all hěr works.

Ảll pale with pain he fäinted in the place.
Ånd &ve in Éden évěr håppy thểre.
if infidelity først victims fïnd.
Oh holy hope, tỏ live beyðnd the tồmb.
The wonder and the worship of the world.

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7

9

9

7

Får fortune frowned upon his cẩuse förlőrn.
The torrent roared impetuous in its course.
My hóarseness forces me to stop my hỏrse.

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The doors are open,

And the surfeited grooms do môck their charge with snores.

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9

Füll often ûnderrates the füture good.
Now lảw shall bow before the power of arms.
Our wounds cry

out for help
And búrning blůshes spread o'er all her cheek.

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Let the pupil now go through the Table of Tonic Sounds, giving to every element its perfect sound, in a full, loud tone of voice, but without strain or painful effort. This, more than any practice, will tend to strengthen and bring out his voice (see “ Vocal GYMNASTICS"); and next, let him go carefully through the Exercise on the Tonics, until he shall read them with perfect purity of tonic sound. The careful doing of this at the outset, will save the pupil much after-trouble in the matter of articulation.

We now pass to the

SUB TONICS (15) - ATONICS (10.)

TABLE OF SUBTONICS AND ATONICS.

Subt.

At.

Organic Formation.

Examples.

1 B P Pure labial

B-ad. P-ay. 2 D T Lingua-dental (teeth closed) D-ash. T-ask. 3 G K Palatine

G-um. K-ill. 4V - F Labia-dental

V-at. F-ight. 5 Z S Dental sibilants (teeth open) Z-eal. S-ame. 6J - Ch Lingua-palatine sibilant J-udge. Ch-urch. 7Zsh- Sh Palatine sibilant

A-Z-ure. Sh-ame. 8 Th - Th Lingua-dental (teeth open) Th-en. Th-i$.

(hard) (soft) 9 Y H Palatine aspirates

Y-et. H-it. 10 W Wh Labial aspirates

W-ild. Wh-en. 11 R

Lingua-palatine (vibralg) R-ome. R-ide. 12 L

Lingua-palatine L-ull. L-ily. 13 M Nasal-labial

M-um. M-ind. 14N

Nasal-lingua-palatine N-u-n. N-0-w. 15 Ng — Nasal-palatine E-ng-land. Thi-ng.

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OBSERVATIONS.

It will be observed that the A-tonics have each their appropriate Sub-tonics, to which they belong, and of which they are the vanish, or last fading sound: thus B, when sounded, after its tone or vocality ceases, fades into P; D into T; G (hard) into K, &c.; as may be perceived by sounding the syllables Bab, Did, Gig, &c.

9 and 10.-Y and W, when initials, lose their full tonic character, which they have when final; and become sub-tonic aspirates in their connection with a succeeding tonic, as in ye,

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