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the Secretary to the defendant, who shall be called upon to satisfy the complaint, or to answer it in writing, within a reasonable time to be specified by the Secretary. If the defendant within the time specified makes reparation for the injury alleged to be done he shall be relieved of liability to complainant only for the particular violation thus complained of. If the defendant does not satisfy the complaint within the time specified, or there appears to be any reasonable ground for investigating the complaint, it shall be the duty of the Secretary to investigate the matters complained of in such manner and by such means as he deems proper.

(b) The Secretary, at the request of the livestock commissioner, board of agriculture, or other agency of a State or Territory, having jurisdiction over stockyards in such State or Territory, shall investigate any complaint forwarded by such agency in like manner and with the same authority and powers as in the case of a complaint made under subdivision (a).

(c) The Secretary may at any time institute an inquiry on his own motion, in any case and as to any matter or thing concerning which a complaint is authorized to be made to or before the Secretary, by any provision of sections 201-203, 205-217 of this title, or concerning which any question may arise under any of the provisions of sections 201-203, 205-217 of this title, or relating to the enforcement of any of the provisions of sections 201-203, 205-217 of this title. The Secretary shall have the same power and authority to proceed with any inquiry instituted upon his own motion as though he had been appealed to by petition, including the power to make and enforce any order or orders in the case or relating to the matter or thing concerning which the inquiry is had, except orders for the payment of money.

(d) No complaint shall at any time be dismissed because of the absence of direct damage to the complainant.

(e) If after hearing on a complaint the Secretary determines that the complainant is entitled to an award of damages, the Secretary shall make an order directing the defendant to pay to the complainant to sum to which he is entitled on or before a day named.

(f) If the defendant does not comply with an order for the payment of money within the time limit in such order, the complainant, or any person for whose benefit such order was made, may within one year of the date of the order file in the district court of the United States for the district in which he resides or in which is located the principal place of business of the defendant or in any State court having general jurisdiction of the parties, a petition setting forth briefly the causes for which he claims damages, and the order of the Secretary in the premises. Such suit in the district court shall proceed in all respects like other civil suits for damages except that the findings and orders of the Secretary shall be prima facie evidence of the facts therein stated, and the petitioner shall not be liable for costs in the district court nor for costs at any subsequent stage of the proceedings unless they accrue upon his appeal. If the petitioner finally prevails, he shall be allowed a reasonable attorney's fee to be

taxed and collected as a part of the costs of the suit. (Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, § 309, 42 Stat, 165.)

CROSS REFERENCE
Application to certain licensees, see section 218c of this title.

§ 211. Order of Secretary as to charges or practices; prescribing rates and practices generally. Whenever after full hearing upon a complaint made as provided in section 210 of this title, or after full hearing under an order for investigation and hearing under an order for investigation and hearing made by the Secretary on his own initiative, either in extension of any pending complaint or without any complaint whatever, the Secretary is of the opinion that any rate, charge, regulation, or practice of a stockyard owner or market agency, for or in connection with the furnishing of stockyard services, is or will be unjust, unreasonable, or discriminatory, the Secretary

(a) May determine and prescribe what will be the just and reasonable rate or charge, or rates or charges, to be thereafter in such case observed as both the maximum and minimum to be charged, and what regulation or practice is or will be just, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory to be thereafter followed; and

(b) May make an order that such owner or operator (1) shall cease and desist from such violation to the extent to which the Secretary finds that it does or will exist; (2) shall not thereafter publish, demand, or collect any rate or charge for the furnishing of stockyard services more or less than the rate or charge so prescribed; and (3) shall conform to and observe the regulation or practice so prescribed. (Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, § 310, 42 Stat. 166; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 663, 53 Stat. 1351.)

CROSS REFERENCE
Application to certain licensees, see section 218c of this title.

§ 212. Prescribing rates and practices to prevent discrimination between intrastate and interstate commerce. Whenever in any investigation under the provisions of sections 201-203, 205217 of this title, or in any investigation instituted by petition of the stockyard owner or market agency concerned, which petition is hereby authorized to be filed, the Secretary after full hearing finds that any rate, charge, regulation, or practice of any stockyard owner or market agency, for or in connection with the buying or selling on a commission basis or otherwise, receiving, marketing, feeding, holding, delivery, shipment, weighing, or handling, not in commerce, of livestock, causes any undue or unreasonable advantage, prejudice, or preference as between persons or localities in intrastate commerce in livestock on the one hand and interstate or foreign commerce in livestock on the other hand, or any undue, unjust, or unreasonable discrimination against interstate or foreign commerce in livestock, which is hereby foreign commerce in livestock, which is hereby forbidden and declared to be unlawful, the Secretary shall prescribe the rate, charge, regulation, or practice thereafter to be observed, in such manner as, in his judgment, will remove such advantage, preference, or discrimination. Such rates, charges, regulations, or prac

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tices shall be observed while in effect by the stockyard owners or market agencies parties to such proceeding affected thereby, the law of any State or the decision or order of any State authority to the contrary notwithstanding. (Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, § 311, 42 Stat. 167.)

CROSS REFERENCE
Application to certain licensees, see section 218c of this title.

§ 213. Prevention of unfair, discriminatory, or deceptive practices.(a) It shall be unlawful for any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer to engage in or use any unfair, unjustly discriminatory, or deceptive practice or device in connection with the receiving, marketing, buying, or selling on a commission basis or otherwise, feeding, watering, holding, delivery, shipment, weighing, or handling, in commerce at a stockyard, of livestock.

(b) Whenever complaint is made to the Secretary by any person, or whenever the Secretary has reason to believe, that any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer is violating the provisions of subdivision (a), the Secretary after notice and full hearing may make an order that he shall cease and desist from continuing such violation to the extent that the Secretary finds that it does or will exist. (Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, § 312, 42 Stat. 167.)

CROSS REFERENCE
Application to certain licensees, see section 218c of this title.

$ 214. When orders effective generally.-Except as otherwise provided in this chapter all orders of the Secretary under sections 201-203, 205-217 of this title, other than orders for the payment of money, shall take effect within such reasonable time, not less than five days, as is prescribed in the order, and shall continue in force until his further order, or for a specified period of time, according as is prescribed in the order, unless such order is suspended or modified or set aside by the Secretary or is suspended or set aside by a court of competent jurisdiction. (Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, § 313, 42 Stat. 167.)

CROSS REFERENCE
Application to certain licensees, see section 218c of this title.

§ 215. Failure to obey orders generally; punishment.-(a) Any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer who knowingly fails to obey any order made under the provisions of sections 211, 212, or 213 of this title shall forfeit to the United States the sum of $500 for each offense. Each distinct violation shall be a separate offense, and in case of a continuing violation each day shall be deemed a separate offense. Such forfeiture shall be recoverable in a civil suit in the name of the United States.

(b) It shall be the duty of the various district attorneys, under the direction of the Attorney General, to prosecute for the recovery of forfeitures. The costs and expenses of such prosecution shall be paid out of the appropriation for the expenses of the courts of the United States. (Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, § 314, 42 Stat. 167.)

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CROSS REFERENCE
Application to certain licensees, see section 218c of this title.

8 216. Court proceedings to enforce orders; injunction.—If any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer fails to obey any order of the Secretary other than for the payment of money while the same is in effect, the Secretary, or any party injured thereby, or the United States by its Attorney General, may apply to the district court for the district in which such person has his principal place of business for the enforcement of such order. If after hearing the court determines that the order was lawfully made and duly served and that such person is in disobedience of the same, the court shall enforce obedience to such order by a writ of injunction or other proper process, mandatory or otherwise, to restrain such person, his officers, agents, or representatives from further disobedience of such order or to enjoin upon him or them obedience to the same. (Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, § 315, 42 Stat. 167.)

CROSS REFERENCE
Application to certain licensees, see section 218c of this title.

§ 217. Proceedings for suspension of orders. For the purposes of sections 201-203, 205-217 of this title, the provisions of all laws relating to the suspending or restraining the enforcement, operation, or execution of, or the setting aside in whole or in part the orders of the Interstate Commerce Commission, are made applicable to the jurisdiction, powers, and duties of the Secretary in enforcing the provisions of sections 201-203, 205-217 of this title, and to any person subject to the provisions of sections 201203, 205-217 of this title. (Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, § 316, 42 Stat. 168.)

CROSS REFERENCE
Application to certain licensees, see section 218c of this title.

$ 217a. Brand inspection fees by registered market agencies.(a) The Secretary may, upon written application made to him, and if he deems it necessary, authorize the charging and collection, at any stockyard subject to the provisions of this chapter, by any department or agency of any State in which branding or marking or both branding and marking livestock as a means of establishing ownership prevails by custom or statute, or by a duly organized livestock association of any such State, of a reasonable and nondiscriminatory fee for the inspection of brands, marks, and other identifying characteristics of livestock originating in or shipped from such State, for the purpose of determining the ownership of such livestock. No charge shall be made under any such authorization until the authorized department, agency, or association has registered as a market agency. Nó more than one such authorization shall be issued with respect to such inspection of livestock originating in or shipped from any one State. If more than one such application is filed with respect to such inspection of livestock originating in or shipped from any one State, the Secretary shall issue such authorization to the applicant deemed by him best qualified to perform the

proposed service, on the basis of (1) experience, (2) financial responsibility, (3) extent and efficiency of organization, (4) possession of necessary records, and (5) any other factor relating to the ability of the applicant to perform the proposed service. The Secretary may receive and consider the recommendations of the commissioner, secretary, or director of agriculture, or other appropriate officer or agency of a State as to the qualifications of any applicant in such State. The decision of the Secretary as to the applicant best qualified shall be final.

(b) The provisions of sections 201-203 and 205-217a of this title relating to the filing, publication, approval, modification, and suspension of any rate or charge for any stockyard service shall apply with respect to charges authorized to be made under this section.

(c) Charges authorized to be made under this section shall be collected by the market agency or other person receiving and disbursing the funds received from the sale of livestock with respect to the inspection of which such charge is made, and paid by it to the department, agency, or association performing such service.

(d) The Secretary may, if he deems it to be in the public interest, suspend, and after hearing, revoke any authorization and registration issued under any other provision of law. The order of the Secretary suspending or revoking any such authorization and registration shall not be subject to review. (Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, § 317, as added June 19, 1942, ch. 421, 56 Stat. 372).

PRIOR LAW Former provisions relating to fees for inspection of brands appearing upon livestock were contained in section 231 of this title.

LIVE POULTRY DEALERS AND HANDLERS § 218. Unfair, deceptive, and fraudulent practices; necessity to curb.—The handling of the great volume of live poultry required as an article of food for the inhabitants of large centers of population is attendant with various unfair, deceptive, and fraudulent practices and devices, resulting in the producers sustaining sundry losses and receiving prices far below the reasonable value of their live poultry in comparison with prices of other commodities and in unduly and arbitrarily enhancing the cost to the consumers. Such practices and devices are an undue restraint and unjust burden upon interstate commerce and are a matter of such grave concern to the industry and to the public as to make it imperative that steps be taken to free such commerce from such burden and restraint and to protect producers and consumers against such practices and devices. (Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, § 501, as added Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 532, 49 Stat. 648.)

8 218a. Designation of cities and markets where unfair practices exist; licenses required; application for and issuance by Secretary of Agriculture; penalty for dealing without license. (a) The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized and directed to ascertain from time to time and to designate the cities where such practices and devices exist to the extent stated in section 218 of

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