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ring, then the processing tax on the processing of the commodity generally or for any designated use or uses, or on the processing of the commodity in the production of any designated product or products thereof for any designated use or uses, shall be at such lower rate or rates as he determines and proclaims will prevent such accumulation of surplus stocks and depression of the farm price of the commodity, and the tax shall remain during its effective period at such lower rate until the Secretary, after due notice and opportunity for hearing to interested parties, determines and proclaims that an increase in the rate of such tax will not cause such accumulation of surplus stocks or depression of the farm price of the commodity. Thereafter the processing tax shall be at the highest rate which the Secretary determines will not cause such accumulation of surplus stocks or depression of the farm price of the commodity, but it shall not be higher than the rate provided in the first sentence of this paragraph.

(2) In the case of wheat, cotton, field corn, hogs, peanuts, tobacco, paper, and jute, and (except as provided in paragraph (8) of this subsection) in the case of sugarcane and sugar beets, the tax on the first domestic processing of the commodity generally or for any particular use, or in the production of any designated product for any designated use, shall be levied, assessed, collected, and paid at the rate prescribed by the regulations of the Secretary of Agriculture in effect on the date of the adoption of this amendment, during the period from such date to December 31, 1937, both dates inclusive.

(3) For the period from April 1, 1935, to July 31, 1936, both inclusive, the processing tax with respect to rice shall be levied, assessed, collected, and paid at the rate of 1 cent per pound of rough rice.

(4) For the period from September 1, 1935, to December 31, 1937, both inclusive, the processing tax with respect to rye shall be levied, assessed, collected, and paid at the rate of 30 cents per bushel of fifty-six pounds. In the case of rye, the first marketing year shall be considered to be the period commencing September 1, 1935, and ending June 30, 1936. Subsequent marketing years shall commence on July 1 and end on June 30 of the succeeding year. The provisions of section 616 of this title shall not apply in the case of rye.

(5) If at any time prior to December 31, 1937, a tax with respect to barley becomes effective pursuant to proclamation as provided in subsection (a) of this section, such tax shall be levied, assessed, collected, and paid during the period from the date upon which such tax becomes effective to December 31, 1937, both inclusive, at the rate of 25 cents per bushel of forty-eight pounds. The provisions of section 616 of this title shall not apply in the case of barley.

(6) (A) Any rate of tax which is prescribed in paragraph (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this subsection or which is established pursuant to this paragraph (6) on the processing of any commodity generally or for any designated use or uses, or on the processing of the commodity in the production of any designated product or products thereof for any designated use or uses, shall

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be decreased (including a decrease to zero) in accordance with the formulae, standards, and requirements of paragraph (1) of this subsection, in order to prevent such reduction in the quantity of such commodity or the products thereof domestically consumed as will result in the accumulation of surplus stocks of such commodity or the products thereof or in the depression of the farm price of the commodity, and shall thereafter be increased in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection but subject to the provisions of subdivision (B) of this paragraph (6).

(B) If the average farm price of any commodity, the rate of tax on the processing of which is prescribed in paragraph (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this subsection or is established pursuant to this paragraph (6), during any period of twelve successive months ending after July 1, 1935, consisting of the first ten months of any marketing year and the last two months of the preceding marketing year

(i) is equal to, or exceeds by 10 per centum or less, the fair exchange value thereof, or, in the case of tobacco, is less than the fair exchange value by not more than 10 per centum, the rate of such tax shall (subject to the provisions of subdivision (A) of this paragraph (6) be adjusted, at the beginning of the next succeeding marketing year, to such rate as equals 20 per centum of the fair exchange value thereof.

(ii) exceeds by more than 10 per centum, but not more than 20 per centum, the fair exchange value thereof, the rate of such tax shall (subject to the provisions of subdivision (A) of this paragraph (6)) be adjusted, at the beginning of the next succeeding marketing year, to such rate as equals 15 per centum of the fair exchange value thereof.

(iii) exceeds by more than 20 per centum the fair exchange value thereof, the rate of such tax shall (subject to the provisions of subdivision (A) of this paragraph (6)) be adjusted, at the beginning of the next succeeding marketing year, to such rate as equals 10 per centum of the fair exchange value thereof.

(C) Any rate of tax which has been adjusted pursuant to this paragraph (6) shall remain at such adjusted rate unless further adjusted or terminated pursuant to this paragraph (6), until December 31, 1937, or until July 31, 1936, in the case of rice.

(D) In accordance with the formulae, standards, and requirements prescribed in sections 601-608, 608a-608c, 608d-612, 613619, 620, 623, 624 of this title, any rate of tax prescribed in paragraph (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this subsection or which is established pursuant to this paragraph (6) shall be increased.

(E) Any tax, the rate of which is prescribed in paragraph (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this subsection, or which is established pursuant to this paragraph, (6), shall terminate pursuant to proclamation as provided in section 609 (a) of this title or pursuant to section 613 of this title. Any such tax with respect to any basic commodity which terminates pursuant to proclamation as provided in section 609 (a) of this title shall again become effective at the rate prescribed in paragraph (2), (3), (4), or (5) of this subsection, subject however to the provisions of subdi

visions (A) and (B) of this paragraph (6), from the beginning of the marketing year for such commodity next following the date of a new proclamation by the Secretary as provided in section 609 (a) of this title, if such marketing year begins prior to December 31, 1937 or prior to July 31, 1936, in the case of rice, and shall remain at such rate until altered or terminated pursuant to the provisions of section 609 or terminated pursuant to section 613 of this title.

(F) After December 31, 1937 (in the case of the commodities specified in paragraphs (2), (4); and (5) of this subsection), and after July 31, 1936 (in the case of rice), rates of tax shall be determined by the Secretary of Agriculture in accordance with the formulae, standards, and requirements prescribed in sections -601-608, 608a-608c, 608d-612, 613-619, 620, 623, 624 of this title, but not in this paragraph (6), and shall, subject to such formulae, standards, and requirements, thereafter be effective.

(G) If the applicability to any person or circumstances of any tax, the rate of which is fixed in pursuance of this paragraph (6), is finally held invalid by reason of any provision of the Constitution, or is finally held invalid by reason of the Secretary of Agriculture's exercise or failure to exercise any power conferred on him under sections 601-608, 608a-608c, 608d-612, 613-619, 620, 623, 624 of this title, there shall be levied, assessed, collected, and paid (in lieu of all rates of tax fixed in pursuance of this paragraph (6) with respect to all tax liabilities incurred under sections 601-608, 608a-608c, 6080-612, 613-619, 620, 623, 624 of this title on or after the effective date of each of the rates of tax fixed in pursuance of this paragraph (6), rates of tax fixed under paragraph (2), (3), (4), or (5), and such rates shall be in effect (unless the particular tax is terminated pursuant to proclamation, as provided in section 609 (a) of this title or pursuant to section 613 of this title) until altered by Act of Congress; except that, for any period prior to the effective date of such holding of invalidity, the amount of tax which represents the difference between the tax at the rate fixed in pursuance of this paragraph (6) and the tax at the rate fixed under paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) shall not be levied, assessed, collected or paid.

(7) In the case of rice, the weight to which the rate of tax shall be applied shall be the weight of rough rice when delivered to a processor, except that, where the producer processes his own rice, the weight to which the rate of tax shall be applied shall be the weight of rough rice when delivered to the place of processing.

(8) In the case of sugar beets or sugarcane the rate of tax shall be applied to the direct-consumption sugar, resulting from the first domestic processing, translated into terms of pounds of raw value according to regulations to be issued by the Secretary of Agriculture, and in the event that the Secretary increases or decreases the rate of tax fixed by paragraph (2) of this subsection, pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (6) of this subsection, then the rate of tax to be so applied shall be the higher of the two following quotients: The difference between the current average farm price and the fair exchange value (A) of a ton

of sugar beets and (B) of a ton of sugarcane, divided in the case of each commodity by the average extraction therefrom of sugar in terms of pounds of raw value (which average extraction shall be determined from available statistics of the Department of Agriculture); the rate of tax fixed by paragraph (2) of this subsection or adjusted pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (6) of this subsection shall in no event exceed the amount of the reduction by the President on a pound of sugar raw value of the rate of duty in effect on January 1, 1934, under paragraph 501 of section 1001 of Title 19, as adjusted to the treaty of commercial reciprocity concluded between the United States and the Republic of Cuba on December 11, 1902, and/or the provisions of sections 124 and 125 of Title 19.

(9) In computing the current average farm price in the case of wheat, premiums paid producers for protein content shall not be taken into account.

(c) For the purposes of sections 608, 608a-608c, 6080-612, 613619, 620, 623, 624 of this title, the fair exchange value of a commodity shall be the price therefor that will give the commodity the same purchasing power, with respect to articles farmers buy, as such commodity had during the base period specified in section 602 of this title; and, in the case of all commodities where the base period is the prewar period, August 1909 to July 1914, will also reflect interest payments per acre on farm indebtedness secured by real estate and tax payments per acre on farm real estate, as contrasted with such interest payments and tax payments during said base period; and the current average farm price and the fair exchange value shall be ascertained by the Secretary of Agriculture from available statistics of the Department of Agriculture. The rate of tax upon the processing of any commodity, in effect on the date on which this amendment is adopted, shall not be affected by the adoption of this amendment and shall no be required to be adjusted or altered, unless the Secretary of Agriculture finds that it is necessary to adjust or alter any such rate pursuant to section 609 (a) of this title.

(d) As used in sections 608, 608a-608c, 608d-612, 613-619, 620, 623, 624 of this title

(1) In case of wheat, rye, barley, rice, and corn, the term "processing" means the milling or other processing (except cleaning and drying) of wheat, rye, barley, rice, or corn for market, including custom milling for toll as well as commercial milling, but shall not include the grinding or cracking thereof not in the form of flour for feed purposes only.

(2) In case of cotton, the term "processing" means the spinning, manufacturing, or other processing (except ginning) of cotton; and the term "cotton” shall not include cotton linters.

(3) In case of tobacco, the term “processing” means the manufacturing or other processing (except drying or converting into insecticides and fertilizers) of tobacco.

(4) Repealed. (5) Repealed. (6) In the case of sugar beets and sugarcane(A) The term “first domestic processing" means each domes

tic processing, including each processing of successive domestic processings, of sugar beets, sugarcane, or raw sugar, which directly results in direct-consumption sugar.

(B) The term "sugar" means sugar in any form whatsoever, derived from sugar beets or sugarcane, whether raw sugar or direct-consumption sugar, including also edible molasses, sirups, and any mixture containing sugar (except blackstrap molasses and beet molasses).

(C) The term "blackstrap molasses” means the commercially so-designated “byproduct” of the cane-sugar industry, not used for human consumption or for the extraction of sugar.

(D) The term "beet molasses” means the commercially sodesignated “byproduct” of the beetsugar industry, not used for human consumption or for the extraction of sugar.

(E) The term "raw sugar" means any sugar, as defined above, manufactured or marketed in, or brought into the United States, in any form whatsoever, for the purpose of being, or which shall be, further refined (or improved in quality, or further prepared for distribution or use).

(F) The term "direct-consumption sugar" means any sugar, as defined above, manufactured or marketed in, or brought into, the United States in any form whatsoever, for any purpose other than to be further refined (or improved in quality, or further prepared for distribution or use).

(G) The term “raw value” means a standard unit of sugar testing ninety-six sugar degrees by the polariscope. All taxes shall be imposed and all quotas shall be established in terms of “raw value" and for purposes of quota and tax measurements all sugar shall be translated into terms of “raw value” according to regulations to be issued by the Secretary, except that in the case of direct-consumption sugar produced in continental United States from sugar beets the raw value of such sugar shall be one and seven one-hundredths times the weight thereof.

(7) In the case of rice

(A) The term "rough rice" means rice in that condition which is usual and customary when delivered by the producer to a processor.

(B) The term “processing" means the cleaning, shelling, milling (including custom milling for toll as well as commercial milling), grinding, rolling, or other processing (except grinding or cracking by or for the producer thereof for feed for his own livestock, cleaning by or directly for a producer for seed purposes, and drying) of rough rice; and in the case of rough rice with respect to which a taxpayment warrant has been previously issued or applied for by application then pending, the term “processing" means any one of the above mentioned processings or any preparation or handling in connection with the sale or other disposition thereof.

(C) The term "cooperating producer" means any person (including any share-tenant or share-cropper) whom the Secretary of Agriculture finds to be willing to participate in the 1935 production-adjustment program for rice.

(D) The term “processor”, as used in subsection (b-1) of

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