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case in which the chairman directs that such report shall be reviewed by the Board. It shall be the duty of the Board and of each division to include in its report upon any proceeding its findings of fact or opinion or memorandum opinion. The Board shall report in writing all its findings of fact, opinions, and memorandum opinions. A decision of the Board (except a decision dismissing a proceeding for lack of jurisdiction) shall be held to be rendered upon the date that an order specifying the amount of the refund, or that so refund is due, is entered in the records of the Board. If the Board dismisses a proceeding for lack of jurisdiction, an order to that effect shall be entered in the records of the Board and the decision of the Board shall be held to have been rendered upon the date of such entry.

(f) The Board is authorized to fix a fee, not in excess of the fee fixed by law to be charged and collected therefor by the clerks of the district courts, for comparing, or for preparing and comparing, a transcript of the record, or for copying any record, entry, or other paper and the comparison and certification thereof.

(g) A decision of the Board rendered after January 1, 1943, may be reviewed by a circuit court of appeals or the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, if a petition for such review is filed by either the claimant or the Commissioner within three months after the decision is rendered. Such decision may be reviewed by the circuit court of appeals for the circuit in which the claimant resides, or has his principal place of business, or, if none, by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia: Provided, however, that in any event such decision may be reviewed by any circuit court of appeals or the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia which may be designated by the Commissioner and the claimant by stipulation in writing. Such courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction to affirm the decision of the Board, or to modify or reverse such decision, if it is not in accordance with law, with or without demanding the cause for a rehearing as justice may require. The judgments of such courts shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certification or certiorari as provided in sections 346 and 347 of Title 28 as amended. Such courts are authorized to adopt rules for the filing of petitions for review, preparation of the record for review, and the conduct of the proceedings on review. A decision of the Board rendered after January 1, 1943 shall become final in the same manner that decisions of the Board become final under section 1140 of the Internal Revenue Code. (June 22, 1936, 9:00 p. m., ch. 690, § 906, 49 Stat. 1748; Oct. 21, 1942, 4:30 p. m., E. W. T., ch. 619, title V, $ 510 (b), (f) (1), (g-j), 56 Stat. 967.)

EFFECTIVE DATE The amendments to this section by act Oct. 21, 1942, cited to text, were made effective Jan. 1, 1943, by section 510 (1) thereof.

TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS Section 510 (a), (c) and (d) of act Oct. 21, 1942, cited to text, provided as follows:

"(a) Effective as of the close of business on December 31, 1942, the Board of Review, established under section 906 (b) of the Revenue Act of 1936 (subsection (b) of this section), is hereby abolished and the jurisdiction vested in said Board of Review is hereby transferred to and vested in the Board of Tax Appeals.

"(c) All proceedings pending in the said Board of Review on December 31, 1942, shall be deemed pending in and be transferred forthwith to the Board of Tax Appeals, and shall be proceeded with and disposed of by the Board of Tax Appeals as if originally begun therein.

"(d) All journals, dockets, books, files, records, and property, including office equipment of the said Board of Review, shall be transferred to the Board of Tax Appeals."

FILING OF PETITION Section 510 (f) (2) of act Oct. 21, 1942, cited to text, provided as follows: “(2) The amendment made by this subsection (to subsection (c) of this section), insofar as applicable to the date for filing the petition, shall not apply if the Commissioner has prior to January 1, 1943, mailed notice by registered mail that the claim for refund has been disallowed in whole or in part.”

SAVING CLAUSE Section 510 (k) of act Oct. 21, 1942, cited to text, provided as follows: "(k) Section 906 (g) of the Revenue Act of 1936 (subsection (g) of this section), as in effect prior to the date of enactment of the Revenue Act of 1942 (Oct. 21, 1942, 4:30 p. m., E. W. T.), shall remain in effect as to petitions to review decisions of the Board of Review rendered prior to January 1, 1943, but shall not, if any case involving any such petition is remanded for further proceedings in the Board of Tax Appeals, remain in effect with respect to any further proceedings in such case.

§ 649. Evidence and presumptions—(a) Tax burden, by whom borne.—Where the refund claimed is for an amount paid or collected as processing tax, as defined herein, it shall be prima-facie evidence that the burden of such amount was borne by the claimant to the extent (not to exceed the amount of the tax) that the average margin per unit of the commodity processed was lower during the tax period than the average margin was during the period before and after the tax. If the average margin during the tax period was not lower, it shall be prima-facie evidence that none of the burden of such amount was borne by the claimant but that it was shifted to others.

(b) Average margin for tax period; computation. The average margin for the tax period and the average margin for the period before and after the tax shall each be determined as follows:

(1) Tax period.—The average margin for the tax period shall be the average of the margins for all months (or portions of months) within the tax period. The margin for each such month shall be computed as follows: From the gross sales value of all articles processed by the claimant from the commodity during such month, deduct the cost of the commodity processed during the month and deduct the processing tax paid with respect thereto. The sum so ascertained shall be divided by the total number of units of the commodity processed during such month, and the resulting figure shall be the margin for the month.

(2) Period before and after the tax.—The average margin for the period before and after the tax shall be the average of the margins for all months (or portions of months) within the period before and after the tax. The margin for each such month shall be computed as follows: From the gross sales value of all articles

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processed by the claimant from the commodity during such month, deduct the cost of the commodity processed during the month. The sum so ascertained shall be divided by the number of units of the commodity processed during such month, and the resulting figure shall be the margin for the month.

(3) Ascertainment of average margin.—The average margin for each period shall be ascertained in the same manner as monthly margins under subdivisions (1) and (2); using total gross sales value, total cost of commodity processed, total processing tax paid, and total units of commodity processed, during such period.

(4) Combination of commodities.-Where, as, for example, in the case of certain types of tobacco, the articles produced and sold by the claimant are the product of several commodities combined by him during processing, the average margin shall be established with respect to such commodities as a group, and not individually, in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by the Commissioner, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.

(5) Cost of commodity.—The cost of commodity processed during each month shall be (a) the actual cost of the commodity processed if the accounting procedure of the claimant is based thereon, or (b) the product computed by multiplying the quantity of the commodity processed by the current prices at the time of processing for commodities of like quality and grade in the markets where the claimant customarily makes his purchases.

(6) Gross sales value of articles. The gross sales value of articles shall mean (a) the total of the quantity of each article derived from the commodity processed by the claimant during each month multiplied by (b) the claimant's sale prices current at the time of processing for articles of similar grade and quality.

(7) Quantity of article.-The quantity of each article derived from the commodity processed may be either (a) the actual quantity obtained, as shown by the records of the claimant, or (b) an estimated quantity computed by multiplying the quantity of commodity processed by appropriate conversion factors giving the quantity of articles customarily obtained from the processing of each unit of the commodity.

(c) Tax period.—The "tax period” shall mean the period with respect to which the claimant actually paid the processing tax to a collector of internal revenue and shall end on the date with respect to which the last payment was made. The "period before and after the tax” shall mean the twenty-four months (except that in the case of tobacco it shall be the twelve months) immediately preceding the effective date of the processing tax, and the six months, February to July, 1936, inclusive. If during any part of such period the claimant was not in business, or if his records for any part of such period are so inadequate as not to provide satisfactory data on prices paid for commodities purchased or prices received for articles sold, the average prices paid or received by representative concerns engaged in a similar business and similarly circumstanced may with the approval of the Commissioner, where necessary for a fair comparison, be substituted

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in making the necessary computations. If the claimant was not in business during the entire period before and after the tax, the average margin, during such period, of representative concerns engaged in a similar business and similarly circumstanced, as determined by the Commissioner, shall be used as his average margin for such period.

(d) Purchase or sale price, determination. If the claimant made any purchase or sale otherwise than through an arm'slength transaction, and at a price other than the fair market price, the Commissioner may determine the purchase or sale price to be that for which such purchases or sales were at that time made in the ordinary course of trade.

(e) Rebuttal of presumption as to tax burden. Either the claimant or the Commissioner may rebut the presumption established by subsection (a) of this section by proof of the actual extent to which the claimant shifted to others the burden of the processing tax. Such proof may include, but shall not be limited to

(1) Proof that the difference or lack of difference between the average margin for the tax period and the average margin for the period before and after the tax was due to changes in factors other than the tax. Such factors shall include any clearly shown change (A) in the type or grade of article or commodity, or (B) in costs of production. If the claimant asserts that the burden of the tax was borne by him and the burden of any other increased costs was shifted to others, the Commissioner shall determine from the effective dates of the imposition or termination of the tax and the effective date of other changes in costs as compared with the date of the changes in margin (when margins are computed for weeks, months, or other intervals between July 1, 1931, and August, 1936, in the manner specified in subsection (b)), and from the general experience of the industry, whether the tax or the increase in other costs was shifted to others. If the Commissioner determines that the difference in average margin was due in part to the tax and in part to the increase in other costs, he shall apportion the change in margin between them;

(2) Proof that the claimant modified existing contracts of sale, or adopted a new form of contract of sale, to reflect the initiation, termination, or change in amount of the processing tax, or at any such time changed the sale price of the article (including the effect of a change in size, package, discount terms, or any other merchandising practice) by substantially the amount of the tax or change therein, or at any time billed the tax as a separate item to any vendee, or indicated by any writing that the sale price included the amount of the tax, or contracted to refund any part of the sale price in the event of recovery of the tax or decision of its invalidity ; but the claimant may establish that such acts were caused by factors other than the processing tax, or that they do not represent his practice at other times. If the claimant processed any product in addition to the commodity with respect to the processing of which there was paid or collected an amount as tax for which he claims a refund, and if the Commissioner has reason to believe that the burden of such amount was shifted in whole or

in part by means of the transactions relating to such product, the average margin with respect to such product, and articles processed therefrom, shall also be considered, and shall be determined for the tax period applicable to the commodity and for the period before and after the tax in the manner prescribed in subsection (b) of this section. To the extent the Commissioner determines that the average margin with respect to such product was higher during the tax period than it was during the period before and after the tax, it shall be prima-facie evidence that such amount was not borne by the claimant but that it was shifted to others. (June 22, 1936, 9:00 p. m., ch. 690, $ 907, 49 Stat. 1751.)

CROSS REFERENCE Appropriations for refunds, etc., see note preceding section 641 of this title.

§ 650. Limitations on allowance of claims and interest.- (a) No claim shall be allowed under sections 644-659 of this title in an amount less than $10.

(b) No interest shall be allowed by the Commissioner or by any court with respect to any amount paid or collected as tax under sections 601-608, 608a-608c, 608d-612, 613-619, 620, 623, 624 of this title, except with respect to amounts, refund of which is made or allowed under sections 644-659 of this title. (June 22, 1932, 9:00 p. m., ch. 690, § 908, 49 Stat. 1753.)

CROSS REFERENCE Appropriations for refunds, etc., see note preceding section 641 of this title.

8 651. Limitations on review.-In the absence of fraud or mistake in mathematical calculation, the findings of fact and conclusions of law of the Commissioner upon the merits of any claim presented under sections 644-659 of this title shall not be subject to review by any other administrative or accounting officer, employee, or agent of the United States. (June 22, 1936, 9:00 p. m., ch. 690, § 909, 49 Stat. 1753.)

CROSS REFERENCE Appropriations for refunds, etc., see note preceding section 641 of this title.

8 652. Liability of collectors.-No collector of internal revenue or customs, or internal revenue or customs officer or employee, shall be in any way liable to any person for any act done by him in the assessment or collection of any amount as tax under sections 601-608, 608a-608c, 6080-612, 613-619, 620, 623, 624 of this title, or for the recovery of any money exacted by or paid to him and paid into the Treasury, in performance of his official duties under the provisions of such sections, or if such collector or officer acted under the direction of the Secretary or other proper officer of the Government. (June 22, 1936, 9:00 p. m., ch. 690, § 910, 49 Stat. 1753.)

CROSS REFERENCE Appropriations for refunds, etc., see note preceding section 641 of this

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