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from engaging in any political activity (1) in connection with any election and the preceding campaign if none of the candidates is to be nominated or elected at such election as representing a party any of whose candidates for presidential elector received votes in the last preceding election at which presidential electors were selected, or (2) in connection with any question which is not specifically identified with any National or State political party. For the purposes of this section, questions relating to constitutional amendments, referendums, approval of municipal ordinances, and others of a similar character, shall not be deemed to be specifically identified with any National or State political party. (Aug. 2, 1939, ch. 410, $ 18, as added July 19, 1940, ch. 640, § 4, 54 Stat. 767.)

OFFENSES AGAINST OPERATIONS OF GOVERNMENT

§ 61s. State defined. As used in this subchapter, the term "State” means any State, Territory, or possession of the United States. (Aug. 2, 1939, ch. 410, $ 19, as added July 19, 1940, ch. 640, § 4, 54 Stat. 767.)

§ 61t. Maximum contributions to and expenditures by political committees; penalties.—No political committee shall receive contributions aggregating more than $3,000,000, or make expenditures aggregating more than $3,000,000, during any calendar year. For the purposes of this section, any contributions received and any expenditures made on behalf of any political committee with the knowledge and consent of the chairman or treasurer of such committee shall be deemed to be received or made by such committee. Any violation of this section by any political committee shall be deemed also to be a violation of this section by the chairman and the treasurer of such committee and by any other person responsible for such violation. Terms used in this section shall have the meaning assigned to them in section 241 of Title 2, and the penalties provided in sections 241-256 of Title 2 shall apply to violations of this section. (Aug. 2, 1939, ch. 410, $ 20, as added July 19, 1940, ch. 640, $ 6, 54 Stat. 772.)

§ 61u. Activities of emloyees of educational and research institutions, etc.—Nothing in sections 61a, 61h (a) or 61h (b), or 611 of this title shall be deemed to prohibit or to make unlawful the doing of any act by any officer or employee of any educational or research institution, establishment, agency, or system which is supported in whole or in part by any State or political subdivision thereof, or by the District of Columbia or by any Territory or Territorial possession of the United States; or by any recognized religious, philanthropic, or cultural organization. (Aug. 2, 1939, ch. 410, § 21, added October 24, 1942, ch. 620, 56 Stat. 986.)

§ 72. (Criminal Code, section 28.) Making, forging, counterfeiting, or altering bonds, bids, or public records; transmitting such papers. Whoever shall falsely make, alter, forge, or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be falsely made, altered, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly aid or assist in the false making altering, forging, or counterfeiting, any bond, bid, proposal, contract,

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guarantee, security, official bond, public record, affidavit, or other writing for the purpose of defrauding the United States; or shall utter or publish as true, or cause to be uttered or published as true, or have in his possession with the intent to utter or publish as true, and such false, forged, altered, or counterfeited bond, bid, proposal, contract, guarantee, security, official bond, public record, affidavit, or other writing, for the purpose of defrauding the United States, knowing the same to be false, forged, altered, or counterfeited; or shall transmit to, or present at, or cause or procure to be transmitted to or presented at, the office of any officer of the United States, any such false, forged, altered, or counterfeited bond, bid, proposal, contract, guarantee, security, official bond, public record, affidavit, or other writing, knowing the same to be false, forged, altered, or counterfeited, for the purpose of defrauding the United States, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both. Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 28, 35 Stat. 1094.)

DERIVATION R. S. $ 5418, which was revised from act Apr. 5, 1866, ch. 24, 14 Stat. 12 and repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 341, 35 Stat. 1153.

R. S. § 5479, which was revised from act June 8, 1872, ch, 335, 17 Stat. 294, R. S. § 5479 was amended by act Feb. 27, 1877, ch. 69, 19 Stat. 253 and repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 341, 35 Stat. 1153.

$ 73. (Criminal Code, section 29.) Making, forging, counterfeiting, or altering deeds or powers of attorneys; transmitting such papers.—Whoever shall falsely make, alter, forge, or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be falsely made, altered, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly aid or assist in the false making, altering, forging, or counterfeiting, any deed, power of attorney, order, certificate, receipt, contract, or other writing, for the purpose of obtaining or receiving, or of enabling any other person, either directly or indirectly, to obtain or receive, from the United States, or any of their officers or agents, any sum of money; or whoever shall utter or publish as true, or cause to be uttered or published as true, any such false, forged, altered, or counterfeited deed, power of attorney, order, certificate, receipt, contract, or other writing, with intent to defraud the United States, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeited; or whoever shall transmit to or present at, or cause or procure to be transmitted to or presented at, any office or officer of the Government of the United States, any deed, power of attorney, order, certificate, receipt, contract, or other writing, in support of or in relation to any account or claim, with intent to defraud the United States, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeited, shall be fined not more than $1,000 and imprisoned not more than ten years. (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 29, 35 Stat. 1094.)

DERIVATION R. S. § 5421, which was revised from act Mar. 3, 1823, ch. 38, 3 Stat. 771, and repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 341, 35 Stat. 1153.

$ 74. (Criminal Code, section 30.) Possession of false papers.Whoever, knowingly and with intent to defraud the United States, shall have in his posssesion any false, altered, forged, or counter

feited deed, power or attorney, order, certificate, receipt, contract, or other writing, for the purpose of enabling another to obtain from the United States, or from any officer or agent thereof, any sum of money, shall be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (Mar, 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 30, 35 Stat. 1094.)

DERIVATION R. S. § 5422, which was revised from act Mar. 3, 1823, ch, 38, 3 Stat. 772, and repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 341, 35 Stat. 1153.

§ 75. (Criminal Code, section 31.) Officer making false acknowledgments.—Whoever, being an officer authorized to administer oaths or to take and certify acknowledgments, shall knowingly make any false acknowledgment, certificate, or statement concerning the appearance before him or the taking of an oath or affirmation by any person with respect to any proposal, contract, bond, undertaking, or other matter submitted to, made with, or taken on behalf of the United States, and concerning which an oath or affirmation is required by law or regulation made in pursuance of law, or with respect to the financial standing of any principal, surety, or other party to any such proposal, contract, bond, undertaking, or other instrument, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 31, 35 Stat. 1094.)

§ 76. (Criminal Code, section 32.) Falsely pretending to be United States officer.—Whoever, with intent to defraud either the United States or any person, shall falsely assume or pretend to be an officer or employee acting under the authority of the United States, or any department, or any officer of the Government thereof, or under the authority of any corporation owned or controlled by the United States, and shall take upon himself to act as such, or shall in such pretended character demand or obtain from any person or from the United States, or any department, or any officer of the Government thereof, or any corporation owned or controlled by the United States, any money, paper, document, or other valuable thing, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. (Apr. 18, 1884, ch. 26, 23 Stat. 11; Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 32, 35 Stat. 1095; Feb. 28, 1938, ch. 37, 52 Stat. 83.)

DERIVATION Act Apr. 18, 1884, ch. 26, 23 Stat. 11, which was repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 341, 35 Stat. 1153.

876a. Prohibition of reproduction of official badges, identification cards, and other insignia.—Hereafter the manufacture, sale, or possession of any badge, identification card, or other insignia, of the design prescribed by the head of any department or independent office of the United States for use by any officer or subordinate thereof, or of any colorable imitation thereof, or the photographing, printing, or in any other manner making or executing any engraving, photograph, print, or impression in the likeness of any such badge, identification card, or other insignia, or of any colorable imitation thereof, is prohibited,

except when and as authorized under such regulations as may be prescribed by the head of the department or independent office of which such insignia indicates the wearer is an officer or subordinate. (June 29, 1932, ch. 306, § 1, 47 Stat. 342; May 22, 1939, ch. 141, 53 Stat. 752.)

§ 76b. Same; punishment. Any person who offends against the provisions of section 76a of this title shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine not exceeding $250 or by imprisonment for not exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment. (June 29, 1932, ch. 306, § 2, 47 Stat. 342.)

8 76c. Falsely pretending to be member or agent of 4-H clubs; fraudulent use of insignia or emblems. It shall be unlawful for any person falsely and with intent to defraud to hold himself out as or represent or pretent himself to be a member of, asso ciated with, or an agent or representative for the 4-H clubs, an organization established by the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture and the land grant colleges, for any purpose whatsoever; or for any person with intent to defraud to wear or display the sign or emblem of said 4-H clubs or any insignia in colorable imitation thereof for the purpose of inducing the belief that he is a member of, associated with, or an agent or respesentative for said 4-H clubs. It shall be unlawful for any person other than said 4-H clubs and those duly authorized by them, the representatives of the United States Department of Agriculture, the land grant colleges, and persons authorized by the Secretary of Agriculture, to use within the territory of the United States of America and its exterior possessions, for the purpose of trade or as an advertisement to induce the sale of any article whatsoever or for any business or charitable purpose, the recognized emblem of said 4-H clubs, consisting of a green four-leaf clover with stem and the letter H in white or gold on each leaflet, or any sign, insignia, or symbol in colorable imitation thereof, or the words "4-H Club" or "4-H Clubs" or any combination of these or other words or characters in colorful imitation thereof. If any person violates any provision of sections 76a-76d of this title, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $300 or imprisoned not more than six months, or both, for each and every offense. (June 5, 1939, ch. 184, § 1, 53 Stat. 809.)

§ 76d. Same; “person” defined.—The term “person" includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. (June 5, 1939, ch. 184, § 2, 53 Stat. 809.)

§ 77a. Impersonating officer, agent or employee of United States and making arrest or search.-Whoever not being an officer, agent, employee of the United States shall falsely represent himself to be such officer, agent, or employee, and in such assumed character shall arrest or detain any person or shall in any manner search the person, buildings, or other property of any person, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or by both

such fine and imprisonment. (Aug. 27, 1935, ch. 740, § 20, 49 Stat. 877.)

$ 78. Criminal Code, section 33.) False personation of holder of public stocks or pensioner. Whoever shall falsely personate any true and lawful holder of any share or sum in the public stocks or debt of the United States, or any person entitled to any annuity, dividend, pension, prize money, wages, or other debt due from the United States, and, under color of such false personation, shall transfer or endeavor to transfer such public stock or any part thereof, or shall receive or endeavor to receive the money of such true and lawful holder thereof, or the money of any person really entitled

entitled to receive such annuity, dividend, pension, prize money, wages, or other debt, shall be fined not more than $5,000 and imprisoned not more than ten years. (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 33, 35 Stat. 1095.)

DERIVATION R. S. § 5435, which was revised from act Mar. 3, 1825, ch, 65, 4 Stat. 120, and repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 341, 35 Stat. 1153.

§ 79. (Criminal Code, section 34.) False demand on fradulent power of attorney-Whoever shall knowingly or fraudulently demand or endeavor to obtain any share or sum in the public stocks of the United States, or to have any part thereof transferred, assigned, sold, or conveyed, or to have any annuity, dividend, pension, prize money, wages, or other debt due from the United States, or any part thereof, received, or paid by virtue of any false, forged, or counterfeited power of attorney, authority, or instrument, shall be fined not more than $5,000 and imprisoned not more than ten years. (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 34, 35 Stat. 1095.)

DERIVATION R. S. § 5436, which was revised from act Mar. 3, 1825, ch. 65, 4 Stat. 120, and repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 341, 35 Stat. 1153.

§ 80. (Criminal Code, section 35 (A).) Presenting false claims. -Whoever shall make or cause to be made or present or cause to be presented, for payment or approval, to or by any person or officer in the civil, military, or naval service of the United States, or any department thereof, or any corporation in which the United States of America is a stockholder, any claim upon or against the Government of the United States, or any department or officer thereof, or any corporation in which the United States of America is a stockholder, knowing such claim to be false, fictitious, or fraudulent; or whoever shall knowingly and willfully falsify or conceal or cover up by any trick, scheme, or device a material fact, or make or cause to be made any false or fraudulent statements or representations, or make or use or cause to be made or used any false bill, receipt, voucher, roll, account, claim, certificate, affidavit, or deposition, knowing the same to contain any fraudulent or fictitious statement or entry in any matter within the jurisdiction of any department or agency of the United States or of any corporation in which the United States of America is a stockholder, shall be fined not more than

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