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§ 357. (Criminal Code, section 227.) Fraudulent use of official envelopes.-Whoever shall make use of any official envelope, label, or indorsement authorized by law, to avoid the payment of postage or registry fee on his private letter, packet, package, or other matter in the mail, shall be fined not more than $300. (Mar. 4, 1909, ch, 321, § 227, 35 Stat. 1134.)

DERIVATION Acts Mar. 3, 1877, ch. 103, § 5, 19 Stat. 335; Mar. 3, 1879, ch. 180, § 29, 20 Stat. 362, as amended by acts July 5, 1884, ch. 234, § 3, 23 Stat. 158; July 2, 1886, ch. 611, 24 Stat. 122.

OFFENSES AGAINST FOREIGN AND INTERSTATE COMMERCE

§ 396a. Transportation or importation of convict-made goods; prohibition; penalty; exceptions.—Whoever shall knowingly transport or knowingly cause to be transported in interstate commerce, in any manner or by any means whatsoever, or aid or assist, knowingly, in obtaining transportation for or in transporting any goods, wares, and merchandise manufactured, produced, or mined, wholly or in part by convicts or prisoners (except convicts or prisoners on parole or probation) or in any penal or reformatory institution, from one State, Territory, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, or District of the United States, or place noncontiguous but subject to the jurisdiction thereof, or from any foreign country, into any State, Territory, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, or District of the United States, or place noncontiguous but subject to the jurisdiction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $1,000 or by imprisonment of not more than one year, or both: Provided, That nothing herein shall apply to commodities manufactured in Federal or District of Columbia penal and correctional institutions for use by the Federal Government or the District of Columbia Government or to commodities manufactured in any State penal or correctional institution for use by any other State, or States, or political subdivisions thereof; to parts for the repair of farm machinery; or to agricultural commodities: Provided further, That this section shall go into effect one year after its approval by the President. (Oct. 14, 1940, ch. 872, 54 Stat. 1134; July 9, 1941, ch. 283, 55 Stat. 581.)

$ 396b. Transportation or importation of convict-made goods with intent to use in violation of local law; prohibition; exceptions. It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly to transport or cause to be transported, in any manner or by any means whatsoever, or aid or assist in obtaining transportation for or in transporting any goods, wares, and merchandise manufactured, produced, or mined wholly or in part by convicts or prisoners (except convicts or prisoners on parole or probation), or in any penal or reformatory institution, from one State, Territory, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, or District of the United States, or place noncontiguous but subject to the jurisdiction thereof, or from any foreign country, into any State, Territory, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, or District of the United States, or place noncontiguous but subject to the jurisdiction thereof, where said

goods, wares, and merchandise are intended by any person interested therein to be received, possessed, sold, or in any manner used, either in the original package or otherwise in violation of any law of such State, Territory, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, or District of the United States, or place noncontiguous but subject to the jurisdiction thereof. Nothing herein shall apply to commodities manufactured in Federal penal and correctional institutions for use by the Federal Government. (July 24, 1935, ch. 412, $ 1,49 Stat. 494.)

§ 396c. Same; marking packages.-All packages containing any goods, wares, and merchandise manufactured, produced, or mined wholly or in part by convicts or prisoners, except convicts or prisoners on parole or probation, or in any penal or reformatory institution, when shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce shall be plainly and clearly marked, so that the name and address of the shipper, the name and address of the consignee, the nature of the contents, and the name and location of the penal or reformatory institution where produced wholly or in part may be readily ascertained on an inspection of the outside of such package. (July 24, 1935, ch. 412, $ 2, 49 Stat. 494.)

§ 396d. Same; penalties for violation.—Any person violating any provision of sections 61 and 62 of this title shall for each offense, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $1,000, and such goods, wares, and merchandise shall be forfeited to the United States, and may be seized and condemned by like proceedings as those provided by law for the seizure and forfeiture of property imported into the United States contrary to law. (July 24, 1935, ch. 412, § 3, 49 Stat. 495.)

§ 396e. Same; jurisdiction of violations.—Any violation of sections 61 and 62 of this title shall be prosecuted in any court having jurisdiction of crime within the district in which said violation was committed, or from, or into which any such goods, wares, or merchandise may have been carried or transported, or in any Territory, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, or the District of Columbia, contrary to the provisions of said sections. (July 24, 1935, ch. 412, § 4, 49 Stat. 495.)

OFFENSES WITHIN ADMIRALTY, MARITIME AND TERRITORIAL

JURISDICTION OF UNITED STATES

§ 468. (Criminal Code, section 289.) Laws of States adopted for punishing wrongful acts; effect of repeal.—Whoever, within the territorial limits of any State, organized Territory, or district, but within or upon any of the places now existing or hereafter reserved or acquired, described in section 451 of this title, shall do or omit the doing of any act or thing which is not made penal by any laws of Congress, but which if committed or omitted within the jurisdiction of the State, Territory, or district in which such place is situated, by the laws thereof in force on February 1, 1940, and remaining in force at the time of the doing or omitting the doing of such act or thing, would be penal, shall be deemed guilty of a like offense and be subject to a like punish

ment. (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 289, 35 Stat. 1145; June 15, 1933, ch. 85, 48 Stat. 152; June 20, 1935, ch. 284, 49 Stat. 394; June 6, 1940, ch. 241, 54 Stat. 234.)

DERIVATION R. S. § 5391, which was revised from acts Apr. 5, 1866, ch. 24, 14 Stat. 13; Mar. 3, 1825, ch. 65, 4 Stat. 115; and act July 7, 1898, ch. 576, § 2, 30 Stat. 717, which were repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 341, 35 Stat. 1153.

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE GENERAL PROVISIONS 8 576a. Same; appeals; rules of procedure and practice. In all cases of conviction by United States commissioners an appeal shall lie from the judgment of the commissioner to the district court of the United States for the district in which the offense was committed. The Supreme Court shall prescribe rules of procedure and practice for the trial of cases before commissioners and for taking and hearing of appeals to the said district courts of the United States. (Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 785, § 2, 54 Stat. 1059.)

$ 576b. Same; fees of commissioners.—United States commissioners specially designated under authority of section 576 of this title shall receive for services rendered under sections 576576d of this title the same fees, and none other, as provided for like or similar services in other cases under section 597 of Title 28. (Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 785, § 3, 54 Stat. 1059.)

§ 576c. Same; existing powers of commissioners unaffected.Sections 576-576d of this title shall not be construed as in any way repealing or limiting the existing jurisdiction, power, or authority of United States commissioners, including United States commissioners appointed for the several national parks and the United States commissioners in Alaska. (Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 785, § 4, 54 Stat. 1059.)

576d. Same; inapplicability of sections 576-576c to District of Columbia. The provisions of sections 576-576d of this title shall not apply to the District of Columbia. (Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 785, § 5, 54 Stat. 1059.)

LIMITATIONS 8 582. Offenses not capital.—No person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for any offense, not capital, except as provided in section 584 of this title, unless the indictment is found, or the information is instituted, within three years next after such offense shall have been committed. (R. S. § 1044; Apr. 13, 1876, ch. 56, 19 Stat. 32; Nov. 17, 1921, ch. 124, § 1, 42 Stat. 220; Dec. 27, 1927, ch. 6, 45 Stat. 51.)

CODIFICATION This section constitutes the first clause of R. S. § 1044 as amended by act December 27, 1927, cited to text. The remainder of R. S. § 1044, as amended, constituted a proviso that nothing therein contained "shall apply to any offense for which an indictment has been heretofore found or an information instituted, or to any proceedings under any such indictment or information."

DERIVATION Act Apr. 30, 1790, ch. 9, § 32, 1 Stat. 119.

650673°-464-56

8 590a. Suspension of limitations on offenses involving the defrauding of the United States. The running of any existing statute of limitations applicable to any offense against the laws of the United States (1) involving defrauding or attempts to defraud the United States or any agency thereof whether by conspiracy or not, and in any manner, or (2) committed in connection with the negotiation, procurement, award, performance, payment for, interim financing, cancelation or other termination or settlement, of any contract, subcontract, or purchase order which is connected with or related to the prosecution of the present war, or with any disposition of termination inventory by any war contractor or Government agency, or (3) committed in connection with the care and handling and disposal of property under sections 1611-1646 of Appendix to Title 50, shall be suspended until three years after the termination of hostilities in the present war as proclaimed by the President or by a concurrent resolution of the two Houses of Congress. This section shall apply to acts, offenses, or transactions where the existing statute of limitations has not yet fully run, but it shall not apply to acts, offenses, or transactions which are already barred by provisions of existing law. (Aug. 24, 1942, ch. 555, § 1, 56 Stat. 747, as amended July 1, 1944, ch. 358, § 19 (b), 58 Stat. 667; Oct. 3, 1944, ch. 479, § 28, 58 Stat. 781.)

EFFECTIVE DATE Section 24 (a) of act July 1, 1944, cited to text, provided in part that said Act should become effective twenty days after the date of its enactment.

Section 2 of act Aug. 24, 1942, cited to text, provided that this section should be in force and effect from and after date of its passage, which was Aug. 24, 1942.

UNITED STATES PRISONS IN GENERAL

§ 744b. Employment of convicts; employment on public works; camps for confinement of convicts; expenses, how met.—The Attorney General may make available the services of United States prisoners to the heads of the several departments under such terms, conditions, and at such rates as may be mutually agreed upon, for the purpose of constructing or repairing roads the cost of which is borne exclusively by the United States; clearing, maintaining, and reforesting public lands; building levees; and for construction or repairing any other public ways or works which are or may be financed wholly or in major part by funds appropriated from the Treasury of the Unted States. To carry out the purpose of this section the Attorney General may establish, equip, and maintain camps upon sites selected by him and designate such camps as a place for confinement of persons convicted of an offense against the laws of the United States, or transfer thereto any person convicted of any offense against the laws of the United States. The expenses of transferring and maintaining prisoners at such camps shall be paid from the appropropriation “Support of United States prisoners”, and said appra priation may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, be reimbursed for such expenses. (May 27, 1930, ch. 340, § 2, 46 Stat. 391.)

§ 744c. Same; establishment of industries; disposition of articles produced; forms of employment; locality of industries.—The Attorney General shall establish such industries as will produce articles and commodities for consumption in United States penal and correctional institutions or for sale to the departments and independent establishments of the Federal Government and not for sale to the public in competition with private enterprise: Provided, That any industry established under authority of this section be so operated as not to curtail the production within its present limits, of any existing arsenal, navy yard, or other Government workshop. In establishing said industries the Attorney General shall provide such forms of employement in the Federal penal and correctional institutions as will give the inmates a maximum opportunity to acquire a knowledge and skill in trades and occupations which will provide them with a means of earning a livelihood upon release. The industries to be established by the Attorney General under authority of this section may be either within the precincts of any penal or correctional institution or in any convenient locality where an existing property may be obtained by lease, purchase, or otherwise. (May 27, 1930, ch. 340, § 3, 46 Stat. 391.)

CROSS REFERENCE Diversification of prison industrial operations so that no single private industry shall be forced to bear an undue burden of resulting competition. see section 744k of this title.

§ 744g. Same; purchase of prison-made products by Federal departments; terms of purchase.—The several Federal departments and independent establishments and all other Government institutions of the United States shall purchase at not to exceed current market prices, such products of the industries herein authorized to be carried on as meet their requirements and as may be available and are authorized by the appropriations from which such purchases are made. Any disputes as to the price, quality, suitability or character of the products manufactured in any prison industry and offered to any Government department shall be arbitrated by a board consisting of the Comptroller General of the United States, the Superintendent of Supplies of the General Supply Committee, and the Chief of the United States Bureau of Efficiency, or their representatives. The decision of said board shall be final and binding upon all parties. (May 27, 1930, ch. 340, $ 7, 46 Stat. 392.)

BUREAU AND COMMITTEE ABOLISHED Bureau of Efficiency was abolished by act Mar. 3, 1933, ch. 212, § 17, 47 Stat. 1519.

PRISON CAMPS 8 851. Establishment of camps; transfer of prisoners.—The Attorney General is hereby authorized to establish, equip, maintain, and operate prison camps upon sites selected by the Attorney General, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of the Interior. Upon written order of the Attorney General persons convicted under the laws of the United States may be transferred to such prison camps for employment upon road or trail building, the cost of which is borne exclusively by

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