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following may be relied on :--About the year 1730, Mr. James Colebrooke (from whom the present baronet is descended), a very wealthy man and a banker, had a shop nearly adjoining to the Antwerp tavern, behind the Royal Exchange. Opposite thereto, and against the wall of the church of St. Bennet Fink, was a spring of water with a pump, from which a porter, employed to open, and also to water and sweep the shop, every morning duly at eight o'clock, fetched water in such a tankard as is above described. There were also women whose employment it was to carry water from the conduit in pails, a more commodious vessel for a woman's use than a tankard : this may be inferred from Lamb's gift, before mentioned, to poor women, of 120 pails to carry water.
It is painful to reflect that the individual who first stepped forward to render so essential a service to the metropolis as a cheap and abundant supply of water should have been ruined in the enterprise; yet such was the case with Sir Hugh Middleton, who, in projecting and finishing the New River, reaped no other reward than an impoverished fortune and an empty title.
“During the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James I. acts of Parliament had been obtained for the better supplying of the metropolis with water: but the enterprise seemed too great for any individual, or even for the city collectively, to venture upon, until Mr. Hugh Middleton, a native of Denbigh, and goldsmith of London, offered to begin the work. The court of Common Council accepted his offer; and having vested him with ample powers, this gentleman, with a spirit equal to the importance of the undertaking, at his own risk and charge began the work. He had not proceeded far when innumerable and unforeseen difficulties presented themselves. The art of civil engineering was then little understood in this country, and he experienced many obstructions from the occupiers and proprietors of the lands, through which he was under the necessity of conducting this stream.”
The distance of the springs of Amwell and Chadwell,
whence the water was to be brought, is twenty miles from London ; but it was found necessary, in order to avoid the eminences and valleys in the way, to make it run a course of more than thirty-eight miles. “The depth of the trench,' says Stowe, “in some places, descended full thirty feet, if not more; whereas, in other places, it required as sprightfull arte againe to mount it over a valley, in a trough betweene a couple of bills, and the trough all the while borne up by woodden arches, some of them fixed in the ground very deepe, and rising in height above twenty-three foot."
The industrious projector soon found himself so harassed and impeded by interested persons in Middlesex and in Hertfordshire, that he was obliged to solicit a prolongation of the time, to accomplish his undertaking. This the city granted, but they refused to interest themselves in this great and useful work, although Mr. Middleton was quite impoverished by it. He then applied, with more success, to the king himself, who, upon a moiety of the concern being made over to him, agreed to pay half the expense of the work already incurred, as well as of the future. It now went on without interruption, and was finished according to Mr. Middleton's original agreement with the city; when, on the 29th of September, 1613, the water was let into the basin, now called the New River Head, which was prepared for its reception.
By an exact admeasurement of the course of the New River, taken in 1723, it appeared to be nearly thirtynine miles in length ; it has between two and three hundred bridges over it, and upwards of forty sluices in its course; and in divers parts, both over and under the same, considerable currents of land waters, as well as a great number of brooks and rivulets, have their passage.
This great undertaking cost half a million of money, and was the ruin of its first projector, some of whose descendants have received altry annuity of 201. from the city, that was so much benefited by the work by which they were rendered destitute.
The property of the New River is divided into serentytwo shares; for the first nineteen years after the finishing of the work, the annual profit upon each share scarcely amounted to twelve shillings. A share is now considered to be worth 11,500l. and they have been sold as high as 14,0001.
Several other water companies have since been estalished, which have contributed much to the comfort and convenience of the metropolis; and although several attempts at monopoly have been made, yet they have met with a proper resistance in the legislature.
WHIG AND TORY.
I.-" This year (says Hume, Hist. Eng. 1680), is remarkable for being the epoch of the well-known epithets of IVhig and Tory, by which, and sometimes without any material difference, this island has been so long divided. The court party reproached their antagonists with their affinity to the fanatical conventiclers in Scotland, who were known by the name of Whigs: the country party found a resemblance between the courtiers and popish banditti in Ireland, to whom the appellation of Tory was affixed. And after this manner, these foolish terms of reproach came into public and general use; and even at present, seem not nearer their end than when they were first invented.”
II.-Mr. Laing takes no notice of the term Tory,but of Whig, he gives the following as the origin :
Argyle and Lothian had begun an insurrection in the Highlands," and so forth. “The expedition was termed the Whigamores' inroad, from a word employed by these western peasants in driving horses ; and the name, transferred in the succeeding reign to the opponents of the court, is still preserved and cherished by the Whigs, as the genuine descendants of the covenanting Scots *'
III.-Bailey, in his dictionary, gives the following:
* For a further account of the term “ Whigamore," see Burnet, as quoted in Johnson's Dictionary.
“Whig (Sax.) whey, butter-milk, or very small beer;" -again,
“A Whig—first applied to those in Scotland who kept their meetings in the fields, their common food being sour-milk*,-a nickname given to those who were against the court interest in the time of King Charles and James II., and to such as were for it in succeeding reigns.”
With regard to Tory, he says,
“ A word first used by the Protestants in Ireland, to signify those Irish common robbers and murderers, who stood outlawed for robbery and murder; now a nickname to such as call themselves high churchmen, or to the partisans of the Chevalier de St. George."
IV.-Johnson, again, has " Whig (Sax.) I, Whey.2. The name of a faction;"—and as to Tory, he supposes it to be derived from an Irish word, signifying a savage.-“ One who adheres to the ancient constitution of the state, and the apostolical hierarchy of the church of England-opposed to a Whig."
Torbhee is the Irish appellation for a person who seizes by force, and without the intervention of law, what, whether really so or not, he alleges to be his property.
V.--Daniel Defoe, in No. 75, of Vol. vii. of his “Review of the British Nation," (1709), gives the following history of these terms:
“ The word Tory is Irish, and was first made use of in Ireland, in the time of Elizabeth's wars there. It signified a kind of robbers, who being listed in neither army, preyed in general upon their country, without distinction of English or Irish.
* In different parts of Scotland the term Whig is still commonly applied to a sort of sour liquid which is obtained from milk or cream. The whig is taken from cream after it has been collected six or eight days for a kirning, and is drawn off by a spiggot from the bottom of the cask or can. It is also taken from sour-milk, when in a coagulated state, or what the Scotch call lappert-milk, being merely the thin watery substance which is separated from the curd on stirring it about. The whig both of sour-milk and cream is extremely tart to the taste. It is not, so far as we know, used in any way for food the common people. Might not this term have been first applied to the covenanters, in derision of their austere manners and unpalatable opinions ?
“In the Irish massacre in 1641, you had them in great numbers, assisting in every thing that was bloody and villanous, and particularly when humanity prevailed upon some of the Papists to preserve Protestant relations ; these were such as chose to butcher brothers and sisters, fathers and mothers, and dearest friends and nearest relations, and these were called Tories.
“ In England, about the year 1680, a party of men appeared among us, who, though pretended Protestants, yet applied themselves to the ruin and destruction of their country. They quickly got the name of Tories.Their real godfather, who gave them the name, was Titus Oates; and the occasion as follows: the author of this happened to be present.-There was a meeting of some people in the city, upon the occasion of the discovery of some attempt to stifle the evidence of the witnesses (about the popish plot), and tampering with Bedlow and Stephen Dugdale. Among the discourse, Mr. Bedlow said, he had letters from Ireland, that there were some l'ories to be brought over hither, who were privately to murder Dr. Oates and the said Bedlow.
“ The doctor, whose zeal was very hot, could never hear any man talk after this against the plot, or against the witnesses, but he thought he was one of these Tories, and called almost every man who opposed him in discourse a Tory; till at last the word Tory became popular, and they owned it, just as they do now the name • High-flyer.'
“ As to the word Whig, it is Scots. The use of it began there, when the western men, called Cameronians, took arms frequently for their religion. Whig was a word used in those parts for a kind of liquor the western Highlandmen used to drink, the composition of which I do not remember, but so became common to these people who drank it. These men took up arms about the year 1681, being the insurrection at Bothwell Bridge. The Duke of Monmouth, then in favour here;