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which are in themselves very simple and clear, are supposed to derive light from their interpretation in the Targum of Onkelos, l' o pe, and this strange explanation is given of them :-
"p p will, indeed, bear another interpretation ; in ihe preexitting one, that is, the eternal Logos, the almighty Word of God; which nevertheless equally proves the universe to have been created by an all-wise and all-powerful Being. The application of the terin Pre-existing to any person or any thing is only intelligible 'as it has a reference to fonie other object. If matter were eternal as well as God, 'God could no more be called pre-existing, with re. gard to matter, than matter could with regard to God, both being equally eternal; but if God did exist before matter, then matter cannot be eternal.' P. 58.
We feel no difficulty in the passage 8792 n'w x70; though we highly approve the author's attempts, and are much pleased with his attention to Scripture in both discourses. 4 Vindication of the Calvinistic. Doctrines of Human Depravily, the Atonement, Divine Influences, &c. in a Series of Letters to the Rev. T, Belfhem, occafioned by his “ Review of Mr. Wilberforce's Treatise :" with an Appendix, addrefed to the Author of “ Letters on Hereditary Depravity." By Thomas Williams, Author of the Age of Infidelity, &c. Svo. 45. Boards. Chap. man.
A defence of Calvinism, we are happy to say, cannot be very interesting in the present times; and we hope that the period is not far distant when the word itself shall be considered as obsolete, and no Christian doctrine will go under the name of an uninspired writer. In this work Calvinism is opposed to an ism for which the author cannot find an appropriate term, though he, with justice, if not with kindness, excludes his antagonist from the corps of Socinians.
• The name Socinian you disavow; and Socinus would have difavowed you as a heretic or an infidel, and probably have immured you in a prison. As to the name Unitarian, I am unwilling exclusively to allow it, because we believe in no more Gods than you do; yet, for distinction's fake, I must be content to adopt this as a popular term for your non-defcript denomination. P. 12. : The writer, perhaps, was not aware, that, in attacking Socinus
for intolerance, he must bring to the recollection of his readers the base and inhuman conduct of the great Calvin, as he is called. It is true that Socinus would not have allowed the tenets now holden by many who call themselves Unitarians; and we, who are neither Calvinists nor Socinians, are glad to see a writer make the just di. Itinctions between the real Socinians and modern Unitarians. Our author is also to be commended for disallowing the exclusive applie cation of the terms Unitarian to any one fect of Christians; for,
however Christians may differ from each other in the obje&s of worship, the unity of the Godhead is universally acknowledged.
The depravity of buman nature, the prefen: state of human na. ture, the quantum of moral evil, Satan, and a future pupil meni, the atonement, intercession of Christ, divine influences, and experimental religion, are the chief subjects of these Letters, in which litle is said either new or important. The grand question of the depravity of human nature is decided upon Calvin's plan: but when the world exhibits so many instances of human wickedness, and the Scriptures expressly point out to us only one method of cleanGng ourselves from fin, namely, by the blood of Christ, it would be of greater benefit to us to have recourse to this efficacious remedy than to lose ourselves in disputations on the way by which we became servants of fin. At any rate, if we must wander in the fields of controversy, we should be happy to see the great principle of the Christian religion, so affectingly deícribed by the Apostle, prevailing over these erudite disquisitions. Let faith lead to love; for, with out it, the triumph is incomplete ; and, instead of boasting as the disciples of Calvin, let us embrace each other in love as Christians. Dearness occafioned by Scarcity, not Monopoly; and the Duties of
Men arising out of the Circumstances of providential Vifitation re. commended in a Sermon, delivered in a Parish Church in the County of Northampton, on Wednesday, March 12, 1800, being the Day appointed for a general Fast. To which is added, an Appendix, containing Hints of practical Expedients for alleviating the Calamity, and in general improving the Condition, of the Poor : together with a Table of the Average-Price of Wheat in each Year, from 1795 to 1798 inclusive. 8vo. 15. 6.1. Gurney.
After some judicious observations on the present scarcity, the folly of rioting on the part of the poor, and the duty of the rich to use with moderation the necessaries of life, are in a proper manDer brought forward to the attention of both parties. The dedication of the sermon does honour to the writer ; and humane minds will be induced by it, we hope, to 'entertain Christian ideas of the lapses of human nature, and the energy of penitence.
- L AW. The whole Proceedings upon an Information exhibited ex officio by the King's Attorney-General, against the Right Hon. Sackville Earl of Thanet, Robert Ferguson, Esq. and others, for a Riot and other Misdemeanours : Tried at the Bar of the Court of King's Bench, April 25, 1799. Taken in Short-Hand by William Ramsey-> The Evidence compared with the Notes of two other Short-Hand Writers. To which are added, fome Obfervations, by Robert Fergufon, on his own Cáse, and on the Points of Law arising upon the In• formation. 8vo. gs. · Boards. Ogle.. With the case of Lord Thanet and Mr. Ferguson the public are
well acquainted. The purport of the present publication is vindicatory, but it has the merit of giving a very full and impartial statement of the trial. The comments of Mr. Ferguson on the law of this case are certainly ingenious; but, if they possess intrinsic weighi, why were the objections not inlisted on at the trial, on the information, or in arrest of judgement ? Report of a Case recently argued and determined in His Majesty's
Court of King's Bench, on the validity of a Sentence of Condemna. tion by an Enemy's Conful in a neutral Port, and the Right of the Owner of the Ship 10 call upon the Underwriters, to reimburse him the Money paid for the Purchase of the Ship at a Sale by Auction, under such Senience. With an Appendix, containing the French Laws now in Force relative to Maritime Prizes, &c. and the Danish Ordinance, of the 20th of April, 1796, imposing a Duty on Foreign Ships. By Nathaniel citchejon, F. A.S. Solicitor. 8vo. 6s. fewed. Butterworth, 1800.
The importance of the cause, the proceedings in which are de. tailed in this publication, is indisputable, and we perfectly coincide with Mr. Atcheson in the prefatory remarks to his report.
• It is a subject of regret, that the principles of the law of nations, as the apply to maritime captures, have not hitherto, by the consent of the European powers, been embodied into a systein of jurispru. denice, posleiting sufficient arrangement and authority to elucidate the grounds, and to reconcile the frequent difcordancy of the decisions of their various prize tribunals.
• The want of such a code has been peculiarly felt in the course of the present war. The nation with which Great Britain is now engaged in hoftilities, though distinguillied by many luminous writ. ers, and by a series of excellent positive regulations on the subject of marine jurisprudence, has burft through the restraints of its own accumulated wisdom, and has despised the most valuable foreign authorities, io lavguage dictated by insolent rapacity.
Other states, unwilling to take a part in the contest in which the principal powers of Europe have engaged, are sedulously employed in turning it to their own advantage; nor must it excite sur.. prise, when considerations of commercial and lucrative advantage seem to have predominated over the regards which political security appeared to require, that the thield of neutrali:y may, in some in, stances, have been used to protect or cover transactions not ftri&tly compatible with the honour or the law of nations. Whether there remarks be in any respect applicable to the facts disclosed in the
following case, the editor does not presunie to offer an opinion : that · this case is no less accurately than fully reported, he can, however, with confidence assert; and he hopes that this circumstance, with the illuftrative selections in the notes and the appendix, will together render this publication in fonie degree useful, as it certainly is
is in a high degree interesting to the legal and commercial part of the community,' P. v.
From the report itself we would willingly extract some passages; but our limits perinit us only to observe, that Mr. Atcheson is entitied to the thanks of the public for the fullness with which he has stated the arguments of the judges and council in the cause, and for the pertinency of his selections from the French marine ordinances, and the writings of learned jurists on that part of the law of nations.
The profits arising from the sale of this publication will be ap. plied to the fund of the Society for bettering the Condition of the Poor.'
MEDICINE. Observations on Vaccination, or the inoculated Cow-Pox. By Richard
Dunning, Surgeon, Plymouth-Dock. Sro. 25. 6d. Black and · Parry:
Since we last adverted to the subject of the cow.pox, very rapid advances have been made in an inquiry into its nature and effects. The result has been pretty uniformly in favour of the opinion of those who introderced it; and we claim fome little merit from our besitation and objections, since we know that they have directed the observers in their views and experiments, which have contributed to remove the difficulties we offered. Yet we think it by no means clear, that the cow-pox is a complete preservative against the finalla pox, though it is so in a much greater degree than we supposed. We are not certain, for it is not yet proved, that it is never a puf. tular disease. It is certainly not a violent disorder, neither dangerous in infancy nor during pregnancy, and certainly not communicable by effluvia. Mr. Dunning is warm in his commendation of this Dew inoculation, and eagerly sees in it not only the extinction of the small.pox, but of scrofula, and, perhaps, of consumption, fince, in one of two cases, scrofulous swellings, and a hectic tendency seemed to be checked aster vaccine inoculation. Such eager, injudi. cious praise must however weaken the best cause. It is a curious fancy that chicken and swine-pox were originally diseases of these animals respectively, and it is apparently supported by the chicken in Bengal being subject to an eruption, as the swine are in this country. The swine-pox is only the chicken pox, with a fuller puftule, denominated from its resemblance to the little swellings of the conglobate glands in swine. This latter is, therefore, merely a diminutive term, and we may as well look for the heart of a chicken in a coward, because, from a metaphor, he is so denominated. The kint that the variulous affe&tion may be a compound, and that the vaccine disease, united with some other virus, may have afforded the more active affection of variola, deserves fome attention, as a point of speculation which cannot (and, perhaps, should not) be subjected to the rest of experiment. On the whole, this is the performance of an ingenions, though an eager young man, and does got add greatly to our knowledge of this subje&t.
The Seaman's Medical Advocate : or, an Attempt to few that Five
Thousand Seamen are annually, during War, loft to the British Nation, in the West-India Merchants’ Service, and on-board Ships of War on the West-India Station, through the Yellow Fever, and other Diseases and Means, from Causes which, it is conceived, are chiefly to be obviated, and unconnected with the Misfortunes of War or Dangers of the Seas. Illufirated by Cales and Facts, By El, liot Arthy, Surgeon in the African and West-India Merchants' Sera vice. 8vo. 55. Boards. Richardson. Mr. Arthy, with great humanity and good senfe,explains the causes of no inconsiderable loss of inen in our marine service from the yellow fever, and the want of surgeons in the Welt-India fhips ; amounting, as is supposed, to five thousand annually. The propored remedy will sufficiently point out what he considers as the causes of the mortality.
• The reader will, I dare say, anticipate me in the means I have to propose, for the accomplishment of the above most desirable pur. poses, namely, regulating their wages and preventing them from deTertion; abolishing the impress service in the West Indies, or else, preventing seamen from leaving their ships, and going on-shore, in the West-Indies, to avoid being impresled; keeping them as much as can be on-board their fhips, and when they must of neceffity go 011-fhore, on their thip's duty or otherwise, sheltering them, as much as practicable, froin the night air and inclemencies of the weather; also, allowing them a proper place to sleep in on-board ; and providing them, in the speedieft manner, the best medical and surgical affittance, as well as requisite attendance, when they are sick and have received accidents.' P. 154.
The author Mould have known that more than one species of chincona grow's in the West-India islands, and that the bark of the mahogany-tree is almost equal in efficacy. Reports of a Series of Inoculations for the Variola Vaccince, or Cowo
Pox; with Remarks and Observations on this Disease, confidered as a Subflitute for the Small-Pox. By William Woodville, M. D. &c. 8vo. 35. 6d. sewed. Phillips und Son.
We now proceed to the work of a more candid, dispassionate author, who has examined the subject experimentally with care, and reported his observations with apparent fidelity. Two hundred cates are distinctly mentioned, and the result of three hundred others added. The conclusion is, that the vaccine-pox is a much milder disease than variola, but not without danger. Dr. Woodville found it to be a puftular disorder, and this must weaken some of Mr. Dune ning's strongest arguments against the facts recorded of small-pox ocą curring after a person had experienced the cow-pox.' Dr. Woodville also found it a dangerous complaint, and thinks that one child