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thirty horses, while he does not labour above fx or eight acres of Jand. These pasture at large among the hills; and are orily caught at the particular times when their labour is required.' P.-128.'

In general, horses were preferred.because they could bear the severity of the winter's cold, provide for themselves in the hills, and were more easily recruited in spring. Even at present, except in large corn farms, they are still preferable.

The essay on watering offers nothing new to the English .agriculturist; though Dr. Smith's recommendation of plantastions may be read with advantage. by every patriotic fpeculator, His advice and directions are indeed peculiarly appropriated, to the Highlands, which certainly once abounded with wood, but whose growing prosperity will be greatly checked by the present want of it. Even arable land of an inferior quality should, as he remarks, be facrificed to its cultivation. This author's observations on the species of crops best adapted to the Highlands are equally valuable.

Mr. Williamson's judicious advice for promoting the fisheries and preferving the woods merit high commendation. Various other coininunications on this subject are of great local importance. What relates to fuel is equally iso,; but not Sufficiently interesting to the general reader to detain us, Captain Smith's remarks on the corruptions of the Gaelic would not be intelligible to many; but,we Thall select his.concluding observations

16.The Gaelic language offers an interesting ftudy to the Scottish antiquarian ; as the surest guide to a knowledge of the customs, manners, and arts, .of the ancient Caledonians. Thus, faighder (the word signifying a soldier) leads us back to the most ancient Itate of the military art in this country, when bows and arrow's were the only weapons; and biorlinn (which signifies a boat) points out the origin of pavigation in a very remate period of society, when the ingenuity of man had proceeded no farther than to hollow out a piece of wood, in which he could barely venture to cross over the unruffled pool of a narrow river. .

" If the Gaelic antiquary join to the knowledge of his mother tongue an acquaintance with other ancient and original languages, his curiosity will derive an agreeable gratification from discovering their general resemblance. And be will be enabled, by comparing the same words, when occurring under different acceptations, to · throw.light on those dark ages of the world, to which the song of the bard and the record of the historian, however ancient, are but very imperfect guides. Creich, in the Gaelic, denotes the cattle car, ried off from a neighbouring territory, whether by force or fraud. The same word, in the German, signifies war. Hence, then, we discover the origin of war, in predatory excursions, the only object of which was the gratification of hunger, an appetite whose operation

muft have been very extensive, before industry had, as yet, provided a fupply for the wants and necefiities of mankind.

• The traditional tales (fgeulachdan) of the Highlands contain many curious particulars, tending to illustrate the custom and usages of chivalry, and the peculiar caft of 'manners which that singular inftitutjon produced in the nations of Europe. It is to be withed that those precious, but mutilated relics, of antiquiry, were rescued from that ride of oblivion which is advancing towards them with rapidity, and, in a short time, must cover and conceal them from our view for ever.' P. 342.

What relates to the canal in the latter essays we have already.noticed, in our review of Dr. Garnett's Travels. We cannot conclude without expressing our highest approbation of tbe spirit and good intentions of this society, and trug that their very useful activity will not be remitted.'

The History of the Helvetic Confederacy. (Cortirued from

Vol. XXIX. New Arr. p. 249.

THE fecond volume of this interefting work opens with an account of the Burgundian war, which was followed by those against Suabia and Milan. The origin and progress of the Reformation occupy two chapters, to which succeeds a Ita. tistical view of the cantons, bailiwicks, and allies. The fuo. ceffive difturbances at Geneva in the eighteenth century form the subject of the ninth chapter, and the tenth and latt nar. rates the diffolution of the confederacy by the invasion of the French, who in a few weeks subdued a country formerly eleeined invincible; thus adding a prodigious force of opiuioa to the power of their arins, though at the expense of equity, and perhaps of juftice.

As the events of the first part of this volume are pretty gee nerally known, we shall pass them rather curforily, in order to reserve more {pace for the recent incidents which are sometimes referred to; materials not generally known, and become the more interesting, in consequence of their assuming this clear and concise form of concatenated history. The close connexion cemented between Swisserland and France in the fifteenth century we should have expected to have seen more fully illustrated; nor does the author display. much critical skill in his selection of facts and evenis ; a conduct which confti. tutes the very essence of classical history. Trifles are often in, termingled with important affairs, equally to the embarrafo meat of the narrative and of the reader. Excellent histories have indeed appeared of various kinds and descriptions, but principally of two alonc: first, those in which the auilor, anxious to illustrate an obscure or neglected period, collects every authentic fact, even though he sometimes appear hereby tediousy minute, merely in order that no particle of existent truth inay perish, and that complete and veritable materials may supply any future general historian with the means of selection and combination, so as to present a history at once au. thentic and elegant. In such a work, refinement, and what the painters call difpofition of parts, must often be sacrificed to the labour of antiquarian research, and to the anxious defire of preserving all the sum total of authentic information, The second general classification of history selects only the inore grand and striking circumstances that occur, with their causes and consequences, which the genius of the author arranges in the most eloquent and interesting manner, so as to afford the reader a perpetual recurrence of entertainment and delight. Among ancient examples, the History of Dionyfius Halicarnaflæus may be alleged as a specimen of the former divifion, and that of Livy of the latter. It is evident from the plan and manner of Mr. Planta's work, that he has attempted the second of these two orders of history; and though genius cannot be imparted, yet he ought either to have followed its rules of graceful selection and combination, or have given his work the more humble title of annals.

The spirited defence of the Swiss against the power of the House of Burgundy constitutes one of the brightest periods of their history. We shall not repeat the battles of Granson and of Morat, but transcribe the decisive contract of Nancy. . ,

• In the first days of the following year he returned with a body of upwards of fifteen thousand men, and resolved to attempt the deliverance of NancyCharles was advised to delift voluntarily from the fiege, and to wait for the return of spring; but his owii impetuous temper, and the insidious councils of the Condottiere de Campobasso, who commanded the Neapolitans in his army, induced him to reject this salutary advice, and on the morning of the fifth of January (the last day of his eventful life) he marched his army, pe: rishing with cold and hunger, to meet the approaching enemy. He took post about two miles from Nancy, in a hollow near a stream, and placed thirty cannon to defend the only pass through which an attack might be apprehended. His infantry stood in close array, covered at each wing by the cavalry, commanded on the right by the perfidious Campobasso, and on the left by Jose de Lalain. Two Swiss adventurers, who on account of some misdemeanor had been banished their country, and were now serving in the army of Charles, went over, and offered, on condition of being restored to their na: tive privileges, not only to impart to their countrymen the order of battle of the duke, but also to conduct them, along secret paths, to the most vulnerable part of his array. This offer, which at Mor, garten would probably have been rejected, was now readily accepted: a large body of duke René's army was led round the fortified pass, through the half frozen stream ; and, dividing into two columns, the one commanded by the duke, and the other by the brave William Herter, fell unawares upon the flank and rear of the Burguindians. No rooner did these hear the sound of the Swiss bugle horn, and perceive the intention to surround them, but they crowded still closer, and turned their cannon towards the approaching enemy. They soon found, however, that it was impoffible for them to use their artillery without evident danger to themselves. The confederates began the attack with their usual impetuosity, and made a deep impression on the disordered ranks. Charles sent to Lalain to haften to their relief; but his men seeing the carnage that already overspread the field, betook themselves to fight, and dispersed among the mountains. The duke upon this resolved to engage in person. He rushed among the combatants with the fury of a lion, and New many with his own hand; but most of his people, especially the cavalry, having now forsaken him, and seeing himself entirely abandoned, he determined to consult his own safety, and rode full speed towards the road that leads to Metz. Being hard pressed by his pursuers, he attempted to leap over a ditch; but his weary horse being unable to clear it, they both fell into the trench, and here Charles met his fate from hands unconscious of the importance of the life they were abridging. After having been some time milling, his body was found among other dead in the ditch, and conveyed to Nancy. His head is said to have been cloven asunder, and he had two other wounds, each of which was mortal. He was in, terred with folemn pomp at Nancy; but seventy-three years after, his remains were transferred to Bruges, to be deposited in the same tomb with those of his daughter Mary. Most of the Burgundian nobility, who had not fallen at Granson or Morat, were here either killed or taken; and a third Burgundian camp became the prey of the victorious enemy. Vol. ï. P. 38. i · We may also be allowed to select from the fourth chapter an instance of democratic injustice.

• A tragical incident, which happened soon after at Zuric, while it afforded a memorable instance of the instability of human affairs, might also have served as an early caution against the pernicious tendency of the foreign connections which began now to prevail, and the fatal consequences of a people interfering in the admini. stration of justice. John Waldman, whom we have seen at the head of the main body of the confederate army at Morat, was a native of a small village near Zug, and came in his early youth to Zuric, where, being wholly destitute, he engaged to learn the trade, of a tanner. The vigour of his inind, as well as the comeliness of his person, however, soon raised him from this lowly condition, and enabled him to distinguish himself in the military career, in the ser

vices both of his country and of foreign princes. He was knighted at the battle of Mo,at, and since that had risen gradually at Zuric even to the high station of burgomaster. His influence throughout the confederacy became fo great, that all foreign kings, prinoes, and ftates, who had any object to pursue with the cantons, had recourfe to him; and according to the practice now prevalent, fecured his intereft, and that of his subordinate agents, by ample pensions and gratuities. This unexpected rise, and the support he experienced from abroad, foon produced the effects which fo uncommon an age grandizement seldom fails to operate ; great arrogance and pertinacity, and an haughty deportment in the aspiring 'magistrate; and much envy and malevolence on the part of the ancient families, who bore with impatience the supremacy of one whom they had formerly seen in one of the lowest ftations. .

« Pretences were not long wanting for giving a full scope to the adverfe paffions which the fortunate burgomafter bad excited. "The Senate of Zuric, alarmed at the progress luxury had evidently made, lince the influx of riches brought from the Burgundian war, had issued various fumptuary decrees, which the more distinguifhed citizens, and especially their wives and danghters, the clergy, whole morals had yielded to the contagion of the times, and the profligate of all classes, thought opprefli ve and derogatorý. To these were foon after added other regulations concerning the monopoly of falt, the right of hewing timber, and even a prohibition to keep dogs in the farms, because they had in fome instances injured the vineyards and molefted the game: all which alarmed the lower claffes, and the latter, particularly the peafantry, and excited them against the burgomatter, to whom all thefe innovations were gratuitously afcribed. The peasants were the first who openly refifted the execution of the decrees; and when, through the interpofition of some of the most difcreet among the magistrates, they were nearly paci. fied, Waldman incautiously revived their indignation, by declaring to them that, being all vaffals, or rather predial Naves, purchased by the city, they had no right to corraigo the orders of the wagiftrates, or any ways to impede their execution, Secure in the prevalency and firmness of his power, he repaired with some friends to Baden, to partake of the amusements of that gay city; and there, in his unguarded moments, held a language respe@ing the affairs of his canton, which even those best inclined in his favour knew not how 10 justify. His numerous enemies at Zuric did not fail to avail themselves of his absence, and of these indifcretions, to excite an odium against him, which all ranks were now well disposed to ad. mit; and their success was such, that when Waldman, 'being ap, prized of the clamours raised againft him, returned privately intą the city, 'he found a defection which he was ill prepared to en: counter. A general insurrection foon broke out among both the

citizens and peasants, which peither the burgomafter, nor several de. · pories from the confederated ftates, who had been sent on the of.

cagion, knew how to allay,

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