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to make the intended discovery, Want of fkill and per. severance in the pilot rendered the plot unsuccessful : And Columbus, on discovering the treachery, retired with an ingenuous indignation from a court capable of such duplicity.

23. Having now performed what was due to the country that gave him bitth, and to the one that adopted him as a subject, he was at liberty to court the patronage of any prince who should have the wisdom and justice to accept bis proposals.

24. He had conimunicated his ideas to his brother Partholomew, whom he sent to England to negociate with Henry the feventh ; at the fame time that he went him. felf into Spain, to apply in person to Ferdinand and [fabella, who governed the united kingdoms of Arragon and Castile.

25. The circumftances of his brother's application in England, which appears to have been unsuccessful, it is not to my purpose to relate ; and the limits prescribed to this sketch, will prevent the detail of all the particulars relating to his own negociation in Spain.

26. In this negociation Coleinbus fpent eight years in the various agitations of fufpence, expectation, and disap pointinent; till, at length, his scheme was adopted by lfabella," who undertook, as queen of Castile, to defray the expences of the expedition ; and declared herfelf, ever after, the friend and patron of the hero who projected it.

27. Columbus, who during all his ill success in the ne gociation, never abated any thing of the honors and emotuments which he expected to acquire in his expedition ; obtained from Ferdinand and Isabella a full ftipulation of every article contai ned in his first proposals.

28. He was constituted high Admiral and Viceroy of all the Seas, 10unds and Continents which he should discover, with power to receive one tenth of the profits arifing from their productions and commerce. Thele offices and cmoluments were to be hereditary in his family.

29, These articles being adjusted, the preparations for the voyage were brought forward with rapidity, but they were by no means adequate to the importance of the ex. pedition. Three {mail vessels, scarcely sufficient in fize to be employed in the coafting bufiness, were appointment


to traverse the vast Atlantic ; and, to encounter the torms and currents that might be expected in fo lengthy a voyage through diftant and unknown leas.

30. These vefsels, as might be expected in the infancy of navigation, were ill constructed, in a poor condition, and manned by seamen unaccustomed to distant voyages. But the tedious length of time which Columbus had spent in folicitation and suspense, and the profpect of being able foen to obtain the object of his wishes, induced hiin to overlook what he could not easily remedy, and led him to difregard those circumstances which would have intimidated any other mind..

31. He accordingly equipped his small squadron with as much expedition as poffible, manped with ninety men, and victualled for one year. With these, on the third of August, 1492, amidst a vast croud of anxious spectators, he fet sail on an enterprise, which, if we conlider the ill condition of his ships, the inexperience of his failors, the length and uncertainty of liis voyage, and the consequences that howed from it, was the most daring and important that ever was undertaken,

32. He touched at some of the Portuguese settlements in the Canary Ifes, where, although he had but a few

days run, he found his vessels needed refitting. He soon made the necessary. repairs, and took his departure from the westermoft Inands that had hitherio been discovered. Here he left the former tract of navigation and Ateered his course due west.

'33. Not many days after he had been at fea, he began to experience a new scene of difficulty.

Tke sailors now began to contemplate the dangers and uncertain ilue of a voyage, the nature and length of which was left entirely to conjecture.

34. Besides fickle nefs and timidity, natural to inen unaccustomed to the discipline of a feafaringlife, several cis cumstances contributed to inspire an obstinate and nutinous difpofition, which required the most confummate art as well as fortitude in the admiral, to control,

35. Having been three weeks at fea, and experienced the uniform course of the trade wirds, which always blow in a eftern direction, they conteaded, that should they continue the same course for a longer period, the fane wind would never permit them to return to Spait.

36. The inagnetic needle began to vary. its direction. This being the first time that phenomenon was ever discovered, it was viewed by the failors with aftonishment, and considered as an indication that nature itself had changed her courfe, and that Providence was determined to punith their aydarity, in venturing fo far beyond the ordinary bounds of man.

37. They declared that the commands of their fovereign had been fully obeyed in their proceeding so many days in the fame direction, and so far furpaffing the attempts of all former navigators, in quest of new discoveries. Every talent, requisite for governing, foothing and tempering the pallions of men; is confpicious in the conduct of Columbus on this occafion.

38. The dignity and affability of his manners, his furpriling knowledge and experience in naval affairs, his unwearied and minute attention to the duties of his command, gave him a complete afcendency over the minds of his men; and inspired that degree of confidence which would : have maintained his authority in almost any possible circum---stances.

39. But here, from the nature of the undertaking, every man had leisure to feed his imagination with all the gloomi. ness and uncertainty of the prospect. They found every day that the fame steady gales carried them with great rapi- . dity from tireir native country, and indeed froin all countrie's of which they had any knowledge.

40. Notwithstanding all the variety of management with which Columbus addreffed himself to their passions fometimes by frothing them with the prognostics of difcovering land sometimes by Battering their ambition and feasting, their avarice with the glory and wealth they would acquire from discovering those rich countries beyond the Atlantic, and foinetimes by cltreatening them with the displeasure of their sovereign, mhould timidity and disobedience defeat fo great an object, their uneasiness still increafed.

41. From secret whispering it arose to opt n mutiny and dangerous conspiracy. At length they determined to rid themselves of the remonstrances of Columbus by throwing him into the sea. The infeclion spread fruin fhip to thip, ard involved officers as well as conmon-fiilor's.

42. They finally lost all sense of fubordination, and addrefsed their commander in an infolent manner, demanding to be conducted iminediately back to Spain; or, they affured him they Would seek their own fafety by taking away his lifc. Columbus, whofe fagacity and penetration had discovered every fymptoin of the disorder, was prepared for the latt ftage of it, and was fufficiently apprised of the danger that awaited him. He found it vain to contend with passions he could po longer controul.

43. He there fore proposed that they should obey his orders for three days longer; and, should they noi difcover land in that time he would then dirce his courfc for Spain.

44. They complied with this proposal , and happily fór mankind, in three days they discovered land. This was a Small Island, to which Columbus gave the nanie of San Salvador. Their first interview with the natives was a scene of amusement and compassion on the one part, and of aftonitment and adoration on the other.

45. The natives were entirely naked, fimple and tinderous and they viewed the Spaniards as a fuperior order of beings, descended from the Sun, which, in that Ifand, and in most parts of America, was worshipped as a Deity. By this it was easy for Colunibus to perceive the line of conduct præper to be observed toward that Gmple and inoftensive people.

46. Had his companions and fucceffors, of the Spanish nation poffefed the wisdom and humanity of that discoverer, the benevolent mind would feel no sensations of regret, in contemplating the extensive advantages arising to mankind from the discovery of America.


Columbus discovered the Ilands of Cuba and Hispaniola ; on the latter of which, he erected a small fort, and having left a garrison of thirty eight men, under the command of an officer by the name of Araba, he kt fail for Spaing returning across the Atlantic, he was overtaken by a violent storm, which lasted several days, and increased to such a degree, as baffled all his naval fill, and threatened immediate destruction.

48. In this situation, when all were in a state of der pair, and it was expected that every fea would swallow

47. In this

up the crazy veffel, le manifested a ferenity and preferce of mind perhaps riever equalled in cases of like extremity. He wrote a short 'account of his voyage, and of the dircoveries he had made, wrapped it an oiled cloth, enclosed it in a cake of wax, put it into an empty caik, and th:ew it overhoård; in hopes that fome accident might preserve a deposit of so much importance to the world.

49. The storm however abated, and he at length arrived in Spain; after having been driver, by stress of weather, into the port of Libbon, where he had an opportunity, in an interview with the King of Portugal, to prove the truth of his system, by arguments more convincing than those he had before advanced, in the character of an heinble and unfuccessful fuitor.

50. He was received every where in Spain 'with royal honors ; his family was en nobled, and his for mer ftipulation, refpecting his offices and emolaments, 'was ratified *** the most folemn manner by Ferdinand and Isabella : while all Europe resound -d his praises and reciprocated their joy and congratulations on the discovery of a new world.

51. The immediate consequence of this was a second voyage : in which Columbus took charge of a squadron of seventeen fhips of confiderable burthen. Volunteers of all ranks and conditions folicited to be employed in this 'expedition. He carried over 1500 persons, together with

all the neceffaries for eftablishing a colony, and extending the difcoveries.

52. In this voyage he explored most of the West India "Ifland; ; but, on his arrival at Hispaniola, he found the garrison he had left there had been totally destroyed by che natives, and the fort demolihed.

He however pro. ceeded in the planiting of his colony ; and by his prudent and humune conduct towards the natives, he effectually established the Spanish authority in that itland.

53. But while he was thus laying the foundation of their fature grandeur in South America, fome difcontented pere 'fons, who liad Teturned from the colory to Spain, together with his former enemies in that kingdom, "confpired to ac complish his ruir: 54. They reprefented his conduct in fach a light-ati

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