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and diuretic, appears to exercise a specific influence over the mucous membrane of the urinary passages, and is administered with advantage in chronic inflammation of the bladder. It was formerly supposed to possess great lithontriptic powers, which it was even hoped would put an end to all necessity for lithotomy. It is supposed that the roots of other plants of the same order are often fraudulently mingled with it; but those of several species of C., both American and East Indian, appear to possess pretty nearly the same properties. An alkaloid, called cissampelin, exists in this root, and gives it its properties.

CISSEY, ERNEST Louis OCTAVE COURTOT DE, b. 1812; in 1853, he served under
gen. Trezel in Algeria, and in 1854 in the Crimea, rising to brig.gen, after the battle of
Inkerman. He also served in the war with Germany. In 1871, he was elected to the
national assembly, and the same year he led the second corps against the Paris com-
mune. He was appointed minister of war in 1871, and served, except in the period of
the De Broglie cabinet, until 1876, when he resigned.
CIS'SOID OF DI'OCLÉS, a curve first employed by Diocles the mathematician, whose

name it bears, for the purpose of solving two celebrated
problems in geometry-viz., the trisection of a plane angle,
and the construction of two geometrical means between two
given straight lines. Let AB (see fig.) be the diameter of any
given circle, and PQ, pq, any two ordinates at equal distances
from the centre 0. Then if we draw a straight line through
A and either of the points q, Q, and produce it till it cuts the
other ordinate, produced if necessary, the point of intersection,
M, or m, will, in its different positions, trace out a curve
called a cissoid. The circle AB is called the generating circle,
and the diameter AB is called the axis of the curve. It is

clear from the figure that the cissoid must consist of two infinite
9

symmetrical branches, AE and AE', having a cusp point at A.
The straight line GB, tangent at B to the generating circle, is
a common asymptote to these branches. Taking A as origin,

and AB = å and a line at right angle to it, through A, as
P
axes of co-ordinates, the equation to the cissoid is y?

(a - x)
The curve may be constructed mechanically. The area of
the space included between the two branches and their
asymptote, is equal to three times the area of the generating
circle. If, instead of a circle, we employed any other curve
as the generating curve, the curve generated in the same
way as the C. of D., is called cissoidal. The word cissoid
comes from the Greek cissos, ivy, and eidos, form.

CISSUS. See VITACEÆ.

CISTER'CIANS, a religious order, taking its name from the

parent monastery of Citeaux (Cistercium), near Dijon, which
E G

was founded in 1098 by the Benedictine abbot, Robert of
Molême. Through the influence chiefly of St. Bernard of

Clairvaux, who became a monk of Citeaux in 1113, the order,
Cissoid.

within little more than a century after its foundation, was in

possession of more than 1800 abbeys in France, Germany, England, Ireland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The C. were distinguished from the order of Clugny by their severer rule and stricter poverty, avoiding any splendor in their churches, even gold and silver crosses; by being submissive to the jurisdiction of the bishops, at least till after the death of St. Bernard; by not meddling with the cure of souls; by wearing a white robe with a black scapulary; and by their peculiar form of government, which was introduced by Innocent III., in 1215, into all the monastic orders. In France, the members of this order called themselves Bernardines, in honor of St. Bernard. Among the fraternities emanating from the C., the most remarkable were the Barefooted monks or Feuillans, and the nuns of Port Royal in France, the Recollets or or reformed Cistercian nuns in Spain, and the Trappists. The number of Cistercian abbeys in England, in the reign of Henry VIII., was 75, besides 26 Cistercian nunneries. In Scotland, there were 11 abbeys, and 7 nunneries. Among the English abbeys were Woburn, Tintern, Furness, Fountains, Kirkstall. and Rievaux; among the Scottish, Melrose, Dundrennan, Kinloss, Glenluce, Culross, Deer, Balmerino, and Sweetheart or New Abbey. The chief French abbeys, les quatre premières filles de Citeaux, as they were called, were La Ferté, Pontigny, Clairvaux, and Morimond. Riches and indolence brought this powerful order, as well as others, into decay. Even before the reformation, many of their convents had ceased to exist. The French revolution reduced the C. to a few convents in Spain, Poland, Austria, and Saxony.

CISTERN, a tank for holding water. In places where the supply of water is inter. mittent, or where rain-water is used, every house requires a C. or water-butt. Cisterns are much used for the supply of steam-engine boilers, at railway-stations. They are

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variously constructed-many of cast or wrought iron, of deal lined with lead or zinc, or of impervious pavement or slate slabs, in which last two cases the sides and bottom are grooved, and cemented together with white-lead putty, or some other cohesive substance, to prevent leakage; and the sides, if the dimensions be at all large, are frequently bound together by means of wrought-iron rods; but very large C.'s are generally made cylindrical, so that the pressure acting at all points equally from the center, the strain comes longitudinally on the outside, and tie-rods can be dispensed with, which is an advantage, as the holes for the tie-rods are apt to be a cause of leakage. See WATER SUPPLY.

CIS'TUS (Gr.), or Rock-Rose, a genus of exogenous plants, which gives its name to the natural order cistacoce; an order allied to cruciferæ and capparideæ, and containing about 200 known species of shrubs and herbaceous plants, chiefly natives of the s. of Europe and n. of Africa. The flowers have generally five petals, very delicate; the stamens are numerous, the style simple, the fruit a capsule. Many species of this order are more or less resinous; and from the twigs of some species of cistus, natives of the s. of Europe and the Levant, particularly C. Creticus, C. Cyprius, and C. ladaniferus, the resinous substance called ladanum is obtained, which is used as a stimulant, chiefly in plasters, but has become obsolete in British medical practice. Many species of cistus are much cultivated for the beauty of their flowers, which are red, white, lilac, yellow, or frequently of two colors, and are common in gardens and green-houses. Most of the larger kinds require in Britain some protection in winter. The only plant of the order which extends to Scotland is helianthemum vulgare, the yellow flowers of which are a frequent ornament of dry hill-slopes.

CITADEL (from the Italian cilladillo, "a little city ") is a fort of four or five bastions, in or near a town. A C. serves two purposes: it enables the garrison of a town to keep the inhabitants in subjection; and, in case of a siege, it forms a place of retreat for the defenders, and enables them to hold out after the rest of the town has been captured. A C. must fully command the fortifications of the city, and have a large space round it clear of buildings.

CITATION, the act of calling a party into court to answer to an action, to give evidence, or to perform some other judicial act. Being derived from the civil law, the term C. is known in England chiefly or exclusively in the ecclesiastical courts. But it is in frequent use in the legal systems both of France and Scotland. In Scotland, a C. is done in the court of session by an officer of court, or by a messenger-at-arms (q.v.). under authority either of a summons passing the signet (q.v.), or under a warrant by the court. In inferior courts, no summons, complaint, or decree is now validly served by affixing it to the door of the house, except where the defender has left, and his address is unknown; and no witness is necessary to the service except in poinding, sequestrating, or charging (34 and 35 Vict. c. 42).

Where the party, though amenable to the court, is not resident in Scotland, he must be cited edictally, by a copy of the C. being left at the office of the keeper of edictal citations (see EDICTAL ČITATION), by whom lists of such citations are printed and published. Formerly, this C. was effected by a proclamation at the market-cross of Edinburgh, and the pier and shore of Leith.

In criminal cases, the party cannot appear voluntarily in court: he must be cited, and can plead any omission in form, which cannot be obviated even by consent. This form of C. is regulated by 9 Geo. IV. c. 29, commonly called sir William Rae's act. A full and correct copy of the libel, or charge against him, must be served on the panel, or accused, with a list of witnesses, and of the assize, or jury. A notice, intimating the day of compearance, must be marked on the copy of the libel, and subscribed by the officer and a witness. This C. must proceed on a warrant issuing from the court before which the accused is to be tried. It may be executed either by a macer (q.v.), a messenger-at-arms (q.v.), or a sheriff-officer (q.v.) of the county within which the C. is made (11 and 12 Vict. c. 79, s. 6). If the panel can be found personally, the C. must be delivered to him, but if not, it must be left at his dwelling-place with his wife or servants; or if access cannot be obtained, the officer must affix a copy to the principal door of the house (1555, c. 33).

CITATION FOR INTERRUPTING PRESCRIPTION.–Either the positive or negative prescription may be interrupted by citation in an action. See PRESCRIPTION.

CITEAUX, or CISTEAUX, a village in the department of Cote d'Or, France, 12 m. from Dijon. It is celebrated for the great abbey founded in 1098, which became the headquarters of the Cistercian order. The buildings are now occupied as a juvenile reformatory. The place became famous for the wines made under the care of the abbots, the celebrated Clos Vougeot having been raised on lands belonging to the abbey.

CITHAE'RON, Mount. See ELATEA.

CITIZEN (Fr. citoyen, Lat. civis). Aristotle defines a C. to be one to whom belongs the right of taking part both in the deliberative, or legislative, and in the judicial proceedings of the community of which he is a member (Politics, iii. 1). A Č., therefore, can exist only in a free state. Between a C. and a subject there is this distinction, that whilst the latter merely is governed, the former also governs; and thus, though every C. is a subject, many subjects are not citizens. In this, which was also the sense

Citrus.

attached to the term by the Romans, when used in its highest meaning that, viz., of the civis optimo jure—it has passed to the modern world, gradually coming to be so understood everywhere. In the heroic ages of Greece, the idea of citizenship was but imperfectly understood. The members of the council and assembly were mere advisers of the kings, who, as god-descended, were regarded as monarchs in the strict sense. But something of the C. character even then' attached to the immediate followers of the chief, when regarded in opposition to slaves and strangers; and it was from them that the dominant class sprang, which everywhere overthrew the monarchies, and established the small self-governing states the democracies, or rather aristocracies, of Greece. At tirst, the rights of citizenship in Athens and other Greek communities were readily attained by those who were not born to them; but at a later period, when the organization of Greek civic life had reached a high degree of perfection, admission to the roll of citizens was procured with great difficulty. In Sparta, indeed, according to Herodotus, so sparing were they of their national privileges, that there were only two instances of their conferring them in their full measure on strangers. The Periæci, or strangers by origin, who shared the Spartan territory, though not on equal terms with the Spartans, were probably, as regarded political rights, pretty much in the same position with the Roman plebeians. In Rome, there were perfect and less perfect citizens, whose respective positions are thus described by Savigny in his History of the Roman Law in the Middle Ages: “In the free republic, there were two classes of Roman citi. zens--one that had, and another that had not, a share in the sovereign power. That which peculiarly distinguished the higher class, was the right to vote in a tribe, and the capacity of enjoying magistracy." All the private rights of citizenship (the jus connubii and jus commercii) belonged to the citizens of the lower class, but the public rights of voting in a tribe, and of enjoying the honors of the magistracy (suff'regium et honores), were denied them. Under these two classes, again, there were two others—the Latini and the Peregrini.

Roman citizenship was acquired most commonly by birth, but for this, it was requi. site that both father and mother should be citizens. If a C. married a Latina, or a Pére. grina, even believing her to be a C., the children begotten of the marriage followed the status of the mother. But latterly, it was permitted, by a decree of the senate, to the parents to prove their mistake, and thus to raise both the mother and her children to the rank of citizens. In earlier times, the citizenship could be conferred on a stranger only by means of a ler-i.e., by a vote of the people assembled either in one or other of the Comitia (q.v.). It was conferred at a single sweep on the whole of the Latinii and Socii. In the case of some of the provinces, both in Italy and Gaul, the Latinitas was given as a step to the Civitas, the former being converted into the latter in the case of any one who had exercised a magistracy in his own state or city.

When the imperial power was established, the public rights which formed the chief characteristic of the full Roman citizenship, became little more than empty names; and the only value which thenceforth attached to it consisted in the private rights which it conferred. Such as it was, the constitution of Caracalla extended it to the whole Roman world, the distinctions between Cives and Peregrini and Latini being preserved only in the case of certain individuals, such as freedmen and their children. Even this distinction was abolished by the legislation of Justinian, the only divisions of persons henceforth being into subjects and sla A fuller account of this interesting subject will be found in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.

In its modern use, the term C. is applied in Great Britain to a dweller in a town, and this either in the general sense of an inhabitant, or in the narrower and stricter sense of one who enjoys its privileges and franchises. In France, it denotes any one who is born in the country, or naturalized in it; and in America, it is used in the same sense, but, so long as slavery was an institution there, slaves were not included in the title. In this latter acceptation, it is equivalent to the term subject in England.

CITRIC ACID is an organic acid present to a considerable extent in limes and lemons, and to a less extent in gooseberries, currants, raspberries, strawberries, and other fruits. In preparing C. A., the juice is allowed to ferment, and chalk being added, a precipitate of citrate of lime is formed. This precipitate being treated with sulphuric acid, sulphate of lime is formed, and the acid remains in solution. It is a tribasic acid, hav. ing the symbol C1,1,0,1. It is readily soluble in water, and has an intensely sour taste; it is used in medicine, especially in the form of lemon-juice, as an anti-scorbutic, and in the arts by the silk-dyer to heighten the colors of safflower and cochineal, and by the calico-printer for discharging mordants from cloth. C. A. is a constituent of the tiner kinds of lemonade, ginger-beer, etc.

CITRIC ACID (C,,H.014, or C, H,011,3HO) is a powerful tribasic acid, which crystallizes in large transparent colorless prisms. These crystals are readily soluble in water and alcohol, but are insoluble in ether. The crystals contain two atoms of water of crystallization (not expressed in the above formulæ), which are expelled at a temperature of 212'. Citric acid has a strongly acid taste and reaction, and displaces carbonic acid from the carbonates. Its watery solution quickly becomes moldy on exposure to the air, and the acid is then found to be converted into acetic acid. When heated to about 350°, vapor of acetone and carbonic oxide are given off, and a residue of acon. itic acid (C.,11,012), an acid occurring in the leaves and roots of monkshood and other species of aconite, is left; and when fused with potash, it assimilates the elements of water, and is decomposed into oxalic and acetic acids, as shown in the equation.

Citric Acid.

Oxalic Acid, Acetic Acid.

C, H,024 +240 = C,H,0, +2C,1,0,. These reactions illustrate the changes which organic acids naturally undergo in the vegetable kingdom. It is to the presence of C. A. that a great many fruits owe their agreeable acidity. It occurs in a free state either alone or associated with malic and tartaric acids in oranges, lemons, cherries, currants, raspberries, gooseberries, strawberries, whertleberries, etc., and in several tubers and bulbs, as in the potato and onion. It also exists in combination with potash or lime in potatoes, onions, and artichokes.

This acid, which is almost always prepared from lemon or lime juice, is thus obtained. The juice, after undergoing incipient fermentation, is filtered, and neutralized with chalk; and the insoluble citrate of lime thus formed is decomposed with very dilute sulphuric acid. On the removal of the sulphate of lime that is thus formed by filtration, the solution of C. A. must be concentrated till a film begins to form, when the crystals readily separate on cooling: Citric acid has also been prepared from unripe gooseberries, whose juice is allowed to ferment; and after the removal of the alcoliol by distillation, the acid is separated in the way already described: 100 lbs. of gooseberries yield 10 lbs. of spirit of spec. grav. 0.928, and 1 lb. of crystallized acid.

Citric acid is used largely in manufactures; calico printers employ it for discharging the mordant from the cloth in patterns; and it is used in dyeing silk with safflower, and for heightening the tint of cochineal. The raw material from which the acid for these purposes is obtained " is a black fluid-like thin treacle, which comes from Sicily, and is obtained by inspissating the expressed juice of the lemon after the rind has been removed for the sake of the essential oil.”- Watts's Dictionary of Chemistry, vol. i. p. 995.

The most important of the numerous salts of C. A. are the citrates of lime, potaslı, ammonia, and iron. Citrate of lime (C2H50,1,3CaO +4Aq) is formed in the preparation of C. A., and is a tine white crystalline powder, more soluble in cold than in hot water. Citrate of potash (C2H,0,1,3K0 +2Aq) is formed by neutralizing the acid with carbonate of potash, and crystallizes in clcar deliquescent needles, insoluble in alcohol. Citrate of ammonia (C,211,0,1,3NH,0) can only be obtained in solution. Citrate of iron is prepared by dissolving freshly precipitated peroxide of iron in a warm solution of C. A.; a reddish-brown solution is formed, which, on evaporation, yields brilliant scales of a light-brown color. Excepting the first, all these salts are employed in mcdicinethe citrates of potash and ammonia as diaphoretics and febrifuges (see AËRATED WATERS), and the citrate of iron as a tonic. Lemon juice, in which C. A. is the most active ingredient, is a most valuable medicine in scurvy, active hemorrhage, rheumatism, etc.; and when it cannot be obtained, C. A. is the best substitute. The general uses of C. A. in combination with an alkali have been already noticed.

CITRON (citrus medica; see Citrus), a tree cultivated in the s. of Europe, and other warm, temperate, or sub-tropical countries for its fruit; a native of the forests of the n. of India. By many botanists, it is regarded as a mere variety (or perhaps the origi. pal type) of the species which produces also the lemon, sweet lemon, lime, and sweet lime; by others, these, or some of them, are regarded as distinct species. The C. has oblong tootlied leaves; the flowers are externally of a violet color; the fruit is large, warted, and furrowed; the rind very thick and tender; the pulp sub-acid. The pulp is refrigerant; but the part chiefly valued is the rind, which has a delicious odor and flavor, and is made into a very agreeable preserve. The juice is sometimes employed to make a syrup, or, with sugar and water, for a beverage, and for flavoring liquors. The rind and juice may be said generally to be applicable to the same purposes as those of the lemon, but the juice is less acid. The CEDRATE is a variety of the C., from which chiefly the fragrant oil of C., or OuL OF CEDRATE, used by perfumers, is procured. In Germany, the name cedrate is extended to all kinds of C., and the name C. is usually given to the lemon. The varieties of C. are numerous. The fruit of the largest kinds is sometimes I in. long, and 20 lbs. in weight. The C. is frequently cultivated in Britain, and by the aid of artificial heat and the protection of glass is produced in great perfoction.

It is probable that the C. is meant in some passages of the Old Testament where the word apple is used in the English version.

CITRONELLA, the name of an oil imported from Ceylon and used by perfumers, and also the name of a perfume prepared from common balm; and again, of a liquid brought from the West Indies, and used in France to flavor brandy.

CITROSMA, a genus of trees of the natural order monimiaceæ, of which the leaves abound in an oil resembling, if not identical with, oil of citron. They are natives of the tropical parts of South America.

CI'TRUS, a genus of plants of the natural order aurantiacem, consisting of trees and shrubs, natives of India and other warm parts of Asia, but many of which are now commonly cultivated in all warm climates on account of their fruit. To this genus belong the ORANGE, CITRON, LEMON, LIME, BERGAMOT, SHADDOCK, POMPELMOOSE,

U. K. IV.-2

FORBIDDEN FRUIT, etc. See these heads. It is distinguished by numerous stamens, irregularly united in bundles by their filaments, a pulpy fruit with a spongy rind, and smooth seeds. The leaves and the rind of the fruit abound in volatile oil. The flowers also contain volatile oil, and exhale a peculiar fragrance.

CITTADEL'LA, a t. of northern Italy, in the province of Padua, 14 m. n.e. of Vicenza. It is situated on the Brentella, an affluent of the Brenta, is walled, and has woolen and paper manufactures. Pop. 7,820.

CITTA DI CASTELLO, a t. of central Italy, 25 m. n.w. of Perugia. C. has a very pleasant situation on the left bank of the Tiber. Though a place of only some 6,580 inhabitants, it is exceedingly rich in ecclesiastical structures of Gothic architecture, palatial residences, and works of art. Raphael painted many of his early works in C. di C.; and they were to be found in churches and private galleries here until the French invasion, when they were dispersed. Two sinall pictures of this great master still remain in Città di Castello. Silk-twist is the chief manufacture of the town.

CITTA VECCHIA. See MALTA.

CITY (Fr. cité, Lat. ciritas). In the sense in which it was first used in the Romanic languages of modern Europe, the word C., like its Latin original, was probably equivalent to state (q.v.) (respublicu) rather than to town or borough (urbs, municipium); and whilst the latter signified a collection of hearths and households, governed by municipal laws internally, but subject externally to the laws of the country of which they formed a part, the former was applied only to such towns as, with their surrounding district, were independent of any external authority whatever. Nearly the only cities in tuis seuse now are the free towns of Germany, and such of the canions of SwitzerJond as consist chiefly of a town and its surroundings, for example, Geneva. But as the ancient Gauls, though composing one nation, were divided into tribes, living in different cantons, each with its town, to which the term civitas was applied, and as they also acknowledged a species of central authority, several cities sending delegates to a central one of greater extent and importance to discuss their common affairs, there is reason to believe that the term C. was applied par excellence to these central places of meeting, and that it thus, from a very carly period, signitied a capital or metropolis, thougli not independent. In England, the term is said to be confined to towns or boroughs which are or have been the seats of bishops' sees, but this restriction rests on no suflicient ground. “The cities of this kingdom are certain towns of principal note and importance, all of which either are or have been sees of bishops; yet there seems to be no necessary connection between a city and a see.”—Stephen's Com., i. p. 124. In America, the term is applied to all towns which are incorporated and governed by a mayor and aldermen. See BOROUGI.

In the case of towns which have grown greatly beyond their original dimensions, it is not unusual to give the name of C. to the space which they originally occupied—thus, we speak of the C. of London, the C. of Paris, or Vienna, cic.

CITY POINT, a village and fort on James river, in Prince George co., Va., 10 m. n.e. of Petersburg, occupied during the war of the rebellion by the union army as tho principal landing place and depot for army supplies.

CITY OF REFUGE. The Jewish law (Numb. xxxv., Deut. iv., Josh. xx.) set apart six cities, three on each side of Jordan, as cities of refuge for the manslayer, in which he might find an asylum, and be safe from the avenger of blood. See BlooD), AVENGER OF. "These cities were Hebron, Shechem, and Kadesh-Naphtali on the w. of Jordan; Bezer,

Ramoth-Gilead, and Galan, on the east. The Jews were careful to keep the roads to the cities of refuge clear, and signs were set up to show the way. The manslayer was received and protected in the C. of R. until the death of the high-priest

, after which the avenger of blood had no longer any claim against him. Thus this peculiar institution was connected with the typical institutions of the Jewish religion, and partook somewhat of their character, whilst it modified and restrained the avenging of blood. The C. of R. .afforded no permanent protection to the murderer, who, if his crime could be proved : against him, was to be taken from it that he might be put to death.

CIUDAD' (from the Lat. civitas) is the Spanish word for “a city;" and is used as a prefix corresponding to the English affix town, as in

CIUDAD BOLIVAR. See ANGOSTURA.

CIUDADE'LA, a seaport t. of the island of Minorca, situated on a plain on the w. coast, in lat. 39° 58' n., long. 3° 52' east. It is walled, and has a cathedral, also several convents. The inhabitants, numbering between 7,000 and 8,000, are engaged in agriculture and the manufacture of woolen fabrics. A considerable trade is carried on at the port.

CIUDAD' REAL'a province in s. Spain; 7,543 sq.m.; pop. '70, 264,649. The country consists chiefly of barren plains skirted by lofty hills and mountains, clad with forests, and inclosing deep valleys. The productions are wheat, rye, barley, corn, cattle, horses, asses, sheep, goats, etc. Iron, silver, copper, lead, cinnabar, coal, and marble care found in the mountains. The most famous of the mines is that of quicksilver at Almaden. Hot and cold mineral springs are also found. Considerable manufacturing

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