Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, Volumen2

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American Psychological Association, 1899
 

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Página 20 - Illumination. — Is the image dim or fairly clear? Is its brightness comparable to that of the actual scene? "2. Definition. — Are all the objects pretty well...
Página 49 - It does not ever in the course of its successes realize that such an act brings food and therefore decide to do it and thenceforth do it immediately from decision instead of from impulse. The one impulse, out of many accidental ones, which leads to pleasure, becomes strengthened and stamped in thereby, and more and more firmly associated with the sense-impression of that box's interior. Accordingly it is sooner and sooner fulfilled. Futile impulses are gradually stamped out. ' The gradual slope of...
Página 17 - The behavior of all but 11 and 13 was practically the same. When put into the box the cat would show evident signs of discomfort and of an impulse to escape from confinement. It tries to squeeze through any opening; it claws and bites at the bars or wire; it thrusts its paws out through any opening and claws at everything it reaches; it continues its efforts when it strikes anything loose and shaky; it may claw at things within the box. It does not pay very much attention to the food outside, but...
Página 78 - Sherrington leads them to conclude that " the chemical products of cerebral metabolism contained in the lymph which bathes the walls of the arterioles of the brain can cause variations of the calibre of the cerebral vessels; that in this reaction the brain possesses an intrinsic mechanism by which its vascular supply can be varied locally in correspondence with local variations of functional activity.
Página 32 - After getting out of six or eight boxes by different sorts of acts the cat's general tendency to claw at loose objects within the box is strengthened and its tendency to squeeze through holes and bite bars is weakened ; accordingly it will learn associations along the general line of the old more quickly. Further, its tendency to pay attention to what it is doing gets strengthened, and this is something which may properly be called a change in degree of intelligence.
Página 65 - Comfort ? comfort scorn'd of devils ! this is truth the poet sings, That a sorrow's crown of sorrow is remembering happier things.
Página 17 - With 13, an old cat, and 11, an uncommonly sluggish cat, the behavior was different. They did not struggle vigorously or continually. On some occasions they did not even struggle at all. It was therefore necessary to let them out of some box a few times, feeding them each time. After they thus associate climbing out of the box with getting food, they will try to get out whenever put in. They do not, even then, struggle so vigorously or get so excited as the rest.
Página 10 - It was merely to put animals when hungry in enclosures from which they could escape by some simple act, such as pulling at a loop of cord, pressing a lever, or stepping on a platform. The animal was put in the enclosure, food was left outside in sight, and his actions observed. Besides recording his general behaviour, special notice was taken of how he succeeded in doing the necessary act...
Página 7 - Blest power of sunshine ! — genial Day, What balm, what life is in thy ray ! To feel thee is such real bliss, That had the world no joy but this, To sit in sunshine calm and sweet, — It were a world too exquisite For man to leave it for the gloom, The deep, cold shadow of the tomb.
Página 17 - In either case, whether the impulse to struggle be due to an instinctive reaction to confinement or to an association, it is likely to succeed in letting the cat out of the box. The cat that is clawing all over the box in her impulsive struggle will probably claw the string or loop or button so as to open the door. And gradually all the other nonsuccessful impulses will be stamped out and the particular impulse leading to the successful act will be stamped in by the resulting pleasure, until, after...

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