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venient arrangement is also one of the cheapest so far as cost of construction is concerned, and is, moreover, entirely consistent with the best stable conditions. We are approaching a common style of dairy-barn architecture just as a set type has been reached in the construction of some other buildings, and the prevailing cow-barn of the future will probably be a two-story building, thirty-two to thirty-six feet wide and as long as may be necessary. This will afford room for two rows of cows, each facing outward toward the light, with a feeding alley next the wall on each side and a single driveway in the rear about ten feet wide, through which a team can be driven from end to end of the building for the removal of the manure. If the posts run eighteen to twenty-four feet above the stable with the usual style of roof, there will be room above for the storage of hay, unthrashed grain, purchased foods and some farm tools. Hay chutes from the mows above will drop the hay into the feeding alleys in front of the cows, while a chute for bedding will drop this into the alley behind them. Spouts will conduct the grain from bins above into feeding boxes located at any convenient point. Such a barn should be flanked by two silos, one on each side, where the ensilage can be thrown directly into the feeding alleys. A barn of this type certainly reduces the labor of caring for the cows to the lowest terms, and still maintains a very economical form of construction. Other considerations may vary this precise plan— may, for example, dictate the addition of an L for box stalls, as in the barn shown in Fig. 192, which is further modified by having three stories and by having the space beneath the bridge to the upper floor serve as a place for the farm engine and also for a granary; but the essential plans, so far as the width of the structure and the position of the silos are concerned, can hardly be changed without the sacrifice of desirable features.

The cost of such a barn will vary within wide limits, according to the finish and the locality where built. As an indication, it may be said that a builder of some experience in eastern New York estimates that a barn like that outlined above can be put up in excellent shape, well-roofed and painted, but without ornamental features, for about $30 per running foot. A barn of this type sixty feet long would then cost $1,800, and should store food for and stable, say, twentyfive cows and four horses, and leave room for three good-sized box stalls for calves and young stock. Such a place should have preferably two silos with a combined capacity of about 125 tons, and these, if purchased from a leading manufacturer ready to

erect, inclusive of roof, would cost $135 to $145 each. For eastern American conditions, in most localities, a silo is a regular part of the farm equipment. This is not true north of the limit of maize-growing or where the condensaries refuse to receive milk made from ensilage.

Stable construction will be essentially the same whether the milk is to be sold raw or taken to the cheese or butter factory, or made into butter at home. But the equipment will vary considerably. Let it be said in passing, that within a few years there has come about the production of "certified milk," or sanitary milk,—a product made with especial attention to care and cleanliness at every stage, which is sold at prices usually two or three times as great as that of the ordinary commercial article. The especial object sought is to keep down the amount of germ infection in the milk, and this requires a special equipment of stables, and, to some extent, of apparatus. For ordinary factory or market milk, the utensils are exceedingly few and inexpensive. They comprise little besides the milking pails, a strainer, a simple cooler or aerator, and the cans for taking the milk to the station or factory. But, when the butter is made on the farm, the question of apparatus becomes more complex. In addition to the pails and cans, there will be needed a small boiler and engine, a cream-separator with a capacity of 250 to 1,000 pounds of milk per hour, a revolving churn, a worker, a printer, and the various minor utensils such as thermometer, scrub-brushes and Milch

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Fig. 192. Well-arranged buildings on a successful New York farm, supplying a farm dairy. (Jared Van Wagpnen, Jr.)

mops; and, if possible, a warmly-built room, with cement floor and drain in one corner, and running water. All this will imply an outlay from $300 to $600.

The cows.

In equipping a dairy-farm, besides the questions of land, buildings, apparatus and utensils, there remains the item of cows—the vital machines

whose function it is to convert the raw material of the farm into milk. So far as the capital required for investment in the herd is concerned, it is possible to give a fairly satisfactory estimate, cows seem to be more stable and better established in price than any other farm stock or product. Taking "fresh" cows as a standard, the price has, on the whole, fluctuated remarkably little for many years. Such animals of mixed or unknown breeding, if fairly young and sound, i. e., with four good teats, tractable, and not blemished or out of shape, will range in price from $30 to $60, the great majority of them falling between $35 and $50. And let it be said that for purely economic milk production, when no question of selling the progeny is involved, carefully selected grades and "natives" may be quite as valuable as pure-bred animals. Doubtless there will be a greater number of inferior animals among their descendants, however, and they will lack the finish and uniformity of a herd bred to one common type. In a general way, it may be stated that a good cow has her selling value doubled by being registered in one of the standard herd associations, i. e., by having a recorded history of ancestry. Most breeders will sell good, mature, recorded cows for, say $100, although occasional individual animals sell for several times this sum.

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Fie. 193. Butter-worker for a home creamery.

The writer feels sure, from experience, that it is possible to go into eastern New York, and, by using care and good judgment, pick up a good, creditable herd of grade cows at an average cost of not more than $45. A bull of the very best breeding and individual excellence of the desired breed should be chosen, and a persistent policy adopted of raising the heifer calves and discarding those which fail to be among the best animals. While usually the system of rearing the calves necessary to maintain the herd is to be strongly advised, yet when the area of the farm is restricted and other lands are not available or are very high-priced, it may be wisest to depend on purchasing fresh cows, feeding them liberally until they begin to go dry and then selling them to the butcher. This is the plan that is followed on some of the most successful dairy-farms in the neighborhood of the big cities. It must be remembered that the equipment of a dairy-farm in non-essential details may vary within the widest limits. The cow asks only palatable, nutritious food, comfortable stables, and kind attention. She cares nothing for architectural ornamentation, or even for the refinements of paint and finishings. But the esthetic tastes of her owner, and the satisfaction and advertising that come from a well-appointed stable, may be ample justification for the elaborate equipment of some dairy-farms.

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CAPITAL REQUIREDFORADAIRY-FARMFOR THE MIDDLE SOUTH

By M. A. Scovell

In the equipment of a dairy-farm three things are essential: the farm itself, the herd, and proper buildings and conveniences.

In the Middle South the climatic conditions are favorable for dairyfarming, and in the greater part of this area pasture-lands are abundant and wellwatered by running streams and springs. The winters are never severe. Pasturage can be had nearly the entire year. Under such conditions, where it is unnecessary to confine cows closely in stables even in winter, they are healthier, grow larger and produce more milk and butter than where by necessity they are more closely confined. The dairy-farm, therefore, in such climate should be mostly in pasture. There should be at least one acre of pastureland to each head of stock. But some of the land should be reserved for cultivation. All the corn for silage should be raised on the farm and, if possible, all the hay also; and at least twenty acres should be reserved for the house and garden and the raising of fruits. The pasture-land should be divided into fields or lots for the purpose of not allowing any one part to be continually pastured. The section of land reserved for corn, silage, and the like, can be put in rye in the fall and used for early pasturage in the spring. The farm should be selected with reference to whether the object is the production of milk, butter or cheese. If the object is to furnish milk, then the farm should be near a large town or city, or on a line of railway where the milk can be marketed conveniently.

The animals.

It is still more important to select the dairy herd. The profits in a dairy depend almost entirely on the selecting of dairy cows. Only strong, vigorous

animals and those giving a large quantity of milk should be selected or retained in the herd. Individual records of each cow should be kept in order to show which are profitable and which are being kept at a loss. The milk of each cow should be tested once a month for butter-fat. When calves are raised, the bull should be pure-bred, and it would be better if the cows were also; but, if the cows are not pure-bred, a few should be

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selected from time to time, not so much on pedigree as on their milk and butter production, and with finely bred bulls the calves of such cows will soon build up a herd. The herd should average at least two gallons of milk a day per cow the year round, and at least one pound of butter per day.

The barn and equipment.

Whether for milk, butter or cheese, the dairybarn should be constructed on sanitary principles. Pure milk from healthy cows with sanitary surroundings is worth in large towns and cities thirty to forty cents per gallon, while milk produced in unclean surroundings averages less than fifteen cents per gallon, and often its sale is prohibited by municipal ordinances. It is essential to have a barn light, well-ventilated and convenient. A convenient barn is one with the main part for office and dairy rooms, with two wings, one wing containing the

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196. Upper floor of modern dairy-barn, showing ventilator outlets on sheds.

stalls for the cows in milk, and the other for calves and springing cows. The floor of the wing containing the cow stalls should be of cement, the other floor of clay. Details of the plans of a modern dairybarn and the construction are given in Figs 194, 195, 196. In these details will be found the dimensions of the barn, each stall, and other things necessary in the construction of a barn. One of the most essential things about a dairy-barn is the ventilation, and the King system (See Chap. VII) seems to answer this purpose. The milk-house and place for the care of the milk and making the butter are as essential as the dairy-barn itself. The milk-room is a part of the barn in the accompanying diagrams, and it is very convenient. The floor should be of tile or cement, and large enough to contain a good-sized sink, proper shelving,

refrigerator, separator, churn, sterilizer for bottles, milk-bottling machine, cans and other equipment. When cheese is made, a cheese-room so constructed as to have equable temperature should be added to the dairy room. A silo is essential to a modern dairy. When the dairyVZ T! Hi ""~vfarm is not located conveniently to a city, an ice-house is one of the essential buildings. It should either be put in the basement of the barn or made a separate building.

No dairy-farm should be without a silage cutter and shredder and an engine to produce the necessary power for running such a machine. An eight or ten horsepower gasoline engine answers the purpose well. It is economical to run the hay through a cutting machine as it is brought to the barn and blow it into the loft, where it can be dropped through trap-doors to be fed below. This is true also of the fodder, which should be shredded. A water heater and a sterilizing apparatus for bottles and utensils, a separator, a milk cooler, sanitary milk buckets, a good c hum, and, when cheese is made, cheese vats, with bottles, cans, and so forth, are essential to every dairy. In a dairy with less than twenty-five cows, a hand separator may answer the purpose. It is better, however, to have the separator run by power when there are more than fifteen cows.

The estimate.

The cost, at least so far as the land is concerned, depends largely on the location of the dairy. If near a large town or city, the land can not be had for less than $75 to $200 per acre. When it is located some distance from a town and railroad, land can be had from $10 to $40 per acre. A good, convenient barn for a small herd would cost at least $2,000. A large milk farm furnishing good sanitary milk to a citv, or one of 100-cow capacity, will require a barn'costing $8,000 to $10,000. This includes the dairy house. The other equipments will cost $1,000 to $2,000.

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