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very high economic value, while in the arid west it is of prime importance as the recipient and conservator of the moisture which ultimately irrigates the varied crops of the plains. The farmer should as strongly resent the destruction of the Hudsonian zone forests, by indiscriminating axe or fire, as he would the destruction of his reservoirs or ditches.

(c) Canadian zone.—This is defined as follows by Dr. Merriam: "The Canadian zone comprises the southern part of the great transcontinental coniferous forests of Canada, the northern parts of Maine, New Hampshire and Michigan, a strip along the Pacific coast, reaching as far south, at least, as Cape Mendocino in California, and the greater part of the high mountains of the United States and Mexico. In the east it covers the Green mountains, Adirondacks and Catskills, and the higher mountains of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, western North Carolina, and eastern Tennessee. In the mountains of the west it covers the lower slopes in the north and the higher slopes in the south. In the Rocky mountain region it appears to reach continuously from British Columbia to westcentral Wyoming, and in the Cascade range from British Columbia to southern Oregon, with a narrow interruption along the Columbia river." It is a zone of varied and luxuriant vegetation, where the northern types reach a high state of development. It is usually thought of as purely boreal, but in the mountains of Colorado even its upper part is invaded by a not inconsiderable austral element, especially found in open and comparatively dry places. It is a zone of wild small-fruits, such as blackberries, raspberries and cranberries, and in many places it is found to be suitable for the cultivation of the potato, timothy grass, and some of the more hardy cereals.

(B) Transition.

This zone is, of all others, the most difficult to define, because it is the meeting-place of the boreal and austral elements, which mingle in varying proportions. It is, however, really more austral than boreal, and may justly be regarded as the first of the austral zones, going southward. It must be subdivided into three areas, as follows:

(a) The Alleghanian area.—This is the humid Transition of the country west of the hundredth meridian. It is especially prominent in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Ontario, New England and the Alleghany region. In this area the " chestnut, walnut, oaks and hickories of the south meet and overlap the beech, hemlock, and sugar-maple of the north" (Merriam). Wheat, oats, barley, rye and certain varieties of corn (King Philip, Longfellow, Pride of the North, and other flint varieties) are grown. The deciduous fruits are highly successful, and it is also a region of hops, potatoes and sugar-beets.

(b) The Arid Transition area.—For brevity and uniformity, this might be designated the Coloradian area. It occupies large parts of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming, Nevada, and the northwest, and is, for the most part, rather barren when not irrigated. It is characterized by the abundance of yellow pine and various species of artemisia, popularly called sage-brush. Under irrigation and cultivation it is most prolific, especially in the deciduous fruits, the sugar-beet, the potato, and various cereals, including corn. It is not suited for the wine-grape, but the native American grapes do well, and all sorts of small-fruits.


Fig. 17. Canadian sub-zone.—Vegetation in the pine woods of Michigan.

(e) The Humid Northwestern area.—This might be designated the Columbian area, from the Columbia river. It is very different from the Coloradian, being very humid, with more uniform temperatures and less sunshine. In places, the annual rainfall amounts to 100 inches. The forests are most luxuriant, and the whole country is full of life. Many deciduous fruits, as well as hops, potatoes and

Fig. 18. Arid Transition area.—Sage-brush plains, Washington.

sweet corn, are grown. The region seems not to be well adapted to cereals, as in Dr. Merriam's list only one variety of wheat (Red Fife) is cited, and that is marked second-class, while of oats only two varieties are considered perfectly suitable.

(C) Upper Austral.

(1) East of the Hundredth Meridian.

(a) The Carolinian area.—This includes the whole of the Upper Austral of the relatively humid eastern states. It is found in eastern Nebraska and Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland. In it, the traveler from the north first meets with the sassafras, tulip tree, hackberry, persimmon. This, of course, is a region of prime agricultural importance. It is adapted to various kinds of wheat, oats, corn, barley, rye, apples, cherries, grapes, peaches, pears, plums, strawberries, flax, hemp, lima beans, sorghum, sugar-beet (though this is more characteristic, perhaps, of the Transition), tobacco and potatoes. The details of the distribution of these crops will be found discussed under the headings of the several states, and of the crops themselves.

(2) West of the Hundredth Meridian.

(b) The Upper Sonoran area.—The zone in the arid region corresponding to the last. It includes country which is nearly all open, with rather scanty vegetation of atriplex and other shrubby plants. Cottonwoods (Populus) usually fringe the rivers. Under irrigation, this area is very prolific, and it is most curious in this and the Lower Sonoran of the arid west to see luxuriant orchards and fields, separated merely by a wire fence from a barren desert. In addition to most of the products named as flourishing in the Arid Transition, we find wine-grapes in abundance (though they have to be protected by banking in winter), as well as alfalfa (or lucerne), Kafir corn, sorghum, sweet-potato and tobacco.


(c) The Middle Sonoran area.—Characterized by the same crops as the Upper Sonoran, but with many of the plants (such as the larrea) and animals of the Lower Sonoran. So far as the native products go, it is in many ways a sort of Transition Sonoran, and Dr. Merriam, in all his maps, classes it as Lower Sonoran. It is subject to severe frosts in winter and spring, rendering it quite unsuited to the orange, olive and other characteristic fruits of the Lower Sonoran, so that to class it as such is misleading to the farmer or horticulturist. Mesilla valley, New Mexico, may be taken as typical of this area.

(D) Lower Austral.

(1) East of the Hundredth Meridian.

(a) The Austro-riparian area.—Dr. Merriam says: "The Austro-riparian area occupies the greater part of the South Atlantic and Gulf states. Beginning near the mouth of Chesapeake bay, it covers half or more than half of Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, the whole of Mississippi and Louisiana, eastern Texas, nearly all of Indian Territory, more than half of Arkansas, and parts of Oklahoma, southeastern Kansas, southern Missouri, southern Illinois, the extreme southwestern corner of Indiana, and the bottom-lands of western Kentucky and Tennessee." This is the zone of the cotton-plant, sugar-cane, rice, pecan and peanut, but, as defined above, it includes somewhat varied elements, and it is probable that further subdivision would conduce to clearness. It is, of course, a notable fruit zone, but it is principally distinguished from the Carolinian, agriculturally, by the production of cotton and cane-sugar. Its upper limit seems to coincide remarkably well with the upper limit of cotton cultivation, as shown by the report of the Census Bureau.

(6) The Semi-tropical or Gulf strip.—This reaches from Texas to southern Florida, and is subtropical in its climate. As defined by Dr. Merriam, it is a part of the Austro-riparian. It is the region of the palmetto and Cuban pine, and of the citrous fruits, though the last have suffered severely from frosts in the northern parts. It is, of course, especially the region of the sugar-cane.

(2) West of the Hundredth Meridian.

(c) The Lower Sonoran area.—"The Lower Sonoran area comprises the most arid deserts of North America, and is characterized by a fauna and flora of extreme interest. Among the commoner plants are the creosote bush, mesquites, acacias, cactuses, yuccas and agaves." At first sight, it appears wholly unsuited for agricultural purposes, but with irrigation a total transformation is wrought, and the apparently barren soil produces abundantly. Oranges, olives, almonds, peaches, pears and walnuts are among the principal fruits, though even in the warm Salt river valley of Arizona, typically Lower Sonoran, almonds have to be protected by "smudges" from the spring frosts. Alfalfa produces several crops a year, and sorghum is much grown. In this area, particularly southward, there are various native annual plants that flourish in the late winter and early spring, constituting a peculiar and interesting flora. At the same time, it is possible to raise various crops that are usually thought of as belonging to cooler regions, and for which the summers are much too hot and dry. The Chinamen, in particular, take advantage of this double climate to produce winter and spring vegetables in great quantity.

(E) Tropical.

The Tropical zone proper reaches the mainland of the United States only at the southern extremity of Florida. It includes, of course, the whole of Porto Rico, the Philippines and Guam, as well as the Hawaiian Islands. In the Hawaiian Islands and the Philippines are various high mountains, which should be differentiated from the purely tropical lowlands, and which will afford much material for interesting investigations. Whether American ingenuity will take advantage of these high lands for the production of crops not hitherto known there, as the British have done in certain of their colonies, remains to be seen, but it can hardly be doubted that such will be the case. The remarkably interesting results of the investigation of the Hawaiian and Philippine mountains by naturalists cannot be described in this place.

In the maps published by the Department of Agriculture, Dr. Merriam makes the Tropical zone enter southern Texas, and run a considerable distance up the Colorado river, into Arizona and California. This was strongly objected to by Professor C. H. T. Townsend, who defined the Tropical zone as the region without frost. The valley of the Colorado river not only suffers from frosts, but is actually less suited for semi-tropical products than many parts of Arizona which are universally recognized as Lower Sonoran, and if this valley is held to be tropical, it becomes quite impossible to define the Tropical zone in any terms of value to the agriculturist. However, in his text, Dr. Merriam speaks of this region as "dilute arid tropical," and in the admirable "Handbook of Birds of the Western United States," by

Florence Merriam Bailey (1902), he has provided a map in which the Tropical is restricted exactly as proposed by Professor Townsend.

Other considerations.

The amount of sunshine in different parts of the United States is controlled by humidity rather than by temperature, and does not follow the isotherms. It must be remembered that the same clear sky, which permits the warmth of the sun to reach the earth during the day, also permits rapid radiation at night, and consequently the sunniest

localities are liable to late spring frosts. Taking as an example the percentage of clear sky in April, 1904, as shown by a map in the Monthly Weather Review, we find that it is over 80 per cent in an area, including the greater part of Arizona and much of New Mexico, but less than 40 per cent in a large part of Oregon, and less than 50 per cent in a considerable area of southern Texas. It results that in the arid southwest the days are hot and the nights cool, especially in the spring, and that the deciduous fruits suffer at times very severely from frosts. The native vegetation, except the winter and spring flora already mentioned, holds back, and then comes out very rapidly when the danger from frost is over; but the introduced fruit trees, lured by the warmth of the day, put forth buds and blossoms, and are nipped in consequence. It will be necessary for man to produce varieties of fruits specially adapted to meet these peculiar conditions, in order to be wholly successful.

It must also be noted that the southern limit of snow is not even across the country, but rises rapidly westward, so that, speaking generally, the western lands, as well as the southern, are bare in winter, and not covered by snow, as are those in the east, and especially northeast.

Still another very important factor is the time of year when most moisture falls. This differs greatly in different regions, and necessarily has a profound influence on agricultural operations. A. F. W. Schimper, in his great work on plant geography, gives a rain-chart of the earth, in which North America is shown to contain five areas differing in this respect. In the Monthly Weather Review for October, 1904, Professor V. Raulin gives a similar map for the United States, differing in details, and showing only four distinct areas. In general terms, it may be said that west of the 115th meridian the summer is very dry, the autumn and winter rainy; in Arizona and the country northward and some distance eastward, the rain falls in the winter and spring; in the south, excepting the Atlantic coast, and most of the Rocky mountain region, the spring is rainy, the summer comparatively dry, and the fall especially so; in the northeastern and most of the northern states east of the Rocky mountains, as well as the Atlantic coast, all seasons are humid, but most rain falls in summer.

This account may impress the agriculturist as indefinite and unpractical; but all we can do in the present state of our knowledge is to set forth the problem, illustrating it by concrete cases here and there. The article may suggest the kind of work that needs to be done.



The best view of the agricultural capabilities of the entire country is to be secured from the opinions of judicial persons living in all the different parts of it. Such a view is attempted in the following symposium. It is impossible, of course, to cover the agricultural adaptabilities of the different states and provinces in the brief space allotted to each; but the reader will catch the drift and discern the larger features. In every article, also, he will be impressed with the hopefulness for better things. Every region has superlative advantages of some kind.



Fig. 20. Haying in Newfoundland.

COLONY OF NEWFOUNDLAND. (By Judge Prvwse.) The possibilities of Newfoundland as an agricultural country have been frequently misrepresented. The country is not a barren wilderness with an arctic climate. There is plenty of really good

^0M?^^ tP&t's^ ^*3§ agricultural land in the island. Bettertilled lands and finer crops of cabbage, potatoes, turnips, beets, oats, barley and hay than are found near St. Johns, cannot be seen anywhere. The best land is situated in the valley of the Codroy, along the banks of the Little and Great Codroy rivers. The lower part of this valley is about ten miles broad, but up the river the hills converge, and about twenty-four miles inland its width is two miles. Along the river banks rich alluvial soil is found, capable of growing all kinds of crops. The upland soil is lighter and free from stones. Farther back on the hills excellent grazing land is to be had, and many thousand head of cattle could be fed there.

The soil in St. George's Bay district is very fertile, and land has been under crop for sixty years without manure. The good land extends twelve miles from the coast into the hills, and along the coast thirty-six miles from the highlands to St. George on the south side of the bay. On the north side, from Stephenville to the Creek, a distance of about fifteen miles, the soil is good, and extends to the foot of the hills, on an average of two miles from the coast. Some very good land is also to be found at Spruce brook and George's pond. Humber valley, Deer lake and Grand lake country contain many square miles suitable for agriculture; the soil on the banks of the rivers and streams is very rich, having a depth of four to ten feet. The surrounding hills are well-adapted to sheep and cattle

raising. The Exploits Arm and valley and Red Indian
lake abound in good agricultural land. Although the
soil is not so rich as the Codroy valley land, it is
capable of producing good crops, and a ready sale
will be had near at hand for produce raised, at the
lumber camps around this section. Good land is also
met with in abundance at Gander river, and along
the banks of the smaller rivers, around the heads of
most of the bays, and on some of the islands. Be-
tween St. Mary's and Placentia there are thousands
of acres of well-watered grazing ground. There is
also a vast amount of wild pasture for cattle on the
barren tracts in different parts of the island. The
opportunity for extending the cattle-raising industry
is very great.
The Exploits, Gander, Gambo and Humber valleys


Fig. 21. Agriculture in Newfoundland. —A (oblique shading downward to the right), general agriculture; B (oblique shading to the left), timber; I». sheep land; G, good land for tillage. St. George bay is on the southwestern point of the island (just above 4K°). The Codroy rivers flow into the Gulf of St. Lawrence just south of this bay. The Humber valley. Deer lake and Grand lake lie to the northeast from St. George bay (at A). The Exploits valley and Red Indian lake (B in the center of the island) drain northeastward into the ocean. Gander and Gambo valleys He southeast of this. St. Mary's bay is on the extreme southeastern shore (between G and D). Placentia bay is the large bay just west of this, and Trepassey bay is the small one to the east on the very point.

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