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contain an immense area of good pine, fir, beech and spruce. Lumber mills are at work in all the sections, and most of the pine lands are under lease. At St. George and Codroy, large white and yellow birch, fir and spruce abound. The chief forest product is lumber, of which there was an export of $270,332 worth in 1903-1904, to the United Kingdom. On the banks of the rivers, around the arms of all the bays,


sources of income are: Hay, about 60,000 tons, worth $1,200,000; potatoes, 541,766 barrels, worth $1,083,532; turnips, 65,298 barrels, worth $65,298; cabbage, worth about $50,000; and oats, 12,000 bushels, worth $7,200.

There is a Board of Agriculture, with headquarters at St. Johns. Its main work is to import stud animals—stallions, bulls, rams and boars. There is also a Department of Agriculture and Mines. Agricultural exhibitions are held occasionally in St. Johns, sometimes in the outposts. This work, however, is not organized, and is one of the great needs of the island. There is also a great need for agricultural education and the distribution of information about the farming interests suited to the island. There are no model farms or experiment stations under governmental control.

Fig. 22. Nova Scotia, to show agricultural regions.—A (simple shading), along streams and near the coast, general mixed-farming: B (cross shading), the Annapolis valley, noted for fruit.

and in many other sections, the country is thickly wooded. Spruce is particularly plentiful, and the outlook is for the island to become a great pulp and paper country. Syndicates are already entering and erecting plants. The abundance of pulp wood, good water-power, and facilities for transportation make the growth of this industry certain.

Newfoundland is specially adapted for a great sheep country. There are grassy downs inside of Branch St. Mary's Bay, excellent upland pastures between St. Mary's and Trepassey, and in numbers of other places around the island, on which, with a little aid, thousands of sheep could be kept all the year round. A good, hardy breed of sheep is required. Instead of 80,000 sheep, Newfoundland should have millions. It has been well said that the future prosperity of Newfoundland lies in sheep and herrings; coal should be added. According to the Census of 1901 the agricultural stock and produce in Newfoundland was:

Wheat and barley—bushels 824

Oats—bushels 10,773

Hay—tons 53,883

Potatoes—barrels 541,766

Turnips—barrels 65,298

Horses 8,851

Milch cows 14,135

Other horned cattle 18,607

Sheep 78,025

Swine 34,547

Fowls 207,251

The acres of improved land in Newfoundland are now 100,000, valued at $8,000,000. In pasture there are 40,000 acres, worth $800,000. The total value of the farm stock is $2,020,000. The chief

NOVA SCOTIA. (By F. L. h"uUer.) Nova Scotia, the most easterly province of the Dominion of Canada, consisting of the peninsula of Nova Scotia proper and the island of Cape Breton, is a country richly endowed with varied natural resources, but it cannot be said to be essentially an agricultural province. The coal, iron, gold, gypsum, lime, lumbering and fishing industries engage the attention of a large proportion of the population. This population affords a good local market, which at present is not supplied by Nova Scotia farmers. The province is intersected by high hills, and indented with deep bays and harbors along the coast-line. The interior of the province is covered with a network of lakes, which find their outlet through numerous small rivers. It is along the valleys formed by these rivers that the best agricultural lands are found. In some counties of the province there are also large tracts of very productive land that have been reclaimed from the tidal waters of the Bay of Fundy.

The chief types of agriculture are fruit-growing, stock-raising, and dairying.

Although fruit can be grown to some extent in most of the agricultural sections of the province, it is at present confined, as a commercial industry, to the famed Annapolis Valley, a strip of land about eighty miles in length and five to ten miles wide, extending from Windsor to Annapolis and lying between the North and South Mountains. There are exported from this valley, annually, upwards of a half million barrels of apples, and the possibilities are far in excess of this. Smaller fruits and potatoes also form an important part of the output of this section. The special adaptability of this section to fruit is due rather to favorable climatic conditions than to soil.

Stock-raising is largely confined to the vicinities of the diked marsh lands and the intervals along some of the larger rivers, while dairying and mixedfarmin? are found, for the most part, in the outlying and less favored sections. A moist climate, abundance of pure water and freedom from extremes of temperature make the province an ideal place for dairying. The conditions are also exceedingly well adapted to sheep-farming.

The chief drawback is a long winter and a rather short growing season. At the same time, vegetation is rapid and the extremes of temperature are not very great, the thermometer seldom falling under ten degrees below zero, or rising over ninety degrees above. The average temperature for winter is about twenty-three degrees and for summer about sixty-one degrees Fahrenheit.

The map (page 30) indicates the principal agricultural sections of the province. In addition to those marked, there are numerous small localities where agriculture is practiced with varying degrees of success, but these localities are so isolated from the principal sections of the province that, while all together they amount to a considerable area, yet individually they cannot be said to contribute greatly to the agricultural products of the province.

The total area of Nova Scotia is 13,483,691 acres. Of this, according to the Census of 1901, 5,080,901 acres are in farms, of which 1,257,460 acres, or 24.7 per cent, are improved. The total value of the farm property is $86,183,871. The values of the chief sources of income are: Dairy products, $2,885,997; live-stock, $1,427,777; fruit and vegetables, $1,407,369; dressed meats, $1,247,358.

With the aid of the government, a great deal of agricultural educational work is being done. There is a well equipped agricultural college at Truro, in the center of the province. Many agricultural societies have been formed, whose principal aim it is, with the aid of a government bonus, to purchase pure-bred sires and thus keep up the standard of the live-stock. In addition to this, the government has adopted the policy of making frequent importations of pure-bred stock, especially horses, cattle and sheep, which are distributed throughout the agricultural sections. There have also been set out from one to three illustration orchards of about two acres each, in every county of the province, with a view of demonstrating the possibility of extending the fruit-growing area beyond the limits of the Annapolis Valley.

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like landscape have earned for it this name. Though smallest of the provinces, it is doubtful whether any other Canadian area is so uniformly capable of the continuous production of such large quantities of agricultural commodities. For years, the somewhat injurious custom of growing and selling oats and

Fig. 23. Harvest scene in Prince Edward Island.

potatoes has been practiced, but this has now given place almost entirely to the dairy industry on the cooperative system. Live-stock raising goes hand in hand with the dairying, while fruit-growing seems destined to take a prominent place in the economy of the province.

Agriculture must always remain the chief industry of Prince Edward Island. Of minerals it has none, and the forests have already been largely removed; so that, with the exception of the fishing business, the province must depend for progress on the proper husbanding of the fertility of the soil. The soil and climatic conditions are such, however, as to make possible an unexcelled quality of horses, cattle, poultry, dairy products and fruit.

Lack of markets has never presented any serious problems to island producers or legislators. British requirements provide for the consumption of the butter, cheese and fruit. The mutton, beef and potatoes find ready sale in American markets, and the surplus pork, poultry and eggs are consumed in the adjoining provinces. But the winter transportation problem has long presented its difficulties. For months the Straits of Northumberland, which separate the island from the mainland, are blocked with ice. Two large federal government boats of the ice-breaking class have been provided, but these often fail to keep up continuous communication with the mainland. Prospects at present indicate that a heavier ice-breaking steamer will be placed in service, and the inconvenience of interrupted communication be overcome. Even should this boon be procured, the frequent change of freight from rail to boat and from boat again to rail must decrease the profits to the farmer and operate against the quality of island produce.

France and the British Isles have given to the population of the province sturdiness, intelligence and capacity sufficient to warrant stability and future progress. Heredity has bestowed a conservatism consistent with these qualities, although this characteristic, together with the limitations of the provincial boundary and a self-constituted environment, militate somewhat against the rapid introduction of newer methods and ideas.


The total area of Prince Edward Island is 1,397,991 acres, of which 1,194,508 acres, or 85.44 per cent, are occupied. Of this, 726,285 acres, or 60 per cent, are improved. Of the unimproved area, 350,366 acres are in forest. There are 13,199 farms on the island. The total value of the farm property, according to the Census of 1901, was $30,626,713. The total gross value of farm products for 1901 was $7,467,567. The four chief sources of income are fruit, meats, poultry and dairy products.

The agricultural affairs of Prince Edward Island are under the direction of the Department of Agriculture, with headquarters at Charlottetown. The department is in charge of a Commissioner of Agriculture, who is nominated by the government and appointed by the people, and who has direct charge of the agricultural interests of the province. He is assisted by a professor of agriculture, who acts as superintendent of farmers' institutes and of the provincial farm, and takes charge of the agricultural education generally. A small amount of experimental work is conducted on the provincial farm, but the chief object of the farm is the supplying of pure-bred stock for the farmers. Some experimental work is undertaken in horticulture in nine model orchards that have been planted by the government at different points throughout the province. The annual exhibition is held in Charlottetown, being operated by a private corporation which receives an annual grant from the provincial government. The province is well organized under a farmers' institute system. Besides this organization there is the Provincial Fruit Growers' Association and the Dairymen's Association of Prince Edward Island. Agriculture is taught in the Prince of Wales College, which is the provincial institution for the training of the public school teachers.

NEW BRUNSWICK. (By A. G. Dickson.) General farming is followed throughout the province of New Brunswick, including the production of hay, grain, fruit, stock and dairy products. The southwestern part of the province, because of its abundance of marsh hay, is best adapted to stockraising, while dairying is successfully practiced throughout the middle of the province.

The rainfall is abundant all over the province. The soil, especially in the river valleys, is very productive. No country has better transportation facilities than New Brunswick. With its great stretch of seacoast, its many navigable rivers and lakes, its extensive railways stretching in all directions and its good roads, no inhabitant finds it difficult to place his products on a good market.

The population consists mainly of a sober, industrious and intelligent people. A noticeable improvement in agriculture has been made in the last decade.

The magnificent extent of forest regions and the great fishing privileges afforded by the coast and numerous rivers has, in the past, to some extent retarded agriculture, as farmers have been induced to neglect their farms in pursuit of these industries.

The improved methods of farming which are being adopted by the people, the growing of more clover and thereby increasing the fertility of the soil, the marketing of the finished product rather than the raw material, the raising of better live-stock with better care and feeding, must tend toward future development.

The total land area of New Brunswick is 17,863,266 acres. Of this, according to the Fourth Census of Canada (1901), 4,442,594 acres, or 24.87 per cent, were occupied as farms, of which 31.67 percent was improved. There were then 35,051 farms of five acres or above. The total value of the farm property was $51,338,311. The total value of the farm products was $12,873,480. The four chief sources of income were: Field crops, 61.06 per cent, including grains, hay and potatoes; dairy products, 16.83 per cent; meat and other animal products, 8.93 per cent; live-stock, 6.12 per cent.

There is no agricultural college in New Brunswick. The New Brunswick government contributes to the support of an agricultural college located at Truro, Nova Scotia, the adjoining province. The Experimental Farm for the Maritime Provinces, supported by the Dominion government, is located at Nappan, Nova Scotia. New Brunswick has a Department of Agriculture with headquarters at Fredericton, in charge of a Commissioner appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. Its functions are to have a general oversight of the agricultural industries throughout the province. It

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QUEBEC. (By G. A. Gigault.) The agricultural interests of Quebec are advancing rapidly, in keeping with the rapid increase in the population. The progress between the census years of 1891 and 1901 has not only continued unabated but has increased. The value of dairy products in the factories of the province was $2,918,527 in 1891 and $12-, 874,377 in 1901, showing an increase of 341 percent. The increase in the number of its factories represents 68.5 per cent of the increase for the whole of Canada. Dairying and hay- and grain-growing are practiced in every part of the province. Market - gardening flourishes near the cities, especially in the neighborhood of Montreal. The raising of beefcattle is a business of considerable impor- 5J tance in the eastern townships. There are numbers of orchards in the Montreal district and in the eastern townships, where large quantities of apples, pears, cherries, and other fruits are grown. Fruit-growing 48' is less prosperous in the district of Quebec, where the climate is colder; but even here there are good orchards of apple, plum and cherry trees. Excellent Swedish turnips are produced for the table. They are in great demand on the Montreal market and elsewhere.

As England imports great quantities of butter, cheese, bacon, beef-cattle and fruit, and as all these products are admitted duty free, Quebec naturally seeks to supply this market. The transportation by water greatly facilitates this trade.

Formerly, a large part of the agricultural produce was sold on the American market; but this trade has diminished because of the almost prohibitive duties imposed by the American government, and development of the agricultural resources of the American republic. The English market has become more profitable. While striving to enlarge the dairy industry, the province is actively engaged in improving its breeds of horses, and in advancing its fruit and bacon interests.

The total land area of Quebec is 222,080,000 acres. Of this, according to the Census of 1901, 14,444,175 acres were occupied, of which 7,439,941 acres, or 51 per cent, are improved. The total value of the farm property was $436,076,916. The total value of the farm products was $85,034,401. The values of the chief sources of income were: Field crops, $44,851,108; dairv products, $20,207,826; meats, $8,006,328.

The circulation of agricultural publications is increasing. The "Journal of Agriculture and Horticulture," published by the Department of Agriculture, has more than 63,000 subscribers.

The Department of Agriculture of the province has its headquarters in the city of Quebec; it is in charge of the Minister of Agriculture. The agricultural and dairy societies, the agricultural and dairy schools, the fanners' clubs, the fruit-growers' associations, the inspection of butter and cheese factories, and everything that relates to agriculture are under its control. The province has two agricultural schools, Oka and Ste. Anne-de-la-Pocatiere. There is also a large dairy school at St. Hyacinthe, with a farm attached. The Macdonald School of Agriculture, with the finest outfit of its kind in the Dominion, is to be opened in the near future at Ste. Anne de Bellevue. Last year 575 farmers' clubs received grants from the Department of Agriculture. The minimum of the grant is $25, and the maximum $50. The farmers' institutes are held


Fig. 26. The Province of Quebec.—The upper parts of the province are unsettled. In the southwestern part, about the cities of Quebec and Montreal, the agricultural industries are developed. About Montreal, near the southern boundary, market - gardening and fruit-growing are prominent. In Montcalm and Joliette counties, E, H, tobacco is grown. In L'lslet county, F, above the city of Quebec, there are also plum orchards. In the eastern townships between, Montreal and Quebec and south of the St. Lawrence river, beef cattle and apples are important products. In Quebec county, C, Swedish turnips are prominent. The parallel dotted lines extending outward from the St. Lawrence River are boundaries of counties.

through the farmers' clubs. To be entitled to a grant, a club must hear at least one lecture on agricultural matters during the year. Eleven lecturers are employed by the Department. A club may be organized in any parish or township. The leading agricultural associations in the province are: Quebec Dairymen's Association, Quebec Pomological Society, the Eastern Townships, Three Rivers and Quebec Exhibition companies. A provincial fair is held every year at Sherbrooke, under the control of the Eastern Townships Exhibition Company. The province has also seventy-four county agricultural societies and several local horticultural societies.

ONTARIO. (By C. A. Zavitz.) The types of agriculture chiefly represented in Ontario are stock-raising and fruit-growing. Of these, the former is decidedly the more important, and is subdivided into pure-bred stock-raising, dairy-farming, beef production and mixed-farming. It is difficult to describe just what is meant by mixed-farming, as it includes different lines of work, several of which are conducted simultaneously on each farm. Some of its chief factors are seed production, hog-raising, sheepraising, poultry-raising, bee-keeping, sugar-beet production, potato-growing, flax-growing, the production of hops, and other enterprises.

Fruit-farming is confined mostly to the shores of

Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, but stock-raising is practiced generally throughout the province. The dairy industry is developed principally in Oxford county, in southwestern Ontario, and throughout the district lying between the Ottawa and the St. Ijaw


Fig. 27. The main agricultural regions of Ontario.—A (perpendicular shading), an unsettled region adapted to mixed-farming; B (horizontal), beef and pure-bred stock; C (oblique upward left), dairy; D (oblique right), fruit; E. bogs and sugar-beets. The vast region lying north of Lake Huron and Lake Superior is frequently spoken of as "New Ontario."

rence rivers, in the eastern part of the province. Pure-bred stock is produced in many counties, among which may be mentioned Ontario, Middlesex and Wellington. For the production of beef-cattle, the counties of Huron, Middlesex, Bruce, Grey, Perth, Lambton and Kent are among the most prominent, all in the south-western part. Essex and Kent are noted for the development of the swine industry. The growing of hops is prominent in Prince Edward county, and of sugar-beets in Waterloo, Kent, Essex and Lambton counties. The remainder of the province is not easily classified, as the mixedfarming is so subdivided that there is a great blending of the various branches.

Ontario is essentially an agricultural province. It is especially suitable for the production of live-stock of high quality. The soil and climate are conducive to the successful cultivation of cereals, root-crops, and many of the important fodders, including field peas, rape, clover, and, in some sections, corn, sorghum and alfalfa. The cultivated grasses, which are sown, and the Canadian and the Kentucky blue grasses, which grow naturally, make excellent pastures. The abundant supply of stock feed, the natural distribution of pure water, and the very healthful climatic conditions are among the important features that make the province of Ontario so suitable for the live-stock industry.

The United States customs tariff on cereals and hay has been a blessing to the farmers of Ontario. It has compelled them to feed the great bulk of their crops to their own farm stock. This has resulted in a great development of the live-stock industry, an improvement in the fertility of the land, and the establishment of an excellent market in Great Britain for animal products.

It is likely that the future development of Ontario agriculture will be along the line of a more intensive system of farming, a still further improvement of the live-stock interests, and a greater export trade of concentrated products, such as cheese, butter, bacon, hams, beef, mutton, poultry, eggs, seed peas, clover seed, and the like. The market value of Ontario live-stock has increased sixty million dollars, or fully sixty-five per cent, within the past seven years.

The total land area of Ontario is approximately 126,000,000 acres. Of this, in 1904 there were 24,138,846 acres in farms, of which 13,809,368 acres, or 57 per cent, were cleared. The number of farms in the province was then 175,000. The total value of the farm property was $1,127,915,338. The total value of farm products, exclusive of crops fed to livestock, was $180,000,000. The chief sources of income were: Cattle, $26,342,872; swine, $22,665,164; cheese, $12,908,118. The agricultural organization of Ontario is directed by the Ontario Department of Agriculture, presided over by the Minister of Agriculture, who is a member of the legislature and has a seat in the Provincial Cabinet. The Deputy Minister supervises the work, which is subdivided into various branches. The Agricultural College and Experimental Farm are situated at Guelph. The Macdonald Institute is part of the college, devoted to domestic science, naturestudy and manual - training. This institution is maintained by annual grants of the legislature. The well-equipped Experimental Farm at Ottawa is under the direction of the Dominion government. There are three dairy schools maintained by the Department, at Guelph, Kingston and Strathroy. Two dairymen's associations are organized. The Department maintains a staff of over thirty dairy instructors, who go from factory to factory giving instruction, and holding meetings of patrons. Six provincial live-stock associations are supported,— horse, sheep, swine, cattle, and two poultry associations. These associations, under the Provincial Director of Live-Stock, conduct two winter fairs, at Guelph and Ottawa. A provincial fruit-growers' association is assisted. The Department also maintains a series of experimental fruit farms, and con ducts spraying experiments in various fruit-growing sections. Under the Provincial Superintendent of Agricultural Societies, expert judges are sent to exhibitions, and the educational features encouraged. Four hundred agricultural and horticultural societies receive grants through the Department. The Superintendent of Farmers' and Women's Institutes directs organization in all parts of the province, and arranges meetings. The institutes receive annual grants, and the services and expenses of speakers are paid by the Department. The Ontario Bee-Keepers' Association receives a grant, and the

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