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services of an Inspector of Foul Brood are paid for by the Department. An annual grant is made to the Provincial Entomological Society. The Department at Toronto prints and publishes all the reports and bulletins in connection with the above
associations, those of the Agricultural College, and statistical reports of crops and farm operations. The net appropriations for agricultural work in Ontario for 1905 amounted to $362,000, in addition to $39,000 voted under Capital Account.
2. NEW ENGLAND
MAINE. (By S. L. Boardman.) The variety of soils, range of crop production, water supplies, climatic conditions, stock husbandry and markets favor a high type of agricultural development in Maine. In classification of soils, the state possesses clay loam, light or friable sandy loam, mountain interval, river-bottom interval, salt marsh (diked) and fresh meadow. The surface is irregular and picturesque—from the mountains of the mid-interior to the beautiful beaches of its extended coast. There are over 5,000 rivers and streams sufficiently large to be noted on the state map, and 3,800 square miles of lake and pond surface. But two other states in the Union have a larger area of water surface. Its forest area comprises 23.700 square miles, or seventy per cent of its total area. Government forestry experts estimate that there are about 12,000,000 acres covered with merchantable forest.
Agricultural lands of greatest value are in Aroostook, Kennebec, Androscoggin, Somerset and Franklin counties, in the northern, western and western-central parts of the state. Outside of Aroostook, its northern county, the best farmed sections are those in the central part of the state, along its large rivers where water-powers have been most improved, in the regions of its greatest lakes, and where its railroad systems have been most completely developed. Farms in the valleys of the Kennebec, Androscoggin and Sandy rivers are the best lands for the cereals; the uplands are fine for grazing and orcharding: on the clay bottoms hay is the chief crop.
The general type of agriculture is that of mixed husbandry, embracing stock-raising, dairying, orcharding, and the growing of Indian corn, grass and the grains. In specialties, the leading systems are potato-growing, orcharding, dairying, the srowing of sweet corn for packing factories, and truck-farming in the vicinity of the larger cities and leading summer resorts.
The climate is very uniform, healthful, and favorable to agriculture. The cold is not so severe in winter as it is at points in the west and northwest of the Union in corresponding latitudes. This is due to the alleviating influence of the surrounding ocean, the effect of which, though it be to lower the mean of the year, raises it for the winter. For a period of thirty-five years, ending in the year 1904, the mean temperature for January was sixteen degrees Fahr., and for July, sixty-seven and one-tenth degrees. From records kept for thirty-two years, the mean precipitation is
43.24 inches. Evenness of distribution in rainfall is an important condition to the state's productiveness.
The hay crop is about 1,100,000 tons, outranking that of all other New England states. Sixty-four corn-packing factories require the product of 15,000 acres of sweet corn annually. Apples have a high value for their keeping qualities, and are largely shipped to foreign markets—Glasgow, Liverpool and London. The report of the state assessors for 1904 gave the value of all live-stock as $14,136,662. In thoroughbred stock of all classes, in the best families of coach, work and light-harness horses, the state holds high rank.
Railroads extend to all parts of the state and afford good transportation facilities. The manufacturing centers, large cities, and the growing importance of the now famous summer resorts, Bar Harbor, Kineo, Poland Spring, the lake sections, and the
beaches, stimulate agriculture in the lines of truckfarming, small-fruits, poultry, egg production and early lambs.
The Northern Maine Seaport railroad from Lagrange Junction to Stockton on Penobscot Bay insures coast markets without limit for seed and table potatoes. Tens of thousands of car-loads annually find their way out all rail, and are distributed to every state and territory. Stockton harbor is one of the best on the coast. Lines of European steamers also make Portland their fall and winter terminus and take large shipments of apples, while summer steamers at all resort points give good facilities for the summer marketing of truck crops.
It seems probable that future development of the agriculture of the state will be made in the lines of dairy-farming, potato-growing, small-fruits and truck-gardening for summer-resort markets, and in
Fig. 29. A New England farmstead.
general stock-raising, especially in sheep husbandry.
The total land area of Maine is 19,132,800 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 6,299,946 acres are in farms, 2,386,889 acres of which, or 37.9 per cent, are improved. There were then 59,299 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $122,410,904. The total value of the farm products was $37,113,469. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $16,298,422; hay and forage, $10,641,546; dairy products, $8,182,344; vegetables, $4,957,451.
The land grant institution of Maine is the University of Maine at Orono, of which the Experiment Station is a branch. The officers of the various state agricultural associations are connected with the College of Agriculture and the Experiment Station in an advisory capacity. In 1901 the State Roard of Agriculture was abolished, and in its place was created a State Department of Agriculture, with a chief executive officer who is Commissioner of Agriculture, with headquarters at Augusta. This officer is director of the farmers' institutes, two of which are held in each of the sixteen counties each year, with larger state meetings making about forty-five in all. The state has a Commissioner of Forestry and a chair of forestry in the College of Agriculture. There are now forty-three incorporated county and local agricultural and horticultural societies, which receive about $10,000 in bounties from the state. There are three state fair associations, a State Pomological Society, State Dairymen's Associa
tion, State Horse Breeders' Association, State Board of Cattle Commissioners, and a State Poultry and Pet Stock Association.
NEW HAMPSHIRE. (By Fred W. Morse.) Dairying is the foremost agricultural industry in New Hampshire, since dairy farms include over thirtyfive per cent of the farm lands, while the mixed farms, and live-stock farms, on which dairying is an important feature, bring the percentage to eightyfive. Less than five per cent of the acreage of the state is included in farms devoted solely to such specialties as vegetables and fruit. A few farms in the southwestern part of the state are devoted to tobacco, and a still smaller acreage is included in florists' establishments.
Hay is the most important crop, occupying more than half of the improved land; but it is nearly all consumed on the farm, and forms a minor item in products sold.
Assuming that the farm income consists of all products not fed to the live-stock, dairy products constitute about one-third of it. Forest products come next in gross value, closely followed by that of animals sold alive or slaughtered. Poultry and eggs nearly equal the preceding source, and are a little in excess of the combined value of potatoes and vegetables. Fruits yield about half the value of the total vegetable product, and are about equaled by hay sold. Grain, wool and maple-sugar are minor products in the state as a whole, but constitute important side lines throughout the western counties.
The physical features of the state affect its agriculture to a marked extent. The surface is hilly and mountainous, and the principal farming regions are therefore in the valleys of the Connecticut and Merrimac rivers and their tributaries, and along the short coast-line. Railroads are confined mainly to the level regions mentioned, as are also manufactures.
In the northern half of the state barely half the area is included in farms; the remainder consists of forest land and bare mountain summits. The summer visitors to this section make a demand for dairy products, poultry, small-fruits and vegetables.
Climatic conditions restrict the peach to the southern half of the state, and hinder the successful growth of corn in Coos county, comprising the northern end of the state.
Dairying is distributed throughout the state, but reaches the highest development in Grafton county, in the center of the state. It is much modified by local conditions of transportation and market. Much of the milk is shipped to Boston, though a considerable proportion is sent to creameries. The live-stock industry is most prominent in the central and western parts. Grafton and Coos counties are large producers of potatoes and oats.
Over ninety per cent of the farms are worked by the owners, and the agricultural population is made up almost wholly of native-born New Englanders. There will be in the future a much less number of hay farms, but practically all other lines mentioned will increase. In the past, there has been a steady decrease in the proportion of improved land on the farms, until it is now less than thirty per cent of the farm area, while of this there is only about onetenth tilled each year. With extended use of machinery and horse labor, more land can readily be brought under tillage, and an increased production assured. The total land area of New Hampshire is 5,763,200
71 Fig. 30. Leading agricultural areas in New Hampshire. A. best farming region, creameries: B. milk, fruit, vegetables and best farming: C, largely mountains and forests; D, hilly and mountainous, with fewer good forests.
acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 3,609,864 acres are in farms, 1,076,879 acres of which, or 29.8 per cent, are improved. There were then 29,324 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $85,842,096. The total value of the farm products was $21,929,988. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $10,062,877; hay and forage, $6,336,252; dairy products, $5,591,272; vegetables, $1,717,772.
The New Hampshire College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, and the Agricultural Experiment Station, are located at Durham. The State Board of Agriculture consists of ten members, appointed by the Governor, and the secretary, who is the executive officer. Its office is at Concord. It has charge of all police and inspectional work relating to agriculture, and conducts the farmers' institutes. The State Grange of Patrons of Husbandry is the strongest and most influential agricultural organi
zation. The Granite State Dairymen's Association, and the New Hampshire Horticultural Society, receive aid from the state, and each holds an annual exhibition and one or more institutes. The State Cattle Commission, made up of three members appointed by the Governor, has charge of all measures for suppression of contagious diseases of live-stock. The Commissioner of Immigration, an appointed official, is engaged in advertising the agricultural possibilities of the state. There is a Forestry Commission, and a New Hampshire Society for the Preservation of Forests. The principal fairs are the Concord State Fair and the Rochester Fair. None of the fair associations receive state aid. There are also several poultry associations holding annual exhibitions.
VERMONT. (By J. L. Hills.) Butter and cheese, maple-sugar and syrup, live-stock and lumber are the main agricultural products of Vermont. Its farms carry more dairy cows than do equal areas in any other state. The numbers per farm are exceeded only in New York, New Jersey, Illinois and California, which serve large centers of population. Over 40,000,000 pounds of butter and 5,000,000 pounds of cheese are made annually, the one nearly the equivalent, and the other three times the output of the other five New England States. Most of the butter is made in the northern two-thirds of the state, and of the cheese in the four southern counties. A small but increasing fraction of the milk is sold as such or as cream in southern New England.
The live-stock industry outclasses that of other New England states in total values and in values per farm. The relatively large area enables Maine to make a better gross showing in horses, sheep and poultry; but in all other respects, and overwhelmingly as regards neat cattle, Vermont takes the lead. Few, if any, of the states use so large a proportion of their total agricultural production for stock-feeding purposes.
Vermont has long been a leader in the production of maple-sugar goods. Nearly a third of the world's crop comes from its maple groves, and three-fifths of this is contributed by five of the northern counties. The bulk of this commodity is sold as sugar, but increasing amounts are put up as syrup. Both products have a wide reputation as table luxuries, and Vermont's name is too often used to aid the sale of sophisticated goods that are neither of local birth nor of maple origin. Maple goods are produced in all parts of the state.
More than half the total area is in forest, mostly second growth. The contour of state lines is mainly determined by the topography. The Green Mountain system occupies most of the territory outside of the Champlain and Connecticut valleys, forming a great Y facing north. These mountain slopes are mostly covered with forest growths, which have been and are a source of wealth.
Apple-orcharding in the Champlain Valley, merino sheep and Morgan horse-breeding in Addison county, in the western part of the state, and tobacco-growing in the lower Connecticut valley in the southeastern part are localized industries of importance.
New York, as well as Boston and other southern New England centers, are readily reached by rail, while Lake Champlain and the Hudson River furnish water communication. The 33,000 Vermont farms are mainly occupied by owners, only one in seven being farmed by tenants. The French Canadian is frequent, yet the old New England stock is still in the ascendant. A distinctly hopeful attitude as to the future of Vermont agriculture is more in evidence than it was a decade ago. Its development seems likely to be along the lines of increased dairy husbandry, renewed activities in the raising of crossbred sheep and of horses of roadster type, and, in the event of the enactment of adequate national pure food legislation, of a marked revival of the maple industries.
The total land area of Vermont is 5,846,400 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 4,724,440 acres are in farms, 2,126,624 acres of which, or 45 per cent, are improved land. There were then 33,104 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $108,451,427. The total value of the farm products was $33,570,892. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $17,373,169; hay and forage, $10,544,825; dairy products, $9,321,389; cereals, $2,446,585.
The land grant college of Vermont is united with the State University at Burlington under the corporate title of the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, the Experiment Station being
conduct of farmers' institutes and the publication of an annual report are its only functions, except that one of its members is ex-officio State Forestry Commissioner. The state fair is at present in a mori
Fig. 31. Characteristic buildings of central and northern New England, the house and barn joined by kitchen and woodshed.
bund condition. The leading agricultural societies in the state are: Vermont Dairymen's Association, Vermont Sugar Makers' Association, Vermont Horticultural Society, Vermont Bee-keepers' Association, Vermont Merino Sheep Breeders' Association, Vermont Morgan Horse Breeders' Association.
MASSACHUSETTS. (By George E. Stone.) The types of agriculture represented in Massachusetts are somewhat varied and of a mixed class, such as are essential for supplying the large home market and which can be profitably grown on its soils for home consumption. Massachusetts, however, is not an agricultural state, as that term is usually employed, and the amount of produce which it exports is unusually small. It depends on the West for its cereals, and large amounts of fruit are imported. Outside of what may be termed general farming, which consists in the production of milk, fodder, potatoes, and the like, there are special industries, as the growing of fruit, tobacco, onions, cucumbers for pickling, asparagus, cranberries and other specialties. Considerable interest is given to the poultry and the dairy industries, the latter having reached, in many instances, a high state of efficiency in recent years. The most important feature in the agricultural development is the intensive agriculture as practiced by market-gardeners. This branch has received considerable attention, and remarkable skill has been developed. Intensive agriculture, as here applied, includes cultivation of outdoor crops, but equally important is greenhouse work. There are many establishments devoted to cultivation of lettuce, cucumbers, tomatoes, beets, rhubarb and other things for the winter market. The yields and profits of intensive agriculture not infrequently show that thirty-six square feet of ground surface in a greenhouse will yield more profit than an acre of wheat, and $1,000 or more per acre is occasionally obtained from outdoor crops. A certain amount of greenhouse products is sent out of the state. There is also extensive floricultural work.
The distribution of various types of agriculture
are based, first, on market conditions, and second, on adaptability of the soil. The soil of the Connecticut Valley, in which fine sand and silt predominate, is especially adapted to the production of tobacco and onions, while the sandy bogs on Cape Cod are utilized in growing cranberries. The very dry, sandy regions are employed to a considerable extent for asparagus-growing.
The climatic conditions do not differ much in the various parts of Massachusetts, although some variation in temperature exists, due to location with reference to the seacoast. The maximum elevation above the sea is 3,000 feet. A large part of the farming area is from 200 to 1,000 feet above the sea. There are some variations in the types of soils found in Massachusetts. In general, the percentage of coarse sand increases and clay decreases toward the seaboard, while the percentage of clay increases and of coarse sand decreases toward the western boundary. The variability in sand and clay is quite uniform, although exceptions are found where river valleys cross the state. The western part of the state is mountainous and is well covered with forest growth. In the central part of the state there exists a considerable number of clay hills, or drumlins, the result of glacial action, which furnish rather distinct soil characteristics. These are particularly adapted to pasturage and hay crops. The future development of agriculture in Massachusetts is likely to be along intensive lines, with particular attention given to specialties.
The total land area of Massachusetts is 5,145,600
The land grant is divided in Massachusetts.
i. mt. n T A-a i . Massachusetts. — A,cranberries; B,grant. The Bussey Institution, where agri- .narketgardening; c, tobacco; D,cultural experimentation and teaching are onions; E. greenhouse vegetables; TM/zjf/4'L2\pursued, is located at Jamaica Plain, and is F-dalryin'1 *nd hayi G'poul,ry- « ^^i'v^Aa part of Harvard University. Elementary agricultural training, particularly along the floricultural lines, is given at Smith College, Northampton; Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley; Wellesley College, Wellesley; Simmons College, Boston, and some minor institutions. The federal and state experiment stations are located at Amherst, and are under a single management, and known as the Hatch Experiment Station. The State Board of Agriculture is in charge of a secretary, who is elected by the Board. This Board has direct or indirect relationships with farmers' institutes, nursery inspection, bounty money for fairs, the dairy, and cattle bu
reaus, the Agricultural College and Experiment Station, and agricultural societies. The State Board of Agriculture is composed of thirty-two members, chosen by the incorporated agricultural societies of the state, together with three members appointed by the Governor and Council. There is no single state fair in Massachusetts. The various societies that have representation on the State Board of Agriculture hold agricultural fairs, all under state control, with bounties from the state treasury. There are thirty-two incorporated agricultural societies, nine horticultural societies, six farmers' organized associations, eight farmers' and mechanics' clubs, eighteen farmers' clubs, eighteen poultry associations, and eighteen miscellaneous organizations more or less closely associated with agriculture. There is also a large and well organized Grange, or Order of Patrons of Husbandry. Some of the leading agricultural societies are as follows: The Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, founded in the eighteenth century; the Bay State Agricultural Society; the Massachusetts Horticultural Society; the Worcester Horticultural Society; the Boston Market Gardeners' Association; the Massachusetts Creamery Association; the Massachusetts Fruit Growers'Association; the Farmers' and Cattle Owners' Association, and the Massachusetts Forestry Association.
RHODE ISLAND. (By G.E.Adams.) Many types of agriculture are represented in the state, varying from general farming to the most highly specialized forms of gardening requiring acres of glass for their highest development. The western and southern part is devoted to general agriculture, except in the immediate vicinity of the manufacturing towns and shore resorts, where many small
market-gardens are found. This section is hilly and for the most part heavily wooded. Lack of proper transportation facilities has prevented the development of the western part. In the northern section of the state the farms are largely devoted to the production of milk, a ready market, easy of access, being furnished by the many manufacturing centers in this part of the state.
Fruit, although not grown exclusively in any part of the state, is produced in larger quantities in the central-northern part than elsewhere, apples being the principal crop grown. There are many other