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NEW YORK

fairs are entitled, under certain conditions, to receive state aid. The leading agricultural societies in the state are as follows: State Grange, State Agricultural Society, State Breeders' Association, State Dairymen's Association, State Fruitgrowers' Association, Western New York Horticultural Society, State Sheep Breeders' Association, State Poultry Society, State Association of BeeKeepers' Societies, State Association of Agricultural Societies, State Association of Union Agricultural Societies. These various organizations are represented in New York State Association for the Promotion of Agricultural Science and Research.

PENNSYLVANIA. (By John A. Woodward.) Perhaps no state in the Union has a wider range of lines, varieties or types of agriculture than Pennsylvania. General farming, dairying, fruit-growing and truck-gardening find their successful followers in all parts of the state, though there is, of course, a degree of specialization due to physiographic and climatic variations.

Corn and the winter cereals are less successful in the northern border counties than in the central or southern parts. In the northern third of the state dairying in all its forms, and fruit-growing, are largely specialized, and oats, hay, buckwheat and tobacco succeed well and are profitable, though more general farming is not neglected, and maple-syrup and sugar add appreciably to the income. The altitude and the rolling character of this section, and the bountiful water-supply, make it a fine pasture-producing area, and dairying has nowhere in the state a larger possible margin of profit.

Corn and wheat probably find their best development south of the center of the state and east of the Alleghany Mountains, though the southwestern section is little, if any, behind.

The great valleys of the central and southern parts of the state are well adapted to general farming, and in these localities may be found its highest development. Lancaster county, on the southern border, is recognized as the richest agricultural county in the Union, and the immense wealth gathered by its farmers is largely to be credited to the tobacco and grain crops and a generally followed system of cattle-feeding.

In the southeastern section, including the half dozen counties surrounding the wonderful market of Philadelphia, dairying and truck-growing are conducted under high pressure, and there is perhaps no other area of equal size in the world where these types of agriculture have reached a higher development, furnished a larger margin of profit, or are conducted by a class of people of higher attainments in all that goes to make life on the farm desirable and beautiful.

The products of Pennsylvania iron-mines, coalmines and oil-wells are magnificent contributions to the commerce and general well-being of the nation, but it is susceptible of statistical verification that the agriculture is many times greater in value and importance than all of these combined. It is only fair to add, however, that this is largely due to the immense consuming population required

PENNSYLVANIA 43for the prosecution of the mining and manufacturing industries.

The transportation facilities are of the very best, and rapidly improving. Of the sixty-seven counties, but a single one is not traversed by railways, and interstate lines give the cheapest of access to the great corn, hay and wheat belts of the West and Middle West. Adding to this fact the wonderfully rapid accession to the non-producing but always consuming population, it seems probable that future developments of the bulk and value of agricultural products will be in the direction of dairying, truckgardening and other food supplies that bear long and cheap transportation less well than the great staples.

The total land area of Pennsylvania is 28,790,400 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 19,371,015 acres are in farms, 13,209,183 acres of which, or 68.2 per cent, are improved. There were then 224,248 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $1,051,629,173. The total value of the farm products was $207,895,600. The values of the leading products, were: Domestic animals, $97,424,119; hay and forage, $37,514,779; dairy products, $35,860,110; cereals, $50,809,541.

The land grant college is the Pennsylvania State College, located at State College. A State Department of Agriculture has headquarters at Harrisburg, with a secretary and deputy secretary, both appointed by the Governor, as chief officers, the latter having special charge of farmers' institutes. The Department has general charge of the agricultural interests of the state in so far as they are regulated or affected by law. There is also a State Board of Agriculture, the members of which are elected by county agricultural societies. The chief

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Organizations of Pennsylvania. The general purpose of this organization is the advancement of agricultural education within the state.

NEW JERSEY. (By E. B. Voorhees.) By nature New Jersey is equipped to produce and distribute just the crops demanded by its many markets. From the cranberry bogs and sweet-potato lands of southern New Jersey to the peach country in the north, there is a great diversity of soils, and consequently

of crops. There is a strip of red shale soil or clay marl, extending through the center of the state, which enables a majority of farmers to practice mixedfarming. This industry is especially profitable in the central counties. Poultry - raising is a growing industry, predominating in Ocean, Atlantic and Cumberland counties, in the central and southern part, where the soil and climate are ideal. Dairy-farming is very generally and profitably practiced in the western counties, with Philadelphia as a market; in the northern, with New York, Jersey City, Newark and suburbs; and in the eastern, with the ocean resorts as markets.

The best dairy breeds of cattle are found in Somerset, Burlington and Camden counties, in the central part of the state. Horses, swine and sheep are successfully bred in various sections of the state, the farmers in Hunterdon county, in the northwest, being especially fortunate in securing very early lambs for the New York market.

Next in importance to dairying is market-gardening and trucking; over 1,500 teams daily cross the ferries into Philadelphia alone, while an equal number travel to New York and other large cities. The farmers do their own carting largely, because of the good roads throughout the state. This branch of agriculture predominates in sections near New York and Philadelphia, where good drainage, sandy warm soil, and easy distance from the markets are combined advantages.

Practically all vegetables are grown. Of special crops, potatoes rank among the first. In good years 4,250,000 bushels of Irish potatoes are grown in the state. The sweet-potato thrives in several counties, and 2,500,000 bushels is a good yearly average

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Fig. 38. New Jersey, showing main agricultural regions.—A. dairying; B. general farming; O, market-gardening; D. potatoes, hay and corn; E. potatoes, tomatoes, sweet-potatoes, melons; F, corn, hay, potatoes, dairying, G, fruit and berries, sweet-potatoes.

production. Melons are raised at a profit in the southern counties, and asparagus is depended on in Monmouth and Gloucester counties, in the central and southern part of the state. The Pequest valley in the northwest is noted for its celery and onions.

The canning industry is increasing in importance, large quanties of peas, beans and tomatoes being grown for this purpose in the southern part of the state.

Peaches are the leading fruit, and are grown largely in the northwestern corner. The small-fruits, apples, pears, plums, cherries and quinces prefer the south of the state. Grapes are proving very profitable in Atlantic, Cumberland and Cape May counties, in the south. In 1892, 100,000 gallons of wine were sold from Egg Harbor. Thousands of acres of cranberry bogs are situated in the pine barrens of Ocean and east Burlington counties in the east-central part of the state. Huckleberries grow wild very extensively; in Cumberland county, millions of quarts are picked each year.

The total land area of New Jersey is 4,816,000 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 2,840,966 acres are in farms, 1,977,042 acres of which, or 69.6 per cent, are improved land. There were then 34,650 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $189,533,660. The total value of the farm productswas $43,657,529. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $16,269,548; dairy products, $8,436,869; cereals, $6,938,690; vegetables, $8,425,596.

The resources of the state in soil, drainage, climate, season and average rainfall (45-47 inches yearly),the exceptional facilities for travel and communication, together with the growing demand consequent on the growth of the large cities, the improving methods of marketing, and the increasing dissemination of practical knowledge, should make the New Jersey farmer one of the first in the Union.

The land grant college of New Jersey is a part of Rutgers College at New Brunswick; the federal Experiment Station is a department of it. There is a well-equipped State Experiment Station at New Brunswick, founded in 1880. This station has charge of the inspectional and police work of the state as it affects agriculture. There is a State Board of Agriculture, founded in 1872, with headquarters at Trenton, and county boards of agriculture in nineteen counties. This State Board of Agriculture is controlled by a board of directors consisting of two delegates from each of the county boards. The State Board has charge of the farmers' institutes. The State Tuberculosis Commission, located at Trenton, has charge of the bovine tuberculosis in the state, and is governed by a board appointed by the president of the State Board of Agriculture. The leading agricultural societies are the State Horticultural Society and the State Cranberry Association. The State Weather Bureau is located at Atlantic City.

DELAWARE. (By J. A. Foord.) Delaware is distinctly an agricultural state, although the manufacturing city of Wilmington is within its borders. According to the Census of 1900, the population of the whole state was 184,735, and of Wilmington 76,508; of the 108,227 people in the state outside of Wilmington, only 17,910 are to be found in the eight towns of more than one thousand inhabitants.

The state is on the shores of Delaware bay and the Atlantic ocean, and geologically most of it is a part of the Atlantic coastal plain. There are three counties, and in a general way the agriculture is divided by county lines. In the northern county, Newcastle, most of the farms are devoted to dairying and general farming; good yields of wheat and corn are the rule and not the exception. The upper third of the county is rolling, the remaining twothirds practically level; clay or clay loam is the predominating soil type. In 1875 the center of the peach industry of Delaware was in the southern part of this county, but since then it has been gradually moving southward.

Kent, the central county, has a more sandy soil than Newcastle. About one-half of this county has been surveyed by the agents of the Bureau of Soils of the United States Department of Agriculture; of the area mapped, seventy-five per cent consists of Norfolk loam, Portsmouth sandy loam, and Norfolk silt loam. In this county, fruit-raising and market-gardening, both for immediate shipment and canning, are the principal agricultural industries; dairying is not important and is usually conducted by means of the silo or soiling, as much of the soil is too sandy for either good or permanent pastures. Peaches, apples, plums, pears, grapes, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, dewberries, asparagus, tomatoes, sweet corn, sweet and Irish potatoes, watermelons, canteloupes and corn are some of the most important products raised for the market. Poultry - raising is also a profitable industry.

Sussex, the southern county, is the largest in area. Corn and wheat have long been staple crops, but are being replaced by small-fruits; of these, strawberries are the most important and are shipped in enormous quantities, with good returns. All the products raised in Kent county will grow in Sussex, but have not been introduced to the same extent. Pine is still growing on some areas, and springs up rapidly whenever land is left uncultivated. The soil varies from a strong loam to a very light sand.

Taken as a whole, the state is level, free from stones, and has a fertile and easily tilled soil. The rainfall is between forty-five and fifty inches annually. The climate is temperate. All the cultivated legumes grow in Delaware and are of great value to the farmer; crimson clover {Trifolium incarnutum) has been the most important, but vetches, cowpeas, alfalfa and others are being introduced, and all furnish an easy means of soil enrichment. The large cities of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia and

New York are all within two hundred miles, and furnish good markets for fruit and produce. Good railroad transportation is furnished, but competition is demanded and may be provided by electric lines in the near future. There are several streams running into Delaware Bay and one into Chesapeake

Bay that are navigable for small steamers, and regular communication is maintained with Philadelphia and Baltimore for both freight and passengers.

Large farms of four to six hundred acres are not unknown in Delaware, but the average area of the farms is 110 acres. As in other states, the labor question is not yet solved, and this is probably one of the reasons why only 49.7 per cent of the farms are operated by their owners ; of the remaining number, 42.5 per cent are conducted by share tenants and 7.8 per cent by those who pay a cash rental. This ratio is undoubtedly changing. Farms are being divided and more intensive methods adopted. The State Board of Agriculture is also a Bureau of Immigration, and considerable information has been distributed, with the result that farmers from other states and Canada are settling in Delaware. If present events are an indication of future happenings, Delaware will continue to furnish the fruits of the temperate zone to the inhabitants of the large cities.

The total land area of Delaware is 1,254,400 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 1,066,228 acres are in farms, 754,010 acres of which, or 70.7 per cent, are improved land. There were then 9,687 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $40,697,654. The total value of the farm products was $9,290,777. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $3,733,335; dairy products, $1,092,807; cereals, $3,032,513; vegetables, $1,144,221; fruit, $756,449. These figures need explanation. They are based on the crop of 1899. With the exception of 1890, the peach crop in Delaware in 1899 was the poorest on record since 1866. In 1899 there were only 3,157 baskets of peaches carried by the Delaware division of the Pennsylvania railroad, while the shipments over the same road for the three succeeding years were as follows: 1900, 2,634,203 baskets; 1901, 1,111,582 baskets; 1902, 1,772,223 baskets. These figures comprise shipments from the entire peninsula, but do not include shipments by water nor fruit used by canneries. The average fruit crop of Delaware is worth nearly two million dollars.

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Fig. 39. The picking of cranberries. The pickers are '' lined off" by the cords stretched across the bog. This fruit is much grown in New Jersey and Massachusetts.

Delaware College, at Newark, is the land grant institution of the state; the professor of chemistry

is ex-officio State Chemist, and has charge of the inspection of fertilizers. The federal Experiment Station is a department of the college, and the State Board of Health laboratory is located there, although the latter is under an independent and entirely different board of control. The State College for Colored Students is at Dover. The State Board of Agriculture consists of three members appointed by the Governor, and a corresponding secretary, who supervises the work. The Board has an office in Dover, and, in addition to its other duties, has charge of nursery inspection and the control of contagious animal diseases. An annual fair is held under the auspices of the State Grange. The Peninsula Horticultural Society holds its meetings on alternate years in Delaware and Maryland, and receives small appropriations from each of these states. Farmers' institutes are under the direction of county organizations that may call on the state director for assistance and suggestion.

MARYLAND. (By H.J.Patterson.) The agriculture of Maryland is conducted on many different kinds of soils, and under a wide range of climatic conditions, owing to the considerable variations that exist between the tide-water lands at sea-level in the east and the mountain lands over 200 miles to the west with an elevation of as much as 3,000 feet.

For the purpose of agricultural classification Maryland is naturally divided into four parts, viz.: eastern, southern, north-central and western Maryland.

Eastern Maryland, known as the " Eastern Shore," lying between Chesapeake Bay and the ocean, is uniformly level, with fairly good roads, and well watered from tidal estuaries or creeks. This section has a long growing season and short, mild winters. The soil is early. The transportation facilities by water and rail are very good. The main crops of this section are the staples, with corn and wheat predominating, peaches, early vegetables, smallfruits and canning crops.

The soil and climate of southern Maryland are well adapted to tobacco-growing, and the best tobacco in the state is grown here. Much land is also devoted to the staple crops and to vegetables and small-fruits. Dairy-farming is profitable, especially near Washington. The transportation facilities by water and rail are good.

The soil of north-central Maryland is mostly stiff clay and clay loam, generally underlaid with rock and well drained. The valleys are usually very fertile. Mixed husbandry largely predominates. Dairying, trucking and canning are very prominent.

Western Maryland is chiefly mountainous and coal-mining is an important industry. The land is well adapted to grazing and stock-raising, and these should be more largely pursued than at present. Apples do well here. Oats, buckwheat and potatoes are the principal crops. Garrett county produces annually about 250,000 pounds of maple-sugar, and almost every farm has a chestnut grove, which adds considerable to the revenue. Washington and Frederick counties abound in productive land, and the best farms in the state are found in this division. The land is mostly of limestone origin.

Maryland stands first in the amount of tomatoes and peas canned, and fourth in corn. Nearly onethird of the total amount of tomatoes and one-fourth of the total amount of peas canned in the United States are packed here. All classes of vegetables and fruits are packed to some extent, and oysters and crabs extensively. Baltimore, Washington and Philadelphia give good markets for all kinds of products, especially milk and cream. The state was famous for its peaches until these were wiped out on the Eastern Shore by peach yellows, but the industry is now again on the increase. Pears, plums and cherries are grown extensively in many parts of the state. Apples grow well in all parts. Chestnuts, shellbarks, English walnuts, filberts and pecans do well in many parts of the state. Small-fruits are also extensively grown, the strawberry being the most important, though raspberries and blackberries also occupy a prominent place. Trucking will always be one of the great specialties of the state. Poultry, hogs and sheep are probably the most profitable live-stock. Hogs are raised in the dairy and mixed husbandry sections of the state, and are a paying industry. Sheep-raising, especially the raising of early lambs, is a remunerative business, and should be extended.

The total land area of Maryland is 6,310,400 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 5,170,075 acres are in farms, 3,516,352 acres of which, or 68 per cent, are improved land. There were then 46,012 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $204,645,407. The total value of the farm products was $43,823,419. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $19,636,844; dairv products, $5,228,698; cereals, $14,505,992; vegetables, $5,315,732.

The land grant institution of Maryland is designated as the Maryland Agricultural College, at Col

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lege Park. The Experiment Station is a department of it. The State Department of Farmers' Institutes, the State Horticultural Department, and the State Fertilizer and Cattle Food Control are all departments of the Agricultural College. There is no state department or commissioner of agriculture. The leading agricultural societies are as follows: The Maryland Farmers' League, which is made up of delegates from all the farmers' organizations in the state; the State Horticultural Society and the Peninsula Horticultural Society. The state fair has no permanent home, but acts in conjunction with the county fairs, taking them in rotation. The State Bureau of Industrial Statistics, at Baltimore, collects information on agriculture, and the State Bureau of Immigration aims to develop the rural sections and settle persons on the farm lands.

VIRGINIA. (By H. L. Price.) Virginia consists of six natural divisions, each having its own peculiar soil types, and, to a less extent, its characteristic climate.

Beginning on the northwestern border of the state, the division known as Appalachia consists chiefly of high mountain ranges and deep, narrow valleys. This section not only abounds in minerals, but its soils are well adapted to stock-raising, general farming and fruit-growing. Lack of transportation facilities to some extent prevents an extensive development of the latter two industries, hence we find stock-raising the chief type of farming. Bluegrass grows everywhere and, on the better types of soil, export cattle of the finest grade are finished on grass.

The next section is the great valley of Virginia, comprising the Shenandoah and other valleys. Here the soil is mostly limestone clay, and grain-growing becomes the most important industry. Grazing and trucking are followed in the southwest, while fruit-growing has become of paramount importance on certain poorer soil types of Augusta and Frederick counties. Betetourt, which lies in the middle part of this section, has long been noted for its canning industry.

The Blue Ridge parallels the great valley on the southeast, and comprises a narrow mountainous strip of territory which is not especially adapted to farming except in the mountain passes and in the southern part, where this range widens out into a broad plateau, and includes the counties of Floyd, Carroll and Grayson. Here the soil is well adapted to general agriculture and to fruit-growing, but transportation facilities are very poor.

To the east lies the piedmont section, which includes the foothills of the Blue Ridge; this comprises a narrow strip of territory extending from the northern to the southern borders of the state. Grainfarming and fruit-growing are the principal industries. Stock-raising, especially the raising of fine horses, and dairying are practiced in certain local

ities, but the chief difficulty is a soil not adapted to grass. This does not apply in Rappahannock and Loudoun counties, where grasses thrive with little attention.

The fifth section is known as middle Virginia. Geologically this is the oldest section of the state, and the soils are generally poor. Tobacco is the main crop, while corn and wheat succeed on the best types of soil.

Lastly, tidewater is the largest natural division of the state, and comprises some several thousand square miles of territory. This is preeminently the trucking area of the state. The soil is light and responsive and the climate mild, and the entire area is destined to become one vast garden in the near future. General crops are not extensively grown, the chief products being sweet-potatoes and various other truck crops.

On the whole, the state is rich in natural resources, and the future wealth is chiefly dependent on the development of its agriculture. Transportation facilities are good. Besides the several railways traversing the state, an immense water-front is offered in bays, estuaries and navigable rivers. Fruit-growing is developing at a rapid pace in certain sections and is destined to become one of the principal phases of the agriculture of the state.

The total land area of Virginia is 25,680,000 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 19,907,883 acres are in farms, 10,094,805 acres of which, or 50.7 per cent, are improved land. There were then 167,886 farms in the state.

The total value of the farm property was $323,515,977. The total value of the farm products was $86,548,545. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $39,831,552; hay and forage, $7,670,082; cereals, $23,759,479; vegetables, $9,083,274.

The land grant college of Virginia, known as the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, is located at Blacksburg. The federal Experiment Station is a department of it. The inspectional work for insects and plant diseases is under the charge of the State Crop Pest Commission. This work is supported by state funds, but is under the direction of the Vir

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Fig. 41. A backwoods home In the piedmont country.

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