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ginia Polytechnic Institute Board. A State Test Farm has been recently established at Saxe, under the control of the State Board of Agriculture. This Board is appointed by the Governor, while the Commissioner of Agriculture, who acts as its secretary, is elected by the people. The headquarters of the State Department of Agriculture is at Richmond. It has charge of such work as ordinarily falls to an agricultural department; also, the inspectional work
relating to fertilizers. The State Board of Agriculture and the Experiment Station, at Blacksburg, cooperate in the farmers' institute work. The state fair has been recently reorganized and will be permanently located at Richmond. The leading agricultural societies are the Virginia State Horticultural Society and the State Farmers' Institute. The latter society has permanent headquarters in the city of Roanoke.
4. SOUTHERN EAST-CENTRAL OR APPALACHIAN STATES
WEST VIRGINIA. (By Horace Atwood.) The state of West Virginia, taken as a whole, is mountainous or hilly, and is somewhat sparsely settled. It is traversed from northeast to southwest by the Appalachians,and this mountainous region comprises about two-fifths of the area of the state.
The agriculture in the mountains is confined mainly to the raising of cattle and sheep, but on some of the ridges apples and peaches have been found to grow remarkably well. As soon as transportation facilities are improved, this will undoubtedly become one of the great fruit-producing sections of the United States. A large part of the mountainous area is still heavily timbered.
The remainder of the state, although even this is somewhat hilly and broken, is devoted to general agriculture. Corn, wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat, potatoes and tobacco are raised, and a considerable amount of live-stock is kept. The bottoms along the rivers are very fertile, but the soil of the uplands is thin in many sections, and is better adapted to grazing than to the production of crops. Over much of the state, and especially on the limestone soils,
Fig. 42. Distribution of agriculture in the Virginias. A, fruit and general agriculture; B, grazing and general agriculture; B, in Virginia, also cabbage; C, D (mountainous), grazing or stock-growing the chief industries; E, grain-growing; F, general agriculture: H, fruit; K, grain and fruit; L, tobacco, corn, wheat; M, truck; N, fruit in mountain gaps.
blue-grass grows to perfection, and many export cattle are shipped directly from the pastures. Dairying is not much engaged in, although it would seem that the conditions are particularly favorable for the development of this branch of agriculture. The climate is mild and agreeable, and the precipitation is abundant and well distributed.
West Virginia is one of the chief coal-producing states of the country, and the numerous busy mining towns afford ready markets for farm produce. Dairy and poultry products are particularly high in price, and large quantities of butter, cheese, eggs and poultry are shipped in from other states to supply the demand.
The mining and manufacturing towns are increasing rapidly in size and number, and the agricultural development has failed to keep pace with the increased demands for farm products. This condition will soon be changed, as local consumption is stimulating production, and a more intensive and diversified agriculture will result throughout the state.
The total land area of West Virginia is 15,772,800 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 10,654,513 acres are in farms, 5,498,981 acres of which, or 51.6 per cent, are improved land. There were then 92,874 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $203,907,349. The total value of the farm products was $44,768,979. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $29,231,832; hay and forage, $5,517,073; dairy products, $5,088,153; cereals, $11,571,334.
The land grant institution of West Virginia is the West Virginia University, located at Morgantown. The federal Experiment Station is a department of it. There is a State Board of Agriculture, with headquarters at Charleston, whose duty it is to devise means of advancing the agricultural interests of the state, to promote the holding of farmers' institutes, to encourage the organization of associations in the interest of agriculture, and to have charge of the contagious diseases of animals. The Experiment Station has charge of the inspection of fertilizers and nurseries. The leading agricultural organizations of the state are as follows: West Virginia State Horticultural Society, West Virginia State Poultry Association, West Virginia State Dairy Association, West VirginiaState Wool-Growers' and Sheep-Breeders' Association. There is no state fair, but the Horticultural Society, the Poultry Association and the Dairy Association hold exhibitions in connection with the annual meetings.
KENTUCKY. (By J. N. Harper.) In Kentucky there are five regions, each differing in soil, and to some extent in climate; namely, the mountainous section of the east, the low foot-hills of the south,
the high plateau and rolling hills of the central and northern part, the alluvial soils along the Ohio and Green rivers, and the low, clay lands of the west and south. The different soil types and climatic conditions of these five regions are the chief factors in controlling the distribution of agricultural products.
In the mountainous region of the east and in the low foot-hills of the south there are many types of soils, varying from sandstone to poor shaly clays. The bottom-lands are highly productive, timothy, red-top, oats and maize being grown successfully. But the agricultural resources of these regions are not developed; the main industry is the lumbering of hard woods, and mining in some parts.
The soil of the gentle rolling hills of the central and northern part of the state, formed by the disintegration of silurian limestone, consists of a fine loam with a clay subsoil. This region is known as the "blue-grass region" of Kentucky. In this region nine-tenths of the hemp grown in the United States and nearly all of the White Burley type of tobacco are produced. Corn, wheat, oats, clover, timothy, sorghum, potatoes, cowpeas, and all kinds of vegetables and small-fruits are grown. It is by a judicious rotation of crops in connection with the use of the land for pasturage that the wonderful productiveness of the soil is maintained undiminished. This fact has made the region for decades famous the world over for its fine horses and cattle.
The alluvial soils of the western-central part of the state, along the Ohio and Green rivers, are entirely different from the soil of the blue-grass region. This section produces millions of pounds of the dark export tobacco, known as the Green River tobacco, and is well suited to the growing of maize, various grasses and peas. Truck-farming is extensively conducted in the vicinity of Louisville and Owensboro, onions, cabbages, potatoes and beans being especially productive.
The southwestern division consists of red clay lands, which are productive. The chief crops are dark export tobacco, corn, wheat, clovers, peas, potatoes, timothy, oats, orchard-grass, red-top and other grasses.
By its many navigable rivers and different railway systems nearly all parts of Kentucky, except the mountainous region of the east, are well supplied with facilities for marketing crops. The agricultural conditions of the future will be little influenced by the building of new railroads, except that there are some soils, well adapted to trucking, that might be profitably used for this line of agriculture if better transportation facilities could be had.
Kentucky is destined to lead the world some day in animal husbandry. Its soil and climatic conditions are ideal for the raising of horses, mules and beefand dairy-cattle.
The total land area of Kentucky is 25,600,000 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Re
port (1900), 21,979,422 acres are in farms, 13,741,968 acres of which, or 62.5 per cent, are improved land. There were then 234,667 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $471,045,856. The total value of the farm products was
Pig. 43. Agricultural regions in Kentucky and Tennessee. Kentucky — A (mountainous section, undeveloped), lumbering: B (blue-grass region), live-stock, hay, grain, hemp and vegetables: O (low foothills), hay and grain in the bottom lands; D (low lands), tobacco, grain and hay: E (alluvial soils), tobacco and trucking. Tennessee—A (slope of west Tennessee), silt soils adapted to wide range of crops; B (Mississippi bottoms), adapted to corn, cotton, wheat, alfalfa, etc.: G (western valley), river lands, are very fertile; D (highland rim), red soils adapted to general farming, gray soils less fertile, exzensive phosphate deposits; E (central basin), clay loams, suited to general farming abound; G (Cumberland plateau), timber and cattle ranges, orcharding, grape-growing, etc., also coal; H (valley of East Tennessee), general farming, ridges adapted to orcharding; I (ITnaka range, eastern boundary of Tennessee), timber and some grazing for stock, scattered fertile valleys.
$123,266,785. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $70,488,187; dairy products, $9,985,540; cereals, $39,692,771; tobacco, $18,541,982.
The land grant college is at Lexington, known as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky. The federal Experiment Station is a department of it. There is a State Department of Agriculture, with headquarters at Frankfort, in charge of the Commissioner of Agriculture, who is elected by the people. This Department has charge of the state farmers' institute work; and it collects statistics of agricultural conditions at stated intervals during the year. It also has charge of the labor statistics. A state fair has been held for the last four years under the management of the State Livestock Breeders' Association. The legislature of 1906 passed an act providing for a permanent state fair, with location to be decided. The leading agricultural and horticultural societies in the state are the State Horticultural Society and the Live-Stock Breeders' Association.
TENNESSEE. (By Chas. A Mooers.) Soil and climatic conditions of Tennessee are unusually favorable to the profitable production of a wide range of crops. Corn, wheat, grass and forage crops are staples in practically every county in the state. Cotton is a staple crop in about one-half of the counties. Tobacco-growing could be extended over an area equally large, and is of importance over about one-fourth of the state. Clarksville, in the northwest, and Greeneville, in the eastern part, are 5. ATLANTIC COTTON STATES
the centers of tobacco production. Peanuts, millet for seed, and broom-corn are general farm crops in some localities. Trucking and small-fruit-growing have assumed much importance in west Tennessee. Early Irish potatoes and strawberries for the northern markets are grown in other sections. Commercial peach- and apple-orcharding are not well developed. Extensive fruit- and ornamental-tree nurseries are maintained in various parts of the state.
Geographical position, soil, climate and water, which is plentifully supplied in springs and streams the state over, are all favorable to stock husbandry. Good horses and mules, beef animals, hogs and sheep are all raised, and these industries will bear extension. Dairy-farming is being developed. Poultryraising has received a marked impetus in the last few years.
There are eight well-defined agricultural sections, due to variations in soil texture and fertility and to altitude. These areas may be described as follows (the letters designating the areas on the map):
I. Unaka range. The area of this section is about 2,000 square miles. It furnishes timber and some grazing for stock, and there are scattered fertile valleys.
H. Valley of east Tennessee. This covers an area of about 9,200 square miles. Clay soils, well suited to general farming, predominate. The ridges are adapted to orcharding.
G. Cumberland plateau. Thin, sandy and clayey soils cover this section, which is valuable for timber and cattle ranges; also for orcharding and grapegrowing. This is the coal area of the state.
D. Highland rim. This section surrounds the central basin and has an area of about 9,300 square miles. The red soils are well adapted to general farming. The gray soils are less fertile. The phosphate deposits are extensive.
E. Central basin. This has an area of about 5,500 square miles. It is the richest agricultural section and is characterized by blue-grass and stock. Durable clay loams, well suited to general farming, abound. Rich phosphate beds are mined.
C. The western valley. This has an area of some 1,200 square miles. The river lands are very fertile.
A. Slope of west Tennessee. The area is about 8,850 square miles. Silt soils, adapted to a wide
range of crops, characterize this section, which leads in the production of cotton.
B. Mississippi bottoms. This area is about 950 square miles. The land is of almost inexhaustible fertility, adapted to corn, cotton, wheat, alfalfa.
The rivers furnish about 1,200 miles of navigable water, which gives important means of transportation to more than one-third of the counties. Five railroad systems have a total of 3,161 miles of road in the state, so that out of the ninety-six counties only sixteen are without a railroad and only eight without either steamboat or railroad transportation. The counties containing the larger cities and towns are well supplied with macadamized roads.
The home demands take practically all the hay and forage and the larger part of the corn and wheat. Cotton, tobacco, peanuts, trucking crops and nursery stock are extensively shipped out of the state, as are also various classes of live-stock and poultry. The future agricultural development promises to be great in all kinds of live-stock farming, especially dairying, in trucking, and in fruitand fruit-tree-growing.
The total land area of Tennessee is 26,720,000 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census (1900), 20,342,058 acres are in farms, 10,245,950 acres of which, or 50.4 per cent, are improved. There were 224,623 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $341,202,025. The total value of the farm products was $106,166,440. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $58,043,895; dairy products, $8,028,466; cereals, $36,914,592; cotton, $9,166,688.
The University of Tennessee, located at Knoxville, is the recipient of the land grant act, and the federal Experiment Station is a department of it. Nashville is the headquarters of the State Department of Agriculture, which is in charge of a Commissioner of Agriculture appointed by the Governor. This Department has direction of the inspectional and police work of the state as respects agriculture, and of the farmers' institutes. A state fair has recently been established, with headquarters at Nashville. The leading agricultural societies in the state are: The East Tennessee Farmers' Convention, the Middle Tennessee Division Institute, the West Tennessee Division Institute and the Tennessee Horticultural Society.
NORTH CAROLINA. (By W.A.Withers.) About one-fifth of the North Carolina farms are grain and hay farms, nearly one-fifth are cotton farms, about one-eighth live-stock, one-twelfth tobacco, a little over one per cent vegetable farms, and one per cent fruit farms. Over one-third of the farms of the state cannot be classed as special.
The state is divided into three sections, which differ very much from each other, viz.: The western or mountainous section, the middle or piedmont section, and the eastern or coastal plain section. The mountainous section has an average elevation of 4,000 feet, although it drops somewhat at the northern
and southern extremities. The area of the section is about 6,000 square miles. This plateau contains the largest masses and the highest summits of the Appalachian system. It includes Mount Mitchell, the highest peak on the eastern half of the continent, with an elevation of 6,711 feet, forty-two other peaks of over 6,000 feet, and twice that number which approximate this altitude. In the mountainous section are many fertile valleys, coves and slopes, which are well suited to corn-, fruit- and stock-raising. The cabbage and Irish potato reach their best development here. The mean annual temperature is about fifty-six degrees and the rain
fall fifty-three inches. In it are various belts which are untouched by frost.
The central or piedmont section comprises about one-half of the area of the state. This section is rich in water-power, and the cotton factories and mining interests are more developed than elsewhere. Here cotton and tobacco are grown most extensively, and grain, hay and fruit find congenial conditions. The mean annual temperature is sixty degrees and the rainfall fifty inches.
The eastern section of the state has been under cultivation in some parts for over two hundred years. In the early days the grape grew here luxuriantly. The upland soil of the eastern section is for the most part a sandy loam overlying clay, with an increasing amount of organic matter as the coast is approached. This section is well suited to cotton, corn, peanuts and Irish and sweet-potatoes. Tobacco culture has recently been introduced very successfully. Rice and sugar-cane are grown with profit in the southern part. Grass grows well, and the conditions are very favorable for the development of the live-stock industries. Here the mean annual temperature is sixty-one degrees and the rainfall fifty-five inches.
North Carolina has no large cities. The manufacturing centers offer good markets for the farm products. The transportation facilities are good, having the ocean and several navigable streams in the east, and three large railroad systems with their branches and smaller connecting lines throughout the state. In many sections there are modern and well-constructed earth roads.
The agricultural development is along the lines of stock-raising, trucking, fruit-growing, diversified farming and the introduction of improved agricultural implements.
The total land area of North Carolina is 31,091,200 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 22,749,356 acres are in farms, 8,327,106 acres of which, or 36.6 per cent, are improved land. There were then 224,637 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $233,834,693. The total value of the farm products was$89,309,638. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $28,242,147; cotton, $17,987,723; cereals, $22,082,175; tobacco, $8,038,691.
The federal appropriation for the establishment of land grant colleges has been divided between the white and the black races in proportion to population. The institution for the whites is at Raleigh, and was opened in 1889. The institution for the colored race is in Greensboro, in the northcentral part of the state, and was established in 1891. The federal Experiment Station is a department of the Agricultural College at Raleigh. There is a State Department of Agriculture, with headquarters at Raleigh, in charge of the Commissioner of Agriculture, who is elected by the people. The college for the whites, the Experiment Station, and the Department of Agriculture are under the control of the State Board of Agriculture, consisting of ten
members appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the senate, and of the Commissioner of Agriculture, who is ex-officio chairman of the Board. The Agricultural College for the colored race at Greensboro is under the management of separate Boards of Trustees similarly appointed. The State Department of Agriculture has charge of the legal, inspectional and police work of the state as it affects agriculture; of the farmers' institutes, and of the test farms which have been established in various sections. The state fair is permanently located at Raleigh, and is under the control of the North Carolina Agricultural Society. Leading agricultural societies are: The State Horticultural Society, the Cotton-Growers' Association, Tobacco-Growers' Association, Truckers' Association, Nature Study Society, Commission for Controlling Crop Pests, Dairymen's Association, Poultry Association, State Farmers'Alliance, the State Highway Commissioners.
. 44. Leading agricultural regions of
SOUTH CAROLINA. (By C. L. Newman.) The predominating type of agriculture in South Carolina is that of mixed-farming. Cotton holds the position of greatest importance, and is grown throughout the state with the exception of the upper edges of the two extreme northwest counties (Oconee and Pickens). Corn is grown throughout the state for home consumption, very little being marketed outside the state.
The climatic and physiographic features of the state have a marked effect on agriculture, since the elevation varies from sea-level to the mountains in the northwest, the highest of which (Mt. Pinnacle) reaches an altitude of 3,424 feet. This difference in elevation, in association with proximity to sea and variation of soil, gives a regular gradation of conditions from sea to mountains, dividing the state into four sections: (A) The tide-water area, where rice, sea-island cotton and truck-gardening are the predominating types, each, in certain localities, being specialized; it also produces sweet-potatoes and sugar-cane. (B) The coastal plain section, extending from the tide-water section to a line running from Augusta, Georgia, to Columbia, and thence through Lancaster and Chesterfield counties. This section produces, in addition to cotton and corn, the principal crops, tobacco, oats, cowpeas, sorghum, potatoes, strawberries, lettuce, asparagus, cucumbers, peas, beans, radishes and cabbages. Trucking for northern markets has assumed important proportions and is becoming a prominent industry. (C) The third section shades from the coastal plain into the foothills, becoming somewhat rugged northward, the line of demarcation being more geological than agricul
Fi£. 45. South Carolina.—A (tide-water region, below 1), given to seaisland cotton and trucking; B (coastal plain, below 2), cotton, corn and general crops; C (foot-hill or piedmont region, below 3),|cotton, corn, fruit, small grain; D (mountain region), farming restricted.
tural; and it is separated from the preceding section by the tertiary coast-line. Cotton is the chief product, but corn is extensively grown and the trucking interests are of some consequence, strawberries, cantaloupes, watermelons and peaches being grown in certain parts, particularly along the southern border of this area between Columbia and Augusta, Georgia. Extensive peach plantings are being made in the extreme northwestern part of the section. In this upper third of the state, small grain is grown. In the northeastern part, tobacco is extensively grown, and some attention has been given tea culture. (D) The fourth section is mountainous and sparsely settled. On the tillable land, cabbages and Irish potatoes do well and apples of the finest quality and appearance are produced to a limited extent. This area will some day produce many apples.
Distance from market and unsatisfactory railroad rates have confined the bulk of trucking interests near the coast; but, as better railroad facilities develop, trucking will become a very important industry. Too little attention has been paid to stock-raising and diversification, but there is a
strong tendency in both directions and to an increase in the areas devoted to truck crops and fruit. The climatic and soil conditions are excellent for these purposes, and when the ;.'^p/*E-*i* value of Bermuda Fig. 46. A sea-island negro cabin, grass for hay is bet
ter appreciated and the coarser forage plants better understood, the live-stock industries will become an important type of agriculture. The future development will be in the direction of diversification and specialization in crops other than cotton.
The total land area of South Carolina is 19,308,800 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 13,985,014 acres are in farms, 5,775,741 acres of which, or 41.3 per cent, are improved land. There were then 155,355 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $153,591,159. The total value of the farm products was $68,266,912. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $19,167,229; cotton, $34,563,553; cereals, $12,722,415; vegetables, $4,064,847.
The land grant college is designated officially as The Clemson Agricultural College of South Carolina. The federal Experiment Station is a department of it; a branch station is located near Charleston and is known as The Coast Branch Experiment Station. The college has control of fertilizer inspection, veterinary and sanitary work and entomological state inspection. There is a State Agricultural and Mechanical Society, with head-quarters at Columbia. The State Fair Association is organized and conducted under the auspices of this society on permanent grounds. The Department of Agriculture, Commerce and Immigration, with headquarters at Columbia, is in charge of the Commissioner of Agriculture appointed by the Governor. There is a South Carolina Live-Stock Association. The director of farmers' institutes is also director of the Experiment Station and of the agricultural department of Clemson College.
GEORGIA. (By H. N. Starnes.) While Georgia is essentially a cotton state, ranking next to Texas in total output, its peculiar topography renders possible a remarkably diversified agriculture. Latitude and elevation combine to create an extensive climatic range, since the land rises gradually from the coast to the Tennessee line, where some of the mountains attain an altitude of about 5,000 feet. This exaggerates the four and one-half degrees of latitude covered by the state into probably double that number, and gives rise to the following crop zones or belts:
1. The rice belt, confined to the narrow tidewater strip of the coastal plain. The rice industry is declining in Georgia, however, and is being partially superseded by trucking.
2. The sea-island cotton belt, a zone extending inland from the coast from eighty to one hundred and thirty miles in breadth. Its northwestern limit is being steadily pushed farther inland and will soon be coterminous with the yellow (or long-leaf) pine region. The soil of this area is principally gray, light, and easily worked, and is underlaid by the yellow tertiary sands. Commercial melon-growing is confined chiefly to this belt.
3. The upland cotton belt, covering the remainder