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products. The river furnished the means of transportation before the era of railroads and even now is a factor in securing reasonable rates. The milling interests and the numerous railways have doubtless encouraged grain-raising and prolonged it beyond the point of profitableness. The farmers are industrious and progressive, and under the stimulus of better agricultural education are giving up the practice of exclusive grain-raising.
The future agriculture in Minnesota will be toward more intensive and diversified farming. The depletion of the forests in the northeastern section and drainage of the flat lands of the northwest will bring the northern half of the state into nearly as great agricultural productive capacity as the southern half. Grains, grasses, live-stock, dairy products, fruits and vegetables will gradually supplant the lumbering, mining and milling interests, and will retain for Minnesota the place it now holds among the foremost agricultural states.
The total land area of Minnesota is 50,691,200 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900),26,248,498 acres are in f arms,18,442,585 acres of which, or 70.3 per cent, are improved land. There were then 154,659 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $788,684,642. The total value of the farm products was $161,217,304. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $86,620,643; hay and forage, $14,585,281; dairy products, $16,623,460; cereals, $85,817,555.
The land grant college of Minnesota, located at St. Anthony Park, is part of the State University, at Minneapolis. The federal Experiment Station is a department of the college, but located at St. Anthony Park. Two agricultural high schools as branches of the Agricultural College have been organized, one of which is located on the college farm, and in ten years has grown to have six hundred students. The other was recently established by the state legislature at Crookston, to accommodate the farm boys and girls of the several Red river valley counties in northwestern Minnesota. Well equipped sub-experiment stations are located at Crookston and Grand Rapids. The State Dairy and Food Commission, appointed by the Governor, is in charge of the pure food laws and creamery inspection work. The State Live-Stock Sanitary Board, also appointed by the Governor, is in charge of the police work relative to live-stock diseases. There is also a State
10. NORTHERN PLAINS
SOUTH DAKOTA. (By J. W. Wilson.) During the past few years South Dakota has made rapid progress along agricultural lines. This progress can be attributed to the large ingress of population from foreign countries and the Mississippi valley states. Only a few years ago it was classed as a prairie state where live-stock was brought in the spring, pastured on free range during the summer, and shipped to market in the fall. But today conditions are different. Through the efforts of the United States Department of Agriculture, in cooperation
Fig. 74. Leading agricultural regions of Minnesota.—A (the pine land area), mineral deposits, fruit-growing, dairying, grasses and other forage Props; B (hardwood area), dairyfarming practicable; C (Red river valley), grains, grasses and other forage crops yield abundantly; D (rolling prairie), adapted to diversified farming, corn, grains and grasses successfully grown.
Board, composed of the presidents of the agricultural, horticultural and dairymen's associations, together with three members of the Board of Regents and the Governor of the state, ex-officio. The leading agricultural societies are as follows: State Horticultural Society, State Dairymen's Association, Livestock Breeders' Association, Field Crop-Breeders' Association, Poultry Association, Good Roads Association, State Drainage Association, State Forestry Association and Farmers' Club.
STATES AND PROVINCES
with the Experiment Station, numerous seeds of grains and grasses from foreign countries have been introduced and adapted to its conditions.
As to kinds of farming practiced, the state may be divided into two sections, with the Missouri river as a dividing line, although general farming is practiced in the Black Hills region to a considerable extent. In the eastern section diversified farming is practiced nearly exclusively. With the exception of corn, all crops that can be grown in the corn-belt can be raised here. In the northern part of this section it is problematical whether the larger dent corns can be considered a safe crop, owing to the cool nights and short growing season. However, the southern part of the state east of the Missouri river may be considered safely in the dent-corn belt. In the western part of this eastern section, much of the land is still in native prairie, but is rapidly being divided into farms of quarters, halves and sections.
The area west of the Missouri is used principally for grazing purposes. But new lines of railways are under construction, the government land is being rapidly taken, and there is no question but that this section will be much more densely peopled than at present.
South Dakota has a soil so rich that no commercial fertilizers will be needed for years to come. There is an abundance of good water at a moderate depth, and there are extensive artesian well basins east of the Missouri river. Owing to the large area, the climatic conditions vary considerably in different parts of the state; but, where there is sufficient rainfall, good crops are produced. Good facilities are provided for reaching market. The greatest need of the state today is more people to improve the lands by intelligent tillage.
The greatest industry is that of raising live-stock. The quality is being improved as numerous herds of full-bloods are established in each county, especially in the eastern section.
As for the future, with the high-priced lands in the great corn-belt states, with the effort that is being made by the federal government to make productive large tracts of lands in the semi-arid regions, and with the introduction of animals and grains of the best types in the world, South Dakota must be considered as one of the most promising agricultural states in the Union.
The total land area of South Dakota is 49,184,000 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census 19,070,616 acres are in farms, 11,285,983 acres
Fig. 75. Agricultural regions of South Dakota.—A (oblique shading to right), grazing: B (to left), corn: D (wavy shading), general mixed-farming; C (small circles), artesian wells region.
of which, or 59.2 per cent, are improved. There were 52,622 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $297,525,302. The total value of the farm products was $66,082,419. The values of the leading products were:
Fig. 76. Bams, sheds and feed-lots on an Angus breeding farm in corn-belt of the Missouri valley country.
tural College. The Hatch Experiment Station, by law, is made a part of the College. There is a State Board of Agriculture appointed by the Governor; the principal duty this Board performs is to have charge of the state fair, which is held in Huron annually on permanent grounds. All vacancies on this Board are filled by direct appointment of the Governor. The state has farmers' institutes conducted by a board consisting of the Regent's Committee for the Agricultural College and the president of the Agricultural College. The principal agricultural societies are: The South Dakota Improved Live-Stock and Poultry-Breeders' Association, the South Dakota Swine-Breeders' Association, the South Dakota Wool-Growers' Association, the South Dakota Poultry and Pet Stock Association, the South Dakota Dairymen's Association, the South Dakota ShorthornBreeders' Association, the South Dakota HerefordBreeders' Association and the South Dakota State Horticultural Society.
NORTH DAKOTA. (By J. H. Shepperd.) The agriculture of North Dakota represents four types: Grain-farming; mixed grain-farming and stock-raising; dairy-farming; and mixed-farming, with ranching predominating. The Red river valley, long the famous grain-growing district, is now changing to mixed-farming. Small but constantly increasing numbers of live-stock are being produced annually without reducing the yearly output of grain. The vast native fertility of the region particularly fits it for grain production. With the advent of mixedfarming, medium-sized and small farms are gradually replacing the bonanza enterprises. The district indicated as a mixed-farming region depends on small grain as the chief money product; while the crops of this section constitute the chief income, they are strongly supplemented by the income from the sale of livestock. The land in this section is somewhat undulating. While it is mostly tillable, there is a small percentage that must be grazed to realize an income from it. In the farming districts of the state, flax flourishes unusually well and is frequently a better money-maker than wheat. Barley also proves a profitable crop and is largely produced.
Strains of Indian corn have been bred to suit this region, and they are grown as a rotation crop with small grain. Changing from small grain to corn proves a great advantage since it stimulates the production of small grain crops, while the corn produced carries large numbers of live-stock, which add to the income and also to the fertility of the land. The market for vegetables, other than potatoes, is confined to the local demand of the few small cities of the state.
The region designated on the map as engaged in dairy-farming produces a large quantity of small grain annually, and has been unusually successful in the production of durum wheat. There are many successful creameries in this section. Dairying seems to be spreading into the newer districts and is probably destined to take a prominent part in the future development of the state.
The stock-raising or ranching district is now confined to the rough and broken region known as the "bad lands," where the grass cures on the prairie in nutritious form and constitutes a provender that will nourish animals during the autumn and winter as well as in the spring and summer. The change in North Dakota is unquestionably toward mixedfanning and more intensive and painstaking methods.
The total land area of North Dakota is 44,924,800 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 15,542,640 acres are in farms, 9,644,520 acres of which, or 62.1 per cent, are improved land. There were then 45,332 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $255,266,751. The total value of the farm products was $64,252,494. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $41,951,659; hay and forage, $5,182,917; dairy products, $2,853,133; cereals, $40,126,051.
The land grant college of North Dakota is located at Fargo, known as the North Dakota Agricultural College. The federal Experiment Station is a department of it. There are two branch experiment stations supported by the state, one of which is located at Edgeley and the other at Dickinson. There is a State Department of Agriculture, with headquarters at Bismarck, in charge of the Commissioner of Agriculture and Labor, who is elected for a two-year term. This Department has charge of the state statistics, the legal registering of brands, and licensing of live-stock used for breeding purposes, and, at intervals, is required to gather data showing the advantages that the state offers to prospective settlers. The farmers' institutes are placed in charge of a governing board consisting of the president of the board of trustees, president of the college, professor of agriculture and professor of dairying of the agricultural college, and the Commissioner of Agriculture and Ijabor. The state fair is held at Grand Forks on the oddnumbered years and at Fargo on the even-num
bered years. The leading agricultural societies of the state are the North Dakota Live-Stock Association, Grain-Growers' Association, Horticultural Society, Dairy Society and State Poultry Association.
MANITOBA. (By W. J. Black.) In the province of Manitoba grain-growing is the most important type of agriculture. In 1905, 2,643,588 acres of wheat were grown, yielding an average of 21.07 bushels per acre; oats, 1,031,239 acres were grown, yielding an average of 42.6 bushels per acre; barley, 432,298 acres, yielding 34.2 bushels per acre. Of all the other grains, including flax, rye and peas, about 34,000 acres were grown. In some sections dairying is practiced; it has not yet become one of the most important industries, but the local market for dairy products is growing rapidly and there is reason to expect that the dairy business will develop steadily. In all parts of the province, live-stock-raising is conducted to some extent and a large number of cattle are shipped to the British market.
All parts of the province, except certain undrained areas, have been found well adapted to grain-growing. Many districts without good natural drainage have had large drains put in by the government, and land-owners in turn have had similar drains directed to the main channels. The result of this is that
. 77. North Dakota.—A, mixed-farming, ranching predominating; B, mixed grain - farming and stock-raising; C, dairyfarming; D, grain-farming.
much land that was previously considered unfit for cultivation is proving very valuable, both for graingrowing and mixed-farming. The soils of the province vary from heavy clay to sandy loam, yet little difference has been found in the average yield of wheat on the different kinds from year to year.
The average rainfall has been found quite sufficient to produce a profitable crop of grain on welltilled soil.
During the last few years the country has become traversed by a network of railways, until it is safe to say that the average farmer in the principal agricultural districts of the province is not more than six miles from a railway. Markets for farm produce are therefore within easy reach.
The population of Manitoba may be said to be cosmopolitan in the highest sense. The older districts are peopled very largely by settlers from eastern Canada and United States and Great Britain. During
Pig. 78. Main agricultural parts of Manitoba.—A. wheat-raising and mixed-farming; B, grain-raising and dairying: C, timber; I), undeveloped, adapted to farming.
recent years, a large number of settlers have come from Iceland, Norway and Sweden, Germany, France and Austria, and it is gratifying to know that all have become assimilated into one homogeneous population.
In regard to the future agriculture of Manitoba, there is little doubt but that it will develop in the direction of more mixed-farming. There is a tendency on the part of farmers to raise more stock and develop the home dairy, and depend less on wheat as a money-maker.
The total land area of Manitoba is 47,331,840 acres. The number of acres in farms is 5,500,000, practically all of which may be considered improved land. There are approximately 46,000 farms in the province. The total value of the farm property is now approximately $200,000,000 and is increasing rapidly. The total value of the farm products for 1905 is estimated at $81,115,000.
There is an agricultural college now being established near the city of Winnipeg. Connected with this, are 117 acres of land, a large part of which will be used for demonstration purposes. At the city of Brandon there is an experimental, or test farm, which has been in operation for twenty years. This institution is under the control of the Dominion Government. The Department of Agriculture controls the agricultural societies and farmers' institutes of the province, and supports them annually by means of financial grants. There are at present fifty agricultural societies and twelve farmers' institutes. The only difference between these two kinds of organizations is that the agricultural societies each year hold an exhibition of live-stock and agricultural produce, for which substantial prizes are given. There are also four agricultural and arts associations, whose chief function is to hold exhibitions. One of these, the Winnipeg Agriculture and Arts Association, holds a show each year that corresponds with the state fairs held in various states of the Union. These fairs are also held at Brandon, Neepawa and Killarney. There is a Provincial Live-stock Association, Provincial Dairy
Association, Provincial Horticultural Association, Provincial Bee-Keepers' Association and a Provincial Poultry Association.
SASKATCHEWAN. (By J. R. C. Honeyman.) The characteristic type of farming in the province of Saskatchewan at present is the growing of grain, chiefly wheat, for export. In some districts especially suited to the purpose, mixed - farming is followed, while in others cattle-ranching on a considerable scale is the chief industry. The following are the official figures of grain production, acreage and yield per acre for 1904: Wheat—bushels, 14,674,730; acreage, 910,359; yield per acre, 16.11 bushels. Oats—bushels, 10,756,350; acreage, 346,530; yield per acre, 31.04 bushels. Barley—bushels, 598,336; acreage, 24,650; yield per acre, 24.47 bushels. Flax—bushels, 166,384; acreage, 15,917; yield per acre, 10.45 bushels.
The province includes an area of 250,119 square miles, of which 6,629 square miles is water surface. Only about one-half of this area—the southern part—is under settlement. This forms the major part of the second great prairie steppe of Canada. It consists largely of level prairie. The intracontinental position of the province and its high