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The mean annual temperature of the state is about forty-four degrees. The rainfall averages from ten to twelve inches per annum in the agricultural sections and the climate is characterized by dry air and abundant sunshine, with little winter snow and few destructive storms.
The state is divided into four irrigation divisions, as indicated on the map. Water Division No. 1, in the southeasterncorner, includes the drainage area of the North Platte river and its tributaries. Here are extensive areas that are well watered and on which are being produced the finest quality of small grains, alfalfa, potatoes, flax and field-peas. Water Division No. 2 covers the drainage area of the Powder and Little Missouri rivers in the northeastern section of the state. Both irrigation and dry-farming are here practiced. Water Division No. 3 includes the drainage area of the Bighorn river and its tributaries. This region is suitable for the production of apples, pears, cherries and other hardy fruits. Here great activity is going on in agricultural development with the building of railroads, great irrigation canals and the opening to settlement on August 15, 1906, of a part of the Wind River Indian Reservation. Water Division No. 4, along the Green, Snake and Bear rivers, is largely covered with forest reserves and grazing areas. There are some areas of agricultural lands along the above streams which are being developed.
With the exception of some small quantities of alfalfa seed, the range-stock and wool are the only agricultural products exported from the state. There is a home market for more of the other products of the farm than are raised at present. The feeding industry is beginning to
acres of which, or 9.8 per cent, are improved land. There were then 6,095 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $67,477,407. The total value of the farm products was $11,907,
415. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $39,080,158; hay and forage, $2,332,028; dairy products, $421,613; cereals, $528,481.
The land grant college of Wyoming and the federal Experiment Station are parts of the State University, located at Laramie. Connected with the College of Agriculture are several state de
partments, such as the Department of Pure Food Inspection, in charge of the State Chemist, who is also chemist in the university; the State Board of Horticulture, with the botanist and zoologist of the university as ex-officio member and secretary; and the state farmers' institutes and short courses,in charge of the head of the agricultural department. The University, Agricultural College and Experiment Station, with the Department of Pure Foods and farmers' institutes, are governed by a Board of Trustees, consisting of nine members, with the Governor and State Superintendent of Public Instruction as ex-officio members. The State Horticultural Society consists of one member from each water division of the state, appointed by the Governor. The state fair is located permanently at Douglas, and is in charge of a Board of State Fair Commissioners,
consisting of five
be developed and some finished lambs and beef are going to eastern markets.
The total land area of Wyoming is 62,448,000 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 8,124,536 acres are in farms, 792,332
members. Other state societies which have to do with agriculture are: Board of Live-Stock Commissioners, consisting of four members; State Board of Sheep Commissioners, of four members; and State Board of Water Control, of six members, with the State Engineer as an ex-officio member. There
is an unofficial State Wool-Growers' Association.
COLORADO. (By W. Paddock.) Colorado is preeminently a state of special crops and of special agricultural industries, which have been and are now
being developed in particular localities, as, for example, potato-growing in the Greeley district, alfalfa-growing and lamb-feeding in the Fort Collins district, cantaloupe-growing at Rocky Ford, and fruit-raising at various points on the western slope. There is less general farming than in most states to the east. The largest farming district lies north of Denver, where alfalfa, all grains with the exception of corn, and sugar-beets grow to perfection. Seven of the beet-sugar factories are located here. The eastern plains are largely devoted to grazing, but dry-farming is practiced to some extent. The Arkansas valley produces a variety of crops, among which may be mentioned fruit, cantaloupes, vegetables, alfalfa, grain and sugar-beets. The principal
Fie. 88. Agriculture in Colorado.—A, alfalfa, (train, stock-feeding; B, beets; C, potatoes, grain, stock-feeding; D, fruit, potatoes, grain, alfalfa; E, grazing, native hay; F, fruit, cantaloupes; <J, grazing, dry fanning.
fruit districts are on the western slope of the mountains, in the counties of Garfield, Mesa, Delta and Montrose. Some important potato districts are also included in this section. The San Luis valley, in the southern part of the state, produces grain, potatoes and stock; while in a number of localities in the southwest stock-raising is an important industry, and in some of them fruit-raising is being developed. Vast areas in the mountains must always be devoted to grazing, while numerous parks and the valleys in the northwest supply forage for winter feeding. Stock-raising and feeding is practiced to a certain extent in most of the regions mentioned.
With the exception of dry farming on the plains, all agriculture may be said to be dependent on altitude and an adequate supply of water for irrigation.
There is great activity at present in irrigation projects. The feasibility of dry farming over any extended area has not yet been established, though the subject is attracting much attention.
Freight rates must always be high in a mountainous country, because of the expense of building and maintaining railroads, and in the majority of locations there will never be competing lines; hence high charges will probably be the rule, as in the past.
History shows that irrigated regions contain the smallest farms and the highest type of agriculture. Colorado will be no exception to the rule. In fact, the breaking up of the large ranches into small tracts has already begun. It has been demonstrated that five acres of good irrigated land will support a family bountifully. Then the growing of special crops will be largely developed. At present the beetsugar industry is coming to the front. There were 85,032 acres devoted to this crop in 1905, for which the farmers received $4,647,235. Twelve sugar factories were in operation and four more are contemplated for next season's campaign.
The total land area of Colorado is 66,332,800 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 9,474,588 acres are in farms, 2,273,968 acres of which, or 24 per cent, are improved land. There were then 24,700 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $161,045,101. The total value of the farm products was $33,048,576. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $49,359,781; hay and forage, $8,159,279; dairy products $3,778,901, and cereals, $4,700,271.
The State Agricultural College of Colorado is located at Fort Collins. The federal Experiment Station is a department of it. Formerly, there were a number of branch experiment stations, but all except the one at Rocky Ford have been discontinued. The Board of Agriculture, composed of eight appointive and two ex-officio members, are trustees of the Agricultural College. There is also a State Board of Horticulture, consisting of six members, who are also appointed by the Governor. The duties of this Board are not well defined. The state fair is located permanently at Pueblo. It is in charge of a State Fair Commission consisting of twelve members. The agricultural societies of the state are as follows: The State Horse- and Cattle-Growers' Association, State Horticultural Society, State Forestry Association, State Bee-Keepers' Association.
12. CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN ARID STATES
NEW MEXICO. (By ./. D. Tinsley.) The agricultural conditions of New Mexico are determined mainly by the topography, which controls the moisture and temperature. The territory consists of a plateau diversified by plains, mountain ranges and valleys. The altitude varies from about 3,500 feet in the southeastern section to about 13,000 feet for the highest mountain peaks. It increases from the south toward the north, and this, with the 400 miles distance from south to north, causes considerable differences in the climatic conditions of the
various localities, and admits of the growing of a corresponding variety of crops. The climate is dry in the main, making irrigation a necessity in most places. The temperature also varies very much with altitude and is influenced by latitude and exposure. The low minimum is a controlling factor in crop production, and its effects are manifested in late spring frosts, which occur frequently, say three years in five, doing much damage to fruit and materially shortening the growing season. The rainfall throughout New Mexico occurs mainly in July and August. The mean annual rainfall varies from eight to twenty-four inches.
The soils of the territory are principally alluvial, very varied in texture, but, on the whole, they are fertile.
The plains and mountains are mainly devoted to raising sheep, cattle, horses and goats on the open ranges ; the valleys are devoted to farm crops.
The agricultural districts may be divided into the plains and high mesas where the rainfall, sixteen to twenty inches, is sufficient for farming without irrigation; mountain localities above 5,000 feet, where there is sufficient rainfall or where the rain is supplemented by irrigation from the small streams; and the river valleys, the most important of which are the Rio Grande, Pecos, San Juan, Mimbres, Gila and Canadian. The river valleys are, and will always be, the most important agricultural districts.
Alfalfa is the crop most widely grown and in largest amounts. The yield is much smaller under dry-farming than under irrigation. Indian corn, of the Mexican variety, probably comes next in distribution, and the quantity grown is large. Kafir corn and other giant grasses are widely grown, the largest quantities being produced in the lower Pecos valley and under dry-farming. Wheat, oats, rye, barley and potatoes are grown, and Mexican beans are extensively raised. Cotton is being successfully grown in the Pecos valley and would do well in other parts of the territory. Practically all other
Pig. 90. Ditch irrigation in the arid West.
crops of temperate climates are grown to some extent. Fruits and vegetables are grown extensively and the acreage devoted to them is increasing rapidly.
A large part of the products is used locally in supplying the demands of the towns, ranches and mines; and the prices are comparatively high, because the farmers can hold their products to the price at which such supplies can be brought in, thus getting the benefit of the high freight rates.
The most of the live-stock is raised on the open ranges and shipped to feeders; but in some localities high-grade animals are being raised, and feeding for market, especially of lambs, is practiced.
The construction of several storage reservoirs by the United States Reclamation Service will increase the area of irrigable lands and add largely to the output of agricultural products.
The total land area of New Mexico is 78,374,400 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census (1900), 5,130,878 acres are in farms, 326,873 acres of which, or 6.4 per cent, are improved land. There were then 12,311 farms in the territory. The total value of the farm property was $53,767,824. The total value of the farm products was $10,155,215. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $31,644,179; hay and forage, $1,427,317; dairy products, $499,423; cereals, $979,903. There are now (1906) 57,000,000 acres of grazing land, 16,000,000 acres of woodland, 4,000,000 acres of forest, 200,000 acres under irrigation, and water that may be made available for 4,000,000 acres.
The agricultural college of New Mexico is located near Las Cruces, under the name of The New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. The federal Experiment Station is a department of it. There are no other stations or sub-stations in the territory. There is no territorial department of agriculture, nor is the farmers' institute work permanently organized. The oldest fair association
is at Albuquerque, which has held annual fairs for a number of years. These are called territorial fairs, but are not under the official control of the territory. There are no territorial agricultural or horticultural societies, but there are several local horticultural societies and farmers' clubs, the most important of which are the horticultural societies of Santa Fe and Roswell. There are several local cattlemen's associations, but the chief object of these is protective.
Fig. 91. Arizona.— The irrigated areas, where farming is prae ticed, are shown by the many black spots and points.
ARIZONA. (By R. H. Forbes.) Agricultural industry in Arizona consists in farming by irrigation in river valleys having continuous water-supply, and in stock-raising on semi-arid grazing ranges watered only by scant and uncertain rainfall. Dryfarming is practicable for limited areas.
Irrigation is confined chiefly to the valleys of the Salt, Gila and Colorado rivers and their tributaries, in the southern half of the territory. Grazing is conducted mainly in the eastern and northern parts of Arizona, where forages, both native and introduced, are favored by more abundant rainfall. Dryfarming, i. e., cultivation of the soil with rainfall only, is practiced in occasional northerly or elevated localities.
The agriculture of the semi-arid, subtropical region within which Arizona is included is chiefly determined by a combination of extreme climatic conditions. The most distinctive part of this region, including southern Arizona, parts of southern and central California, and adjacent areas in Mexico, combines less than twenty inches, annually, of rainfall, more than seventy per cent of possible sunshine, sharp frosts (down to 10°F. in winter, long
periods of hot weather (average maximum of ninety degrees in July) in summer, and very low atmospheric humidity. This combination of conditions, modified in severity, applies to the United States generally west of central Texas and south of the latitude of San Francisco. Locally, prevailing climatic conditions are modified by elevation, arrangement of land masses, and distance and direction from the sea.
Soils vary physically through all possible combinations of mechanical fineness. Scant rainfall, with consequent small leaching of soluble constituents, has resulted in a general condition of saltiness known as "alkalinity," which is least in well-drained and greatest in poorly drained districts. For the same reason, the soils of the region contain high percentages of carbonate of lime, which, in some localities, accumulates in the form of a refractory hardpan. Consistently, potash is present in high average amount. In nitrogen and humus, however, Arizona soils are deficient, intense summer temperatures causing the decomposition and loss of these ingredients. This is compensated to some extent in irrigated soils by river sediments, rich in organic matter and nitrogen from grazing ranges.
In view of these conditions, rational agriculture in the region involves management of alkalinity in such manner as to prevent harmful accumulations in the soil, and the contribution of deficient nitrogen and humus to the soil. Soluble salts may be disposed of by drainage, or they may be taken up by alkali-resistant plants, such as sorghum. Nitrogen and humus may be supplied by means of legtimi~t£nous green-manuring crops, such as sour clover and alfalfa.
Railways pass through all of the larger irrigated districts, facilitating shipment of produce to large mining camps scattered throughout the territory. In these towns the demand for hay, grains, vegetables, fruits, poultry and dairy products usually exceeds the supply. Prices are therefore good, although transportation is costly. Native Mexican labor is generally available, the Mexicans being skilful irrigators and farmers.
The development of agriculture in Arizona is likely to be in the direction of smaller farms with very intensive and highly diversified culture, conducted in large part under the improved irrigating water supplies provided by the Reclamation Service. Two Reclamation Service projects, the Tonto and Laguna dams, affecting about 350,000 acres of land, are now under construction, and other excellent sites, covering much larger aggregates of land, are available. Irrigation by pumping is beginning to be practiced and is destined to extend throughout regions of considerable area. With the introduction, also, of drought-resistant varieties of plants and better cultural methods, the area of dry-farming lands, especially in the northern part of Arizona, will greatly increase. The total land area of Arizona is 72,268,800
acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 1,935,327 acres are in farms, 254,521 acres of which, or 13.2 per cent, are improved land. There were then 5,809 farms in the territory. The total value of the farm property was $29,993,847. The total value of the farm products was $6,997,097. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $15,375,286; hay and forage, $1,362,112; dairy products, $540,700; cereals, $673,639.
Agricultural instruction in Arizona is given at the University of Arizona, is located at Tucson. The Experiment Station, which is a department of it, has offices with the University at Tucson, the station farm being located in an agricultural region near Phoenix. There are three cooperative undertakings with the United States Department of Agriculture, as follows: A date orchard near Tempe, a date orchard near Yuma, and a grazing range reserve near Tucson. There is no territorial department of agriculture. There is an annual fair permanently located at Phoenix. There is an Arizona Agricultural Association, City Park Commissioners and other agricultural organizations.
UTAH. (By J. A. Widtsoe.) There are four types of farming in Utah. The first is general farming on irrigated lands and includes the raising of grain, alfalfa and live-stock on farms of forty to one hundred and sixty acres. The important dairy industry comes under this head. The second type is specialized farming on the irrigated lands, and includes orcharding, beet- and tomato-growing and market-gardening. The farms under this type are usually small. The third type is stock-raising on the public range. Owing to the contraction of the ranges, and to the overstocking of them, home winter-feeding of range sheep and cattle is gradually being introduced. This affords an outlet for much of the hay and grain grown by the farmers under the first type. The fourth type is extensive grain-growing on the non-irrigated or arid lands of the state. The farms of this kind cover three hundred to several thousand acres each.
The northern half of the state produces nearly all of the sugar-beets, tomatoes and other crops for the canning factories, most of the fruit and a large part of the dairy products of the state. In the southern part general farming is largely practiced. In the southwestern corner of the state is a depression with a semi-tropical climate and rich soils. The production of grain without irrigation, commonly practiced near the irrigated farms, is rapidly spreading over all parts of the deserts. Stock-ranging is practiced in the mountainous parts and on the western deserts.
The western half of Utah, lying in the Great Basin, consists of a series of parallel north and south valleys, surrounded by large mountains. The eastern half is chiefly elevated table-land, through which run deep canons. The soils over the whole state are uniformly fertile. In places are found alkali barrens. The climate varies considerably, but is severe only in the mountain valleys. The sunshine is abundant. The rainfall averages about
twelve inches yearly. In the north-central part it reaches fifteen to eighteen inches; but over a large part of the eastern and western sections, especially in the south, it is less than eight inches.
The supply of irrigation water comes mostly from small rivers that rise in the mountains and flow into the valleys. The irrigated farms are grouped near these streams. With ten inches or more of rainfall, grain crops can be produced without irrigation; with less precipitation, irrigation is indispensable. The distribution of the farms was originally determined by the availability of irrigation water. The arid or non-irrigated farms are in the regions of the greatest rainfall.
Large mining districts furnish good markets. However, inland states, of comparatively small population, must seek their markets at great distances. Some of the best farming districts are yet at considerable distances from railroads. This deters many fertile and well-watered districts from making the proper development in the raising of fruits and other profitable crops.
Utah agriculture will develop along two lines. The expensive irrigated lands will be devoted
Fig. 92. Agriculture in Utan.—A(horizontal shading), irrigated areas; B (vertical shading), farming without irrigation. The remainder is desert, stock ranges and mountains.
wholly to the production of the most profitable crops, such as fruit, sugar-beets, crops for canning factories and market truck. The grain and alfalfa will be raised on vast unirrigated deserts.
Utah agriculture is characterized by an exceptionally intelligent class of farmers. Agricultural education is fostered by the public and private schools of the state, and all modern advances in agriculture are being tried on Utah farms.
The total land area of Utah is 52,601,600 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 4,116,951 acres are in farms, 1,032,117 acres of which, or 25.1 per cent, are improved land.