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and still smaller areasThere were then 19,387 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $75,175,141. The total value of the farm products was $16,502,051. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $21,175,867; hay and forage, $3,862,820; dairy products, $1,522,932; cereals, $2,386,789.

The Agricultural College of Utah is the land grant institution of the state. It is located at Logan. The federal Experiment Station is a department of it. Two sub-stations are maintained by the state, located at St. George, Washington county, and Lehi, Utah county. Fifteen hundred dollars are appropriated annually for the holding of farmers' institutes, under the direction of the Agricultural College. The state maintains the Deseret Agricultural and Manufacturing Society, headquarters in Salt Lake City, under the auspices of which state fairs are held. The governing board is appointed by the Governor. The state also supports the State Board of Horticulture, which has charge of all horticultural inspectional duties; the Sheep Commission, which is in charge of matters pertaining to the sheep industry; and a Pure Food Commissioner, who supervises the importation of food materials into the state. There exists, also, a State Dairymen's Association, a State Horticultural Society, a State Bee-Keepers' Association, and a State Poultry Association.

NEVADA. (ByG. H. True.) The state of Nevada is characterized by a very meager agricultural development. The light rainfall over almost the entire state makes the cultivation of farm crops practically impossible, except in those river valleys where water from flowing streams is available for irrigation. This climatic condition may be given as the reason why the range-sheep and cattle industry is, and probably always will be, the predominant agricultural interest of the state. Next in prominence to the range-stock industry is what may be called grass-and-hay-farming. Probably over ninety per cent of the irrigated lands of Nevada are used for the production of native grass or alfalfa. Comparatively small areas of grain—barley, wheat and oats

—are grown,
of potatoes.

In the southeastern part of the state, in the valley of the Muddy river in Lincoln county, is a region where the raisin-grape, figs, pomegranates, the tenderer deciduous fruits and early vegetables are successfully grown. The area that can be cultivated in this valley is limited by the flow of the stream, which is 3,000 inches of water.

In the northern part of the state, which contains all the streams of any considerable size, the liability to frost any month in the year would seem to limit the development of agriculture, except in especially favored localities, to the lines already mentioned. Late spring frosts limit the fruit-growing possibilities.

Horses, cattle and sheep are the only products of the state that are in excess of the local demand. The coast market does not demand high-class products in any of these lines, and excessive railroad rates put the eastern market practically out of the question, so there is little inducement to improve the output. The present farming population is not living up to its opportunities. As a rule, ranches are too large for the best cultivation.


Advance is to be looked for along the lines of animal production. Dairying, which promises well, is wholly undeveloped, and will surely find an important place in the agriculture of the state. With 13. PACIFIC COAST TERRITORY

this will come an increased pork production. Socalled general farming is little practiced. There should be development along this line. At present, the live-stock kept on the cultivated ranches is not in proportion to the feed produced, the latter being generally sold for the feeding of other people's stock. The state is particularly adapted to the production of fine stock of all classes.

The cultivated area will always be a very small part, probably not over two per cent, of the total area of the state; but with the proper storage of water and a reasonably economical use of it, the irrigated area of Nevada may be at least doubled.

The total land area of Nevada is 70,233,600 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 2,565,647 acres are in farms, 572,946 acres of which, or 22.3 per cent, are improved land. There were then 2,184 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $28,673,835. The total value of the farm products was $6,758,337. The values of the leading products were: Domestic

animals, $12,093,608; hay and forage, $2,067,296; dairy products, $433,391; cereals, $471,090.

The land grant college of Nevada is a part of the State University at Reno, and the federal Agricultural Experiment Station is a department of it. The Lincoln County Experiment Station, located in and intended to benefit the semi-tropical part of the state, was established by an act of the state legislature in 1905. There is a State Board of Agriculture consisting of twelve men appointed by the Governor. It is in charge of the state fair, supposed to be held annually at Reno, and is authorized to collect and disseminate information calculated to benefit the industrial classes and develop the resources of the state. The establishment of county or district agricultural associations is authorized, and county commissioners may appropriate sums not exceeding $1,500 for the support of fairs held by such organizations. The Elko County Cattle Association is an organization of the range cattlemen of that county for their mutual benefit.

CALIFORNIA. (By E. J. Wickson.) Three classes of products lead in California agriculture, and each class reaches an annual valuation of about fifty million dollars, viz.: (1) fruit and fruit products ; (2) cereal grains and hay; (3) dairy and meat products. Other agricultural products combine to make fifty millions more. The agriculture of the state yields nearly five times the value of its mineral products.

The physical conformation of the agricultural regions of the state consists of great valleys with tributary small valleys and foothill slopes. The mountain ranges prevent entrance of low temperatures from vast interior plateaus of the north and east, and modify the movement of ocean temperatures from the west. The result is that, except in the high mountain valleys, and, to a certain extent, in the northwestern coast region, similar climatic conditions, except as to rainfall, prevail in places of approximately equal altitude throughout the state, and soil areas of similar adaptability are distributed quite as widely. For these reasons, there is no marked isolation of products according to definite physical conditions, although relative importance of the products in different districts does vary according to the tastes or abilities of the people. The temperature extremes are not widely separated. There is not, even up to 4,000 feet on the mountains, such a thing as winter-killing of deciduous fruit trees, nor of growing grain, and hard-frozen ground is seldom seen anywhere. The limiting extremes of


low temperature are generally between twenty-five and thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit.

Almost infinite variety is characteristic of California as a whole and in its different parts as well. This fact, coupled with the practical absence of wintry conditions, gives the state command of all products grown elsewhere in the United States and many others which cannot be successfully produced elsewhere. The future of the agriculture of the state depends on increase in population to increase home markets, and on the quantity of the distinctively California products which other parts of the world will buy. At present, quick water transportation to Europe seems to be a great determining factor in the development, because the fruit products, honey and the like, as well as grains, are finding a good market there. The Panama Canal is awaited as a beneficent agency. It is to be expected that California will proceed to increase her output of a great variety of products because so many are profitable, and will become more conspicuous, as time goes on, as an epitome of the agriculture of the whole United States in temperate and semi-tropical products. California has no suitability for strictly tropical vegetation.

The total land area of California is 99,950,080 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 28,828,951 acres are in farms, 11,958,837 acres of which, or 41.5 per cent, are improved land. There were then 72,542 farms in

Drying apricots in California. The sulfuringbleaching-house is shown at the left.


the state. The total value of the farm property
was $796,527,955. The total value of the farm

products was $131,-
690,606. The values of
the leading products
were: Domestic ani-
mals, $65,000,738; hay
and forage, $19,436,-
398; fruits, $28,280,-
104; cereals, $33,674,-

The land grant col-
lege of California is a
part of the Univer-
sity of Cali-
fornia at


Fit'. 96. The main
outlines of Cali-
fornia . — On the eastern side of
the state are the
Sierra Nevadas.
On the western
side is the Coast
range. Between them is the great
interior valley, drained through
San Francisco bay. The upper part of this
great area is known as the Sacramento val-
ley (drained by the Sacramento river), and
thesouthcrn part as the San Joaquin valley

(drained by the river of the same name). In the northern part
of the state the ranges unite to form the Siskyou mountains,
with Jit. Shasta as the highest peak. In the south they unite
by a cross range known as the Tehaehapl. and beyond this is
southern California, with the San Bernardino range separating
the highly developed valleys from the arid regions eastward.

Berkeley, and the federal Experiment Station is a
department of it. There are several branch sta-
tions of more or less permanence connected with
the central station. In cooperation with it also are
the United States Seed and Plant Introduction
Garden, at Chico, and the Experimental Date
Plantation at Mecca. Farmers' institute work is
connected with the College of Agriculture at
Berkeley. There is a State Board of Agricul-
ture, whose chief duty is the holding of a
state fair each year at Sacramento, and the
gathering of agricultural statistics. There
are executive departments of the state
government, in addition, as follows: Depart-
ment of Highways, Bureau of Labor Statis-
tics, Fish Commissioners, Dairy Bureau, State
Veterinarian and Commissioner of Horticul-
ture. Each of these departments has charge
of inspectional and police work in its own
field. State societies with voluntary member-
ship have been superseded by these official

southern Oregon. West of the Cascades the climate is humid, while east of this range it is arid or semi-arid. Range husbandry and grain-farming are the principal agricultural pursuits east of the Cascade range. In this section of the state there are approximately four million sheep grazed on the public domain. There are also large herds of cattle and horses maintained, generally within fenced enclosures.

In the plateau section of the Columbia river valley, wheat-raising is the main industry. Twelve million bushels of wheat are now annually produced in this basin, which formerly was the mecca of the rangeman. While mixed-farming is practiced in many instances in this section, exclusive wheatgrowing predominates. The common practice is to sow one-half of the farm to wheat and allow the other half to remain fallow.

Within the great "Inland Empire" of Oregon there are large areas of irrigable land which are devoted to the growing of alfalfa, sugar-beets and fruit. Then there are large tracts of sub-irrigated land in this section, the most notable of which is the famous Grande Ronde valley, in the northwest, comprising approximately two hundred and seventy-five thousand acres of fertile soil, on which a wide range of crops flourish.

On the western border of eastern Oregon is located the famous Hood River valley, noted for its superb apples and strawberries. The apples grown here are of superior quality and often top the market in New York and London, their principal outlets.

Western Oregon is noted for its extensive forests and great wealth of rich alluvial soils. The climate is humid and all classes of vegetation common to the temperate zone are found. The principal agricultural lands are alluvial valleys, of which the Willamette is the most noted, embracing nearly 5,000,000 acres of excellent land. This section is the home of the long-wool sheep. It is a great cattle-growing and dairying section, and here the draft-horse develops his highest form. It is becoming famous for its Angora

OREGON. (By James Withycombe.) The state is divided into two grand physical divisions by the Cascade range of mountains, known as eastern and western Oregon. There is also a smaller third division known as


Fig. 97. Agricultural districts of Oregon. —A. dairying: B. dairying
and general farming; C, fruit, general farming and stock-raising;
D. wheat; E, general farming; F, alfalfa and animal husbandry;
G. sheep and cattle.

goats, which number at present nearly two hundred
thousand head. Hop-growing is an important indus-
try, yielding annually about one hundred thousand
bales. Much fruit is grown, including large quanti-
ties of apples, prunes and small-fruits. Nut-culture
is attracting attention, though the number of bear-
ing trees is yet limited. On the ocean side of the
coast range, in the rich valleys and tide-flats, is a
superb dairying section, having green
grass the year round. Fruits do well,
especially the cranberry. Asparagus,
celery and other vegetables of superior
quality are produced.

The smallest subdivision of the state is southern Oregon. This comprises the valley of the Umpqua and the famous Rogue river valley, noted for its high-class apples, pears, peaches and grapes. General farming is also extensively practiced.

Portland is the commercial center of the state. Much of the wheat is here ground into flour and the flour shipped to the Orient. The surplus stock is shipped to Chicago or to the corn states. The wool that is not utilized by home mills is sent east, as is also the large quantity of mohair produced.

The total land area of Oregon is 60,518,400 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 10,071,328 acres are in farms, 3,328,308 acres of which, or 33 per cent, are improved land. There were then 35,837 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $172,761,287. The total value of the farm products was $38,090,969. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $33,172,342; hay and forage, $6,147,018; dairy products, $3,550,953; cereals, $9,271,500.

The land grant college of Oregon is located at Corvallis. It is known as the Oregon State Agricultural College. The federal Experiment Station is a department of it. The state maintains an experiment station at Union, in Union county. The state fair grounds are located at the capital city, Salem, and are under the immediate supervision of the State Board of Agriculture, composed of five members, appointed by the Governor. The state also partially supports three district fairs, one in eastern Oregon, one in southeastern and one in southwestern Oregon. There is a State Board of Horticulture, for which the state makes an annual appropriation; there are also the State Dairymen's Association, Oregon Poultry Association, State Horticultural Society and Oregon Good Roads Association.

WASHINGTON. (By W. S. Ttwrvher.) There are four types of agriculture in the state of Washington. The first type includes the small grain ranches of the state and might be called general farming. The second type is ordinarily termed grazing, which includes the raising of large numbers of horses, cattle and sheep in the semi-arid regions. The third type is fruit-growing. The fourth is hop-raising.

The great wheat ranches of the state are chiefly in the southeast-central, the eastern and the southeastern sections of the state. The grazing lands or bunch-grass hills are mainly in the central and northern parts. Large quantities of fruit are grown without irrigation in the eastern part of the state. There are many large irrigated fruit farms along the Snake, Columbia and Yakima rivers, in


Fig. 98. Distribution of agriculture in Washington.—A, grazing regions (some timber but usually bunch grass); B, hops and small-fruits; 0, wheat and fruit; D, irrigated fruit farms-, E, wheat; F, fruit, hops and alfalfa; G, wheat, fruit and stock-raising; H, small-fruits, especially blackberries, raspberries, cranberries; I, fruit, especially prunes; J, hops and fruit.

the central and southern parts of the state; and fruit-growing without irrigation is very successfully practiced beyond the Cascade mountains. The great hop fields are in the south-central and western parts of the state.

The state is naturally divided into three divisions by the Olympic and Cascade ranges of mountains. First, the division lying between the Pacific ocean and the Olympic mountains is generally hilly and rugged. Second, the part between the Olympic and Cascade mountain ranges includes the Puget sound area and that section in the southwestern part of the state, which is hilly to rugged and usually well timbered. Third, that area east of the Cascade mountains called "The Inland Empire," includes "The Okanogan Highlands," "Columbia River Plains " and "The Blue Mountain District."

The soils of eastern Washington are of volcanic origin, with the addition of local glacial deposits. In some regions rain has encouraged the growth of grass, sage-brush or timber, and the soil is now rich and loamy, while in others the volcanic ash has been only slightly modified and yet stands out as great heaps of ash suitable for agricultural purposes only after being artificially irrigated. Western Washington has an entirely different soil formation. It is practically covered with glacial deposits consisting of gravels, sands and shot clay. Decaying vegetable matter and silt have washed down from the mountain sides until now one finds a deep, rich loam in many places and a dense growth almost everywhere.

The distribution of rainfall of the state is another

important factor in determining the types of agriculture. In the small grain belts this does not exceed twelve inches. The annual rainfall west of the Cascade mountains varies from twelve to one hundred and twenty inches. In central Washington it varies from five to sixteen inches; in eastern, sixteen to thirty-six inches.

The transportation facilities of the state are excellent. Three transcontinental roads cross the state from east to west, each terminating on Puget sound. These, in conjunction with other roads, steamboat lines on the rivers and sound, furnish the farmer excellent outlets and markets for his produce, not only to the eastern states but also to the Orient.

At the present time large quantities of small grain are raised, but at the rate orchards are being planted, irrigation ditches being dug for the opening up of new fruit areas, and the improved methods for the transportation of fresh fruits coming into use, we may well look forward to the development of a great fruit-growing state.

The total land area of Washington is 42,803,200 acres. Of this, according to the Twelfth Census Report (1900), 8,499,297 acres are in farms, 3,465,960 acres of which, or 40.8 per cent, are improved land. There were then 33,202 farms in the state. The total value of the farm property was $144,040,547. The total value of the farm products was $34,827,495. The values of the leading products were: Domestic animals, $21,437,528; hay and forage, $5,831,088; dairy products, $3,816,691; cereals, $12,191,397.

The land grant college of Washington is known as the State College and is located at Pullman. The federal Experiment Station is a part of it. There is no state department of agriculture. The work ordinarily performed by such a department is partially done by the Bureau of Statistics, Agriculture and Immigration. There is a Commissioner of Horticulture, appointed by the Governor, who is assisted

North Yakima and is controlled by the State Fair Board, consisting of three members appointed by the Governor. The interstate fair is a separate organization, incorporated and controlled by a board of fifteen members. It is permanently located at


Fig. 99. North western bop ranch.

by county horticultural inspectors and deputies, and has charge of all legal, inspectional and general police work as it affects nursery work and fruitgrowing. The state fair is permanently located at

Pis. 100.Irrigation in the interior country of British Columbia.

Spokane. The leading agricultural societies or asso-
ciations in theBtate are asfollows: State Dairymen's
Association, State Live-Stock Association, Inland
Registered Stock-Breeders' Association, Washington
State Horticultural Association, Washington State
Poultry Association,Bee-Keepers' Association,Grain-
Producers', Shippers' and Millers' Association of
Washington, Hop-Growers' Association and the
Northwest Fruit-Growers' Association.

BRITISH COLUMBIA. (By J. R. Anderson.) The great province of British Columbia, extending, as it does, north and south, from the forty-ninth to the sixtieth degree of latitude, and from the Pacific ocean to the summit of the Rocky mountains, embraces many and varied conditions. Owing to the diverse climatic and physical changes, which consequently follow, the country presents agricultural problems probably unparalleled in any other country of its extent.

General farming and fruit-culture are practiced in the valleys of the coast and the islands, where the precipitation is sufficient for the production of all ordinary crops. The great interior between the Coast range and the Rocky mountains, owing to the small rainfall, requires irrigation. In the valleys grain is produced and fruit of a most excellent quality; the highest parts are devoted to the production of beef-cattle. Alfalfa and clover give three crops during the year, while hay on the delta lands runs as high as three and even four tons to the acre; oats produces as high in some cases as ninety bushels, and occasionally even one hundred and fifty bushels to the acre. Twenty acres of Northern Spy apples in 1905, in one case, brought over $10,000; one and a half acres of peaches, $700; tomatoes, $1,500 per acre.

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