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The Capital Required in Farm Operations — Continued. Page

Examples of Well-Conceived Poultry-Farms, and Discussion of Capital Involved, from the

Eastern Point of View. A. F. Hunter 183

Capital Required for a California Poultry-Farm, with Discussion of Systems of Organiza-

tion. M. E. Jaffa 185

The Equipment and Capital Required for Planting and Developing an Orchard. Ralph S.

Eaton 187

Cost of Establishing and Maintaining an Orchard in New England. J. H. Hale 190

Capital Required for an Irrigated Fruit-Farm (Colorado Experience). W. F. Crowley and J.

H. Crowley 191

Capital Required for Establishing an Up-to-date Nursery of General Hardy Products. P.J.

Berckmans 193

Equipment for a General Truck-Farm. John W. Lloyd 196

Capital Required for a Modern Intensive Market-Garden. Warren W. Rawson 197

Equipment and Capital Required for the Cut-Flower Industry. Anne Dorrance 199


Farm Machinery, In Relation To Equipment 202-231

The Utility of Farm Machinery. John W. Gilmore 203

Machinery in Relation to Farming. C. J. Zintheo 208

Farm Motors. P. S. Rose 217


Farm Buildings And Fences 231-278

Farm Dwellings. Joseph E. Wing 238

Construction of Barns, with Particular Reference to Sanitary Dairy Stables. H. E. Cook . 245

Construction Details of Modern Barn and Dairy Establishments. E. Burnett 253

Other Types of Barn Construction. Joseph E. Wing 258

The Modern Hoghouse. William Dietrich 260

Farm Cold-Storage Buildings. G. Harold Powell 265

Fences And Defences 271-278

Farm Fences. W. M. Cook 273


Sanitation And Water-supplies 278-307

General View of Farm Sanitation. Severance Burrage 280

The Contamination of Water. L. H. Pammel 288

A Discussion of Water Bacteriology. H. L. Russell 291

The Installation of Farm Water-Supplies. Henry N. Ogden 292

Installation of Farm Water-Supplies—Details of Wells, Pumps and Power. W. H. Rayner . 298

Installation of Farm Water-Supplies—Details of Plumbing. Clarence A. Martin 304

Installation of Farm Water-Supplies—Specific Examples 305


Rural Art 307-319

Tasteful Farm Yards 309

Another View of the Adornment of Farm Premises. Charles A. Keffer 316




Origin, Content And Structure Of Soils 323-371

The Soil: Its Origin and Kinds. George P. Merrill 324

Soils of the Great Semi-Arid Region. T. Lyttleton Lyon 342

The Physical Properties of Soils. W. H. Stevenson 349

Some of the Chemical Properties of Soils. Harry Snyder 357

The Analysis of Soils. E. W. Hilgard 363

The Chemistry of the Soil-Solution. Frank K. Cameron 369


Treatment Of Soil By Means Of Tillage 372-403

Tillage: Its Philosophy and Practice. F. H. King 378

Tillage Machinery. J. B. Davidson 387

A System of Scientific Soil Culture for Semi-Arid Regions. H. W. Campbell 398

Farm Terracing in the South. Hugh N. Starnes 402


The Treatment Of The Soil With Reference To Moisture 403-440

The Moisture of the Soil. J. A. Bonsteel 408

The Necessity and Practice of Drainage. F. H. King 412

Irrigation Engineering and Practice. Elwood Mead 419

Irrigation in Humid Regions. R. P. Teele 437


Treatment Of The Soil With Reference To Organisms 441^453

Germ Life in the Soil. H. W. Conn 442

Inoculation of the Soil. Jacob G. Lipman 447

Soil Diseases. F. L. Stevens 450


Treatment Of The Soil By Means Of Fertilizing Agents 454-513

Fertilizers: Their Kinds and Characteristics. W. H. Jordan 458

Culture Experiments for Determining Fertilizer Needs. Cyril G. Hopkins 472

Paraffined-Pot Method for Determining the Manurial Requirements of Soils. Frank D. Gardner 476

Soil Amendments. H. E. Stockbridge 478

Lime in Relation to Soil-Improvement. H. J. Wheeler 480

Practical Advice on the Use of Commercial Fertilizers. E. B. Voorhees 484

Farm Manures: Their Characteristics and Values. W. P. Brooks 490

Farm Practice With Stable Manures. I. P. Roberts 500

The Use of Green-Manures in Soil-Improvement. E. B. Voorhees 503

The Utilization of City Wastes on the Farm. M. N. Baker 510


It is now several years since this book was projected and announced, when the Editor was little engaged with administrative affairs ; but it was less than two years ago that any opportunity seemed to present itself to fulfil the contract with the publishers. The first manuscript was sent to the printer February 3, 1906; the last proofs in Vol. I were received December 11, 190G. This volume is now published on February 20, 1907.

It is not the purpose of such a book as this to mark new paths in special subjects, but only to bring together in one compendium some of the most significant facts and opinions that are now current. Free use has been made of all published data that is relevant and available, with the intention always to give full credit to the author. A great storehouse of information is presented to the public in the publications of the agricultural experiment stations and colleges, of the national Department of Agriculture, of the United States Census Bureau and of other institutions, from which all may freely draw. To this great repositorium, the farmer, editor, author, speaker and teacher will go with ever-increasing freedom and confidence for his facts; and this public treasure-house will be a pride and glory of American agriculture.

It is impossible, in such an undertaking as this, to mention specially the names of all the persons who have contributed in many helpful ways. Acknowledgement must be made, however, to two painstaking and capable young men who have been employed continuously on the work,—Albert R. Mann, B.S.A., secretary, and W. C. Baker, B.S.A., artist. They have given their best effort to make the work reliable and interesting. The editors of agricultural journals, farmers, teachers, experimenters, publishers, all have responded with help in a way that the Editor really had no right to expect, and to them is mostly due whatever may be useful in the work. Special acknowledgement should also be made of the liberal policy of the publishers of the Cyclopedia, The Macmillan Company, who have cooperated in every way to make the work creditable.

In order to fix responsibility, it should be said that all unacknowledged articles are written by the Editor.

The material for the illustrations has been collected from great numbers of sources. Every person to whom application has been made has contributed freely. The Editor is under obligations to Dr. Bartholomew for permission to make adaptations of many special charts from his Atlas of Meteorology. The Sanders Publishing Company gave permission to adapt or redraw cuts of farm buildings and appliances. Other publishers have granted similar favors. Much use has been made of pictorial matter in many publications of the United States Department of Agriculture. In the chapters on buildings, watersupplies and rural art, some of the cuts are reengraved from Cornell publications, from which, also, two or three authors have rewritten and adapted personal articles. Pictures from the publications of Illinois, Maine, Ohio and Rhode Island experiment stations have been adapted for use in the chapter on fertilizers. Publications of many other stations and institutions have also contributed. In the chapters on tools and machinery, the publications of many manufacturers have been drawn on freely for pictures.

The Editor desires to be apprised of any errors or omissions that may come to the reader's attention. The manuscripts have been read with care. All articles have been read in proof at least twice by both the Editor and his secretary. Every author has also seen his article three times in proof, and no changes have been made in the articles after the last proof was returned. Proofs have been read also by specialists other than the authors. Yet it is too much to expect that errors have been avoided.



Many of the contributors have asssisted in reading proof and in other ways.

Abbe, Cleveland, Jr., Research Observer, United States Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. (The Atmosphere and Its Phenomena.)

Adams, G. E., Associate in Agronomy, Rhode Island Experiment Station, Kingston, R. I. (Rhode Island.)

Anderson, J. R., Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B. C. (British Columbia.)

Ashbv, NEWTON B., Farmer and writer, Des Moines, la. (Equipment and Other Capital Required for a GrainFarm.)

Atwood, Horace, Assistant Agriculturist, West Virginia ExperimentSta.,Morgantown,W. Va. (West Virginia.)

Baker, M.N., Associate Editor, " Engineering News," New York City. (The Utilization of City Waste on the Farm.)

Barrett, 0. W., Plant Introducer, Office of Seed and Plant Introduction and Distribution, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (Agriculture in the American Tropics in its Relation to Plant Introduction, in conjunction with David Fairchild.)

Berckmans, P. J., Pomologist and Nurseryman, Augusta, Ga. (Capital Required for Establishing an Up-to-date Nursery of General Hardy Products.)

Black, W. J., President of Agricultural College, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Can. (Manitoba.)

Boardman, Samuel Lane, Editor of the "Bangor Commercial," Bangor, Me. (Maine.)

BONSTEEL, J. A., Scientist, Bureau of Soils, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (Soil Moisture. Soil Surveys and Their Significance, in conjunction with Milton Whitney.)

Boss, Andrew, Professor of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Park, St. Paul, Minn. (Minnesota.)

Brooks, Wm. P., Director, Hatch Experiment Station, Amherst, Mass. (Form Manures: Their Characteristics and Values.)

Buppum, B. C, Professor of Agriculture and Horticulture, College of Agriculture, and Director Wyoming Experiment Station, Laramie, Wyo. (Wyoming.)

Burnett, E., Architect, New York City. (Construction Details of Modern Barn and Dairy Establishments.)

Burnett, E. A., Associate Dean of the Industrial College and Director of the Nebraska Experiment Station, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. (Nebraska.)

Burrage, Severance, Associate Professor of Sanitary Science, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. (General View of Farm Sanitation.)

Cameron, Frank K., Soil Chemist, Bureau of Soils, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (The Chemistry of the Soil-Solution.)

Campbell, H. W., Editor of "Campbell's Soil Culture Manual," Lincoln, Neb. (A System of Scientific SoilCulture for Semi-arid Regions.)

Card, Fred W., Professor of Agriculture, Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Kingston, R. I. (General Considerations as to Capital and Its Distribution in the Management of a Farm.)

Cobb, N. A., Director Division of Pathology and Physiology, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, Honolulu, H. T. (Agricultural Status of Hawaii.)

Cockerell, Theo. D. A., Professor of Systematic Zoology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. (Life-zones in Relation to Agriculture.)

Conn, H. W., Professor of Biology in Wesleyan University, and Bacteriologist of the Connecticut State Board of Health, Middletown, Conn. (Germ Life in the Soil.)

Conner, C. M., Vice-Director and Agriculturist, Florida Experiment Station, Lake City, Fla. (Florida.)

Cook, H. E., Farmer, Denmark, N. Y. (Construction of Barns.)

Cook, William M., Farmer, Camden, Ohio. (Farm Fences.)

Crowley, W. Frank, Editor of Horticultural Department, "Ranch and Range," Montrose, Colo. (Capital Required for an Irrigated Fruit-Farm, in conjunction with J. H. Crowley, Rocky Ford, Colo.)

Curtiss, Charles F., Dean of Agriculture, Iowa State College, and Director, Iowa Experiment Station, Ames, Iowa. (Iowa.)

Davidson, J. B., In Charge Department of Agricultural Engineering, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. (Tillage Machinery.)

Dawley, F. E., Breeder of Animals and Director of State Farmers' Institutes, Fayetteville, N. Y. (New York.)

Dickson, A. G., Chatham, N. B. (New Brunswick.)

Dietrich, William, Instructor in Swine Husbandry, University of Illinois, and First Assistant in Swine Husbandry Illinois Experiment Station, Urbana, 111. (The Modern Hoghouse.)

Dodson, W. R., Director of Louisiana Experiment Stations, Baton Rouge, La. (Louisiana.)

Dorrance, Anne, Rose-grower, Dorranceton, Pa. (Equipment and Capital Requiredfor the Cut-Flower Industry.)

Duggar, J. F., Director and Agriculturist, Experiment Station of Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala. (Alabama.)

Earle, F. S., Late Director, Central Experiment Station, Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. Present address, Herradura, Cuba. (A General View of Tropical Agriculture.)

Eaton, Ralph S., Manager of Hillcrest Orchards, Kentville, N. S. (Equipment and Capital Required for Planting and Developing an Orchard.)

Fairchild, David, In Charge of Office of Seed and Plant Introduction, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (Agriculture in the American Tropics in its Relation to Plant Introduction, in conjunction with 0. W. Barrett.)

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