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Table

CHAPTER 2

Page

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Distribution of Discrimination Charges by Type of

Respondent and Basis of Discrimination: Fiscal

Years 1970-1968 . .
Distribution of Discrimination Charges by Region:

Fiscal Years 1970-1968 ...
Distribution of Discrimination Charges for Respondents by

Basis of Discrimination and Type of Charge: Fiscal 1970
Distribution of Incoming Workload by Jurisdiction Status:

Fiscal Years 1970-1966
Distribution of Investigation Workload by Completion

Status: Fiscal Years 1970-1966 .
Distribution of Conciliation Workload by Completion

Status: Fiscal Years 1970-1966 ..
Distribution of Charges with Completed Conciliation by

Status of Outcome: Fiscal Years 1970-1966
Distribution of Respondents with Completed Conciliations

by Status of Outcome: Fiscal Years 1970-1966 .
Percent Minority and Anglo Employment by Sex within

Occupations for U.S.: 1969 and 1966
Percent Distribution of Minority and Anglo Employment

by Occupation and Sex for U.S.: 1969 and 1966
Indexes of Occupational Position for Minority Groups

and Anglos by Region and Sex: 1969 and 1966 .

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Industry Classification of Respondents Surveyed:
Description of Respondent Job Structure by Job Content,

Skill Requirements, and Earnings: Retail General

Merchandise .
Distribution of Respondent Employment by Occupation:

Retail General Merchandise: 1971 and 1968
Description of Respondent Job Structure by Job Content,

Skill Requirements, and Earnings: Manufacturing of
Women's Apparel ..

• • •
Distribution of Respondent Employment by Occupation:

Manufacturing of Women's Apparel: 1971 and 1967
Description of Respondent Job Structure by Job Content,

Skill Requirements, and Earnings: Trucking and

Motor Freight . i.
Distribution of Respondent Employment by Occuration:

Trucking and Motor Freight: 1971 and 1.16
Respondent Employment in Skilled Trades and Apprenticeship:

Manufacturing of Fabricated Metals, 1971
Results of Respondent Training Programs Developed through

Conciliation: Manufacturing of Fabricated Metals,
June 1966-June 1967 ..

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LIST OF TABLES (continued)

Table

CHAPTER 3 (continued)

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Distribution of Respondent Employment by Occupation:

Manufacturing of Fabricated Metals, 1971 and 1964
Distribution of Respondent Employment in the Skilled
Trades:

1971 ..
Salaried Employment of Respondent for Total and Minority

Groups: 1971-1966
Distribution of Respondent Employment for Anglo and

Minority Groups by Occupation: 1971-1966

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CHAPTER 4

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Pre- and Post-Conciliation Minority Share of Total Male

Employment for Respondents and Peer Groups: 2-Digit SIC 109 Pre- and Post-Conciliation Minority Share of Total Female

Employment for Respondents and Peer Groups: 2-Digit SIC 110
Pre- and Post-Conciliation Relative Occupational Position

of Minority Men for Respondents and Peer Groups:
2-Digit SIC.

111 Pre- and Post-Conciliation Relative Occupational Position

of Minority Women for Respondents and Peer Groups:
2-Digit SIC

112 Pre- and Post-Conciliation Minority Share of Total Male

Employment for Respondents and Peer Groups: 3-Digit SIC 113 Pre- and Post-Conciliation Minority Share of Total Female

Employment for Respondents and Peer Groups: 3-Digit SIC 114
Pre- and Post-Conciliation Relative Occupational Position

of Minority Men for Respondents and Peer Groups:
3-Digit SIC.

115 Pre- and Post-Conciliation Relative Occupational Position

of Minority Women for Respondents and Peer Groups:
3-Digit SIC.

116
t-Test of Paired Observations Measuring Impact of
Conciliation on Minority Employment

118 Measures of Intensity of EEOC Compliance Activity and

Minority Employment Status of Men for Southern
Metropolitan Areas with Two or More Successful

Conciliations with Race as an Issue in 1967 and 1968 . 121
Measures of Intensity of EEOC Compliance Activity and

Minority Employment Status of Women for Southern
Metropolitan Areas with Two or More Successful

Conciliations with Race as an Issue in 1967 and 1968 . 122
Regression Results for Minority Employment Status as a

Function of the Intensity of EEOC Compliance Activity . . 123

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INTRODUCTION

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Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 reflects Congress'
concern over the social and economic consequences of ..
discrimination in employment. Implicit in its provisions is
the recognition that economic citizenship is today's passport
to political and social citizenship.

Hutchings v. U.S. Industries, Inc., 429 F. 2d 309 (5th Cir.
1970).

The disadvantages of some minority groups in the competition for jobs

and steady employment have been subjects of continuing public concern in

1/ this nation over the past three decades. More recently this concern

has extended to economic opportunities of women.

The most visible evidence

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appears in the form of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of

1964.

Under Title VII, discrimination in employment by employers, labor

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organizations, and employment agencies on the basis of race, religion, sex,

and national origin is unlawful. The passage of this legislation represents

an integral component of the comprehensive set of programs and policies-

including economic development, education, manpower, housing, health,

and income maintenance systems--necessary to overcome the complex and

pervasive problems of employment discrimination.

In fulfilling its responsibility for administration of Title VII, the

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) seeks to secure volun

tary compliance with the law through informal means of conciliation where

reasonable cause exists to believe discrimination occurred.

The use of

conciliation and its effectiveness in securing compliance with Title VII,

however, has not been uniformly succeessful.

In fiscal 1966 the EEOC

sought to conciliate 191 charges of employment discrimination involving

68 respondents: employers, labor organizations, and employment agencies. These figures grew by fiscal 1970 to 1,179 charges and 613 respondents 21

Nearly 6 out of 10 charges in this period (58 percent) were unsuccessfully conciliated.

ed. 3/ That is, the respondent refused to change his or her

employment or referral policies to resolve alleged unlawful practices.

Throughout its early history the EEOC had no power to bring direct

civil action against respondents where conciliation was unsuccessful.

Instead, this power was accorded complainants.

The amendment of Title VII

by the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, however, empowers the

Commission to secure enforcement of the law through civil action in federal court where voluntary compliance efforts are unsuccessful.4/ This study

examines the EEOC's compliance procedures and their use of conciliation

as a tool of compliance.

The objectives are threefold:

first, to isolate

those factors responsible for conciliation's success or failure as a means

to alteration of alleged unlawful employment and referral practices;

second, to determine whether these procedures, and their use of conciliation,

when successful, have effectively changed opportunities of those whose

choices have been limited by acts of employment discrimination; third, to

determine what steps might be taken to improve the compliance process should

that be required.

Scope of the Study

The study examines EEOC compliance efforts between 1966 and 1971,

with analysis limited primarily to conciliation involving alleged acts

of employer discrimination based on race.

Such cases currently account

for approximately 6 out of 10 discrimination charges received by the

Commission.

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