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The passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 marked this
nation's formal concern for equality of employment opportunity without
regard to race, religion, sex, or national origin.
In this report the
major findings of a study are presented which originated with the interest
of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in assessing the
economic impact of Title VII compliance activities on employment opportuni
ties of minority groups and women.
In the emotional discussion of economic disadvantages of these groups
it is too often assumed that their disadvantage can be effectively fought
by merely denouncing bigotry of employers and calling for more legislation:
the important enemies are not the crude bigots, however.
in employment is perpetuated by elements of oppression within an economic,
social, and political system which must be understood as a system.
present study illustrates this through its conclusions about the limits
of fair employment legislation as a means to equal employment opportunity.
A great many people made important contributions to this report.
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission not only financed the
underlying research, but Malcolm H. Liggett of its Office of Research,
and other members of its staff, gave active encouragement and sound
advice at all stages of the study.
A special debt of gratitude is owed
Virgil L. Christian of the University of Kentucky who read an early
draft of the manuscript and made numerous substantive editorial sugges
tions for its improvement.
Appreciation is also expressed to Ray Marshall
of the University of Texas who first suggested to me the study of
co-operation of a number of employers involved in Title VII compliance
Their generous contribution is herein acknowledged. Finally,
I am grateful to Dorotha Gilbert and Kandis Bell of the Center for Human
Resource Research, the Ohio State University, who each typed early
drafts of the manuscript and to Barbara Howenstine of the University of
Kentucky who typed the final report.
Arvil V. Adams
The Center for Human Resource Research