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The passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 marked this

nation's formal concern for equality of employment opportunity without

regard to race, religion, sex, or national origin.

In this report the

major findings of a study are presented which originated with the interest

of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in assessing the

economic impact of Title VII compliance activities on employment opportuni

ties of minority groups and women.

In the emotional discussion of economic disadvantages of these groups

it is too often assumed that their disadvantage can be effectively fought

by merely denouncing bigotry of employers and calling for more legislation:

the important enemies are not the crude bigots, however.


in employment is perpetuated by elements of oppression within an economic,

social, and political system which must be understood as a system.


present study illustrates this through its conclusions about the limits

of fair employment legislation as a means to equal employment opportunity.

A great many people made important contributions to this report.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission not only financed the

underlying research, but Malcolm H. Liggett of its Office of Research,

and other members of its staff, gave active encouragement and sound

advice at all stages of the study.

A special debt of gratitude is owed

Virgil L. Christian of the University of Kentucky who read an early

draft of the manuscript and made numerous substantive editorial sugges

tions for its improvement.

Appreciation is also expressed to Ray Marshall

of the University of Texas who first suggested to me the study of

minority employment.

co-operation of a number of employers involved in Title VII compliance


Their generous contribution is herein acknowledged. Finally,

I am grateful to Dorotha Gilbert and Kandis Bell of the Center for Human

Resource Research, the Ohio State University, who each typed early

drafts of the manuscript and to Barbara Howenstine of the University of

Kentucky who typed the final report.

Arvil V. Adams

The Center for Human Resource Research
The Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio


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