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Station

Leading Varieties Iga. Prof. STEWART, Geneva, N. Y. - Rural New Yorker No. 2, Car

man No. 3, Green Mountain, Sir Walter Raleigh. (Most popular late varieties in the

State, apparently.) 20. LONG ISLAND, N. Y., Carman No. 1, Green Mountain. 21. North CAROLINA ... Bliss Triumph (both red and

white skinned), Bovee, Eureka, Houlton Rose, selected

strains of Early Rose. Late-Green Mountain, Wash

ington. 22. Ohio. . . . . . . Early Ohio, Six Weeks.

Medium-Bovee, Early Fortune. 23. OKLAHOMA . . . . . Bliss Triumph, Early Ohio. 24. PENNSYLVANIA ... Early-Extra Early Crusaders,

Six Weeks, Irish Cobbler,

Beauty of Hebron.
Medium-J. A. Totten, Free-

man. 25. RHODE ISLAND. . . Early -- Early Harvest, Early

Fortune, Polaris.

Late-New Queen. 26. TENNESSEE . . . . . Triumph. 27. TEXAS, Bul. 71 ... Triumph (generally grown),

Thorburn, Irish Cobbler, Eu

reka. 28. M. ALEXANDER, Charlotte, Vt. - Early-Triumph.

Medium-Polaris, Garfield,

Early Vermont, Charles

Downing
Late-Green Mountain, Dela-

ware, Alexander's Prolific,
Dakota Red, Gold Coin, Sir
Walter Raleigh, Carman No. I,

Carman No. 2. 29. WASHINGTON . . . . Burbank.

CHAPTER VIII

PLANTING

Distance Apart.-As potato roots spread laterally to a distance of 2 to 2.5 feet, the potatoes might be planted in rows four to five feet apart without the roots overlapping in the feeding-ground. The advantage of such distances would be that intertillage could be maintained until quite late in the season, and that there would be opportunity to spray the plants as late as one wished. Whether such distances would be economical is a local question largely controlled by the supply of moisture available for the crop. In Colorado the potatoes are usually planted in rows four feet apart. In humid climates 30 to 36 inches is more common, and 27 inches and even less is profitable in some cases. Other factors are the value of land and the cost of labor. Where land is low in value and labor high, wider rows and the use of machinery are necessities. With high-priced land and low-priced labor the rows may be much closer together, and a much larger yield per acre may be possible.

The most suitable distance probably varies with each variety; it certainly varies with some. For spraying purposes a variety with long, straggling haulm requires more space than one with short, upright haulm. Most of the early varieties belong to the latter type, and such are planted closely. Rows 27 to 30 inches apart, with plants 8 to 12 inches asunder, for early varieties, and 30 to 33 inches, with plants 12 to 18 inches àsunder, for late varieties, are suggested for most Eastern conditions. For irrigation experiments in Wisconsin, King' used 30 X 15 inches with success. In Europe, where heavy

[graphic]

FIG. 23-EARLY MATURING VARIETIES These generally have dwarf haulm, and may be planted much closer

together than the later ones. This plant grew about one foot tall.

yields are obtained, the potatoes are planted close together; thus, Vuyst,' of Belgium, and Lavalée advise that the rows be 24 inches apart and the plants 12 inches asunder, because of the increased yield, the hastened maturity, and better-formed tubers. Westermeier, of Germany, states that about 360 square inches for each plant gave the highest yield on a humous loam. This would result from rows 30 inches apart with plants 12 inches asunder. In the United Kingdom my observation is that 27-inch rows with plants 12 to 15 inches asunder for late varieties and 8 to 12 inches for early (Fig. 23) and second early varieties is most popular. The Maryland Station' reports 25 per cent. heavier yield from planting 30 X 1472 inches than from 36 x 12 inches. The average of Canadian' experiments for the six years, 1896-1901, shows that 12 to 14 inches asunder in 30-inch rows was better than 10, 16, or 18 inches, whether considered from the standpoint of total yield or of total yield minus the seed. At North Dakota Experiment Station,' with 40-inch rows and the variety Early Ohio, it was better to plant the sets 10 inches asunder than at greater distances.

F. H. King.

1 “Irrigation and Drainage."

E. S. R., XII., P. 1032.

?E. S. R., V., p. 232.
* E. S. R., VII., P. 681.

Depth of Planting.–The best depth varies to some extent with the soil, climate, and season. It is better to plant deeper on an open or light soil than on a compact or clay soil, in order to insure a more uniform temperature and moisture supply. These conditions aid in the production of good quality tubers. In a wet or a cold climate shallow planting may be good practice. In a wet season, on a compact soil, i inch or 2 inches deep seems to be best. The Michigan Experiment Station reports that on a sandy loam, in 1892, the yields of potatoes planted at various depths were, per acre : 2 inches deep, 275 bushels ; 3 inches, 298 bushels; 4 inches, 279 bushels; 5 inches, 273 bushels; 6 inches, 238 bushels. At North Dakota Experiment Station 3 to 5 inches deep gave the heaviest yields, but 5 to 6 inches deep is recommended, as tubers of better quality are produced.' While in a dry season, on a rich clay loam soil, Green”, of Minnesota, obtained better results from deep planting, the yields being, per acre, planted on the surface, 216 bushels; 3 inches, 227 bushels ; 6 inches, 297 bushels; 8 inches, 328 bushels, it was felt that the results would have been different if the season had been wet. The New Jersey Experiment Stations obtained similar results, but found a depth of 4 inches most profitable. From the data submitted and other sources, 3 inches to 47 inches seems to be the most profitable depth." On soils which are heavy and bake, and under certain climatic conditions, the seed should be planted fairly deep, but not covered more than 2 inches or so, to aid germination. The soil can then be gradually worked toward the potatoes until level culture is obtained. This system is sometimes advocated for the second crop in the South.

1 Md. Bul. 31, p. 77.
IN. D. Report, 1901, p. 96.

2 Can. Exp. Farms Report, 1901, p. 117.
Mich. Bul. 95, p. 9.

Influence of Depth of Planting on the Depth at Which Tubers Form.—This question is of importance, because mechanical diggers must be used, and it is essential to know the depth to which they must work in order to dig all the crop. Zavitz,' of Ontario, as the result of three years' trial, found that on an average potatoes from tubers planted

IN. D. Report, 1901, p. 97.

? Minn. Bul. 10, p. 74. 3 N. J. Bul. 120, p. 10, and Botanist's Report, 1896, p. 318. 4 Ga. Bul. 29, p. 304. Tex. Bul. 71, p. 7. 6 Pa. D. A. Report, 1902, p. 722. 6 Ga. Bul. 29, p. 305.

? Ont. Agr. Coll. Farms Report, 1894, p. 98,

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