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One inch deep were formed 2.3 inches below the surface ; Three inches deep were formed 2.9 inches below the surface; Five inches deep were formed 4.1 inches below the surface; Seven inches deep were formed 6 inches below the surface.

It was observed that those planted 1 inch deep furnished many sunburned potatoes, while those planted deeper had almost none. Gilmore, of Cornell, obtained somewhat similar results during the year 1904.

Goff, of Wisconsin, planted the Burbank variety at different depths, and found that shallow planting insured greater germination and more tubers per hill, but that they were nearer the surface and had more exposed tubers.


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The Canadian Experiment Farms' report, as the result of four years' trials, that with tubers planted i inch to 8 inches deep, where the sets were planted less than 4 inches deep, nearly all the tubers were formed between that depth and the surface, and when planted deeper than 4 inches most of them formed within 4 inches of the surface. The deduction made from these results was that the potatoes developed in the surface

1 Wis. Report, 1897, p. 306.

Can. Exp. Farms Report, 1901, p. 117.

4 inches of soil because it was warmer than the 3 or 4 inches lower down.

Influence of Depth on Quality.—On a sandy loam, under New York conditions, potatoes grown about 4 inches deep are generally of better quality than those grown nearer the surface. In other places, those grown at even greater depths have been observed to be of better quality; thus, at North Dakota Station, potatoes 5 to 6 inches deep were better than those 3 or 4 inches deep in this respect.

Date of Planting.–As would be expected, the dates of planting potatoes vary widely, and the only way to deal with the question is to give the common dates for a certain locality. The reader is advised to inquire of the growers in the locality the date considered best, and, as a general rule, it is wise to plant early for the district. Canadian experimenters report, after four years' trial, that the end of May is the best time, and that June 24 is usually found to be the latest date for planting potatoes to produce satisfactory returns, although in 1900 a good crop was obtained from a planting on July 7. In Wisconsin the middle to the end of May, and in Maine late in May and early in June, are considered best. At Cornell University, in 1901, potatoes planted May 16 yielded 250 bushels per acre, while those planted June 12 and 17 yielded 162 and 197 bushels respectively. In Oklahoma' potatoes planted March 14 came up and matured as early as those ·planted February 27. The early potato crop of Virginia is usually planted during February and March,

1 N. D). Report, 1901, p. 96. 3 Okla. Bul. 52, p. 9.

? Can. Exp Farm Report, 1901, p. 119.

and the second crop about August 1. In latitude 33° the dates are about two weeks later.

Influence of Late and Early Planting.-The practice of growing a late crop of potatoes has spread northward, and in parts of New York it is customary to plant potatoes late in the season after another crop, as peas, has been removed. The practice seems commendable, but discouraging reports from the potato salesmen in regard to the quality of these potatoes led the Cornell University Experiment Station to undertake investigations to determine, if possible, the facts. Mr. Gilmore, who is conducting this investigation, has furnished the first years' results, but these are insufficient to permit of deductions being made.

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• In both cases the late-planted potatoes contained

less dry matter and less starch, or, in other words, were more watery, and appeared to be immature. Similar results were obtained during the present year (1904).

Methods of Planting.–The former method and one still quite common is to plant potatoes by hand. A furrow is thrown out by a common plow, or a shovel-plow, and, if applied, the fertilizers, and in


FIG. 24—THE MODERN MANNER OF PLANTING POTATOES Six acres will warrant the use of a horse planter, and a good one will plant the crop as perfectly as hand labor. some cases the manure, are placed in the furrow, the potatoes dropped in, and then covered by the plow. Generally speaking, the furrows should be thrown out so that the potatoes will be four inches below ground when the surface is level. The furrows are made the


Courtesy Cornell University.

FIG. 25-PLANTING BY HAND A–Tuber planted by hand in furrow opened with a shovel or double moldboard plow. B–The potatoes covered with shovel plow. C-Land harrowed level a few days after planting, to destroy weeds, leaving the potatoes four to five inches deep. Few farmers plant at this depth, even

when they mean to do so.

required distance apart. It has been deemed necessary to place the potato in position, and fix it so that it will not move when covered. In England this is done by requiring the planters to press it down by hand, and in this country the potatoes are often stepped on for the same reason. The stepping on them may injure

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