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PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEW OF ATHENS, TAKEN IN 1855.

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HISTORY OF GREECE,

FROM

THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE ROMAN CONQUEST

WITH SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTERS ON

THE HISTORY OF LITERATURE AND ART

Sin

1814-18, 3
By WILLIAM SMITH, LL.D.,
WONOR OF THE DICTIONARIES OF GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES," " BIOGRAPHY

AND MYTHOLOGY,” AND “GEOGRAPHY."

WITH NOTES, AND A CONTINUATION TO THE PRESENT TIME,

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• BOSTON:
HICKLING, SWAN, AND BREWER.

NEW YORK : R. B. COLLINS; LEAVITT & ALLEN.- PHILADELPHIA : H. COWPERTHWAIT & CO.:
J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO. – BALTIMORE : CUSHINGS & BAILEY. - WASHINGTON: WILLIAM
BALLANTYNE. - CHARLESTON : MCCARTER & CO. -NEW ORLEANS : J. B. STEEL;
THOMAS L. WHITE. - MOBILE: 8. A. GOETZEL & CO.- CINCINNATI: TRUMAN &

SPOFFORD. - ST. LOUIS: E. K. WOODWARD.- CHICAGO: KEENE & LEE.

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...A44278.01.22

11233;3 KF 31091

1863, frele; 2.
Front cada

$1.63

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by

HICKLING, SWAN, AND BROWN, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.

RIVERSIDE, CAMBRIDGB:
PRINTED BY 1. 0. HOUGHTON AND COMPANY.

P R E FACE

OF THE AMERICAN EDITOR.

The works of Dr. William Smith, on Classical Biography, Antiquities, and Geography, are so well known in the United States, that any commendation of them would be superfluous in this place. The History of Greece published by him in 1854 is marked by excellences similar to those of his other books, and is, beyond all question, the best summary in our language of the ancient history of that country, for the use of schools and colleges.

The editor of the present American republication has carefully revised the text, and corrected a number of misprints which escaped the author in the original English edition. In one place, a passage of some length is inadvertently repeated in nearly identical terms; the repetition, in this edition, has of course been omitted.* In the Chronological Table, the heading of the third book is omitted; that omission has been supplied.

An attempt has been made to introduce a greater degree of - uniformity in the spelling of the classical names. The example

of Grote and other high authorities in English literature is now beginning to be followed, and English usage, in this respect, is gradually conforming itself to that which has been established among the scholars of Germany. Still I have not ventured to carry out the principle in all cases, having limited myself generally to those in which an opposite practice has not been irrevocably fixed. . With regard to the Modern Greek names, I have followed the orthography of the Greek rather than of any other language. Thus, I have written Tricoupēs, and not Tricoupi; Rhēgas, and not Rigas; Colocotronēs, and not Colocotroni; and so of many others.

* Pages 172, 173, and pages 181, 182, of the English work.

With regard to the passages from the poets, cited by Dr. Smith in his excellent chapters on Greek Literature, I have in a few cases substituted other translations. This has been done for the purpose of more exactly representing the form of the originals. The foot-notes are, for the most part, founded upon personal observations in Greece. All the vignettes, maps, and wood-cut illustrations of Dr. Smith's work have been retained, and a considerable number have been added, besides those prefixed to the new chapters. One of them, the Gate of Lions at Mycenæ, has been redrawn, for the sake of representing it in its present condition. When I visited Mycenæ, the approach to the gate had been entirely cleared of the rubbish which formerly blocked it up, and the pavement of the street, with the ancient wheel-ruts, was laid open. The drawing in the present edition exhibits it precisely as it now appears. The view of the Acropolis in its present state is copied from a drawing made by an accomplished English friend, whose society I had the pleasure of enjoying at Athens. It exhibits exactly the appearance of the western end of the Acropolis, since the excavations made under the superintendence of M. Beulé, a member of the French school in Athens, brought to light an ancient door at the foot of the marble stairs, and is, I think, in other respects, the most faithful representation ever yet published. This copy, and all the other new drawings, have been executed by the skilful hand of Mr. Ernest Sandoz.

As the Greek nation has wonderfully survived through the disastrous period of the Middle Ages, and their long subjection to the oppression of the Turks, I have thought it would add to the interest of the volume to complete the story down to the present day. The method of accomplishing this object has been a matter of some perplexity. The space is necessarily limited, and the time to be included in it embraces many centuries. A complete narrative would fill several volumes; a mere enumeration of the events in chronological order would be tedious and dry. Instead of following either of these courses, I decided to select those events and persons that have most prominently influenced the course of Hellenic history during the periods in question, or that seemed best to illustrate the condition and genius of the race. It is hoped that the reader will find

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