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the formation of a crust of granite or crystalline rocks.

2. That the surfaces of these rocks were, by the combined action of air and water, worn down and floated from higher to lower levels in running water, and deposited at the bottom of seas, lakes, &c. in layers, beds, or strata.

3. That these strata, though differing widely from each other in their composition, are respectively formed of homogeneous materials, and in an order of succession which is uniform ; that the lower members of the series are much thicker, and occupy areas of larger extent, than those above them, and especially those nearest the present surface ; and that they were deposited in a position horizontal or nearly so.

4. That the entire series of stratified formations was effected by the slow and gradual operations of those second causes, mechanical and chemical, which are at present producing analogous results ; and that the process occupied inconceivable periods of duration

5. That when by this process, and by the elevation of the deposits formed under seas, or otherwise, portions of dry land appeared, certain plants and animals were created to occupy them; and subsequently, from time to time, new creations of organic beings, terrestrial and marine, took place. That the remains of many of the plants and animals, which were created and flourished successively at different periods, were buried in the slow process by which the successive stratifications were formed, and are now discovered in a fossil state; and that the strata were subsequently upheaved by forces from below, to various degrees of inclination and elevation.

6. That the object of the stratifications, and other changes referred to, was to improve the condition of the earth, and fit it to be the abode of man.

7. That after the complement of geological changes had been effected, and the stratified series ended, the whole was thrown into a state of chaos or confusion, darkness and ruin; and was reconstructed and arranged so as to be fit for the reception of man, conformably to the account of the "six days” operations recorded by Moses. [Held by those who desire to show that their theory is consistent with the Mosaic account.]

8. That in the progress of those changes, or at some period, the climate both of the northern and southern hemisphere, and especially of the polar regions, was changed from a state of tropical heat and productiveness, to a state of extreme coldness and sterility.

9. That since the date of the creation, as recorded by Moses, the same mechanical and chemical causes which operated the preceding geological changes, have been at work, but have produced but slight effects, at least within the last 3000 years.

10. That the result of the whole is, that the state of the earth is, and has been, since the date of the Mosaic creation, peculiarly fitted to be the residence, and to subserve the comfort and happiness of man.

CHAPTER V.

any man

The theory involved in the foregoing doctrines and opinions of Geologists, is liable to numerous objections other than those derived from the sacred writings.

1. None of the processes which belong to this theory appear to provide, or in ner to account for the production of, the waters of the ocean.

These waters have an average depth of several miles. They cover about two-thirds of the superficial area of the globe. Their contents, in cubic feet, as compared with those of the entire mass of stratified rocks, may perhaps be as three or four to one. In treating of the "crust,” or superficial matter of the globe, therefore, they would seem to be entitled to very particular attention ; and in the Scripture account of the creation, they are clearly and amply provided for. The geological writers, however, speak of them only as if they existed as a matter of course, and give no account or explanation whatever of their origin, formation, or character, in any respect.

Now let the reader imagine that the globe was originally in a state of igneous fluidity, and that the outer surface cooled down and formed a shell or crust of granite or crystalline rock fifty or a hundred miles in thickness; and then conceive, if he can, whence this indurated surface was furnished with such a mass of salt water, or with a single drop of it. It could not, while the crust was cooling and hardening, have passed off in vapour into the atmosphere, for that would not hold enough to be taken into the account in estimating its quantity, nor any at all in a saline state; and if any process of exhalation from the heated mass below took place, and was repeated ever so many times while the surface was cooling; and did not evaporate as fast as it fell, how, when precipitated in rain, did it become salt?

There can be little hazard in saying that, upon this geological theory, it is impossible to give any account of the origin or manner of producing this copious element. The decomposition of granite would yield neither water nor salt; and if water did not exist,

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