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Free soil, free men, free speech, Frémont.

The Republican Party rallying cry in 1856.

Gentle craft.

According to Brady (Clavis Calendaria "), this designation arose

from the fact that in an old romance a prince of the name of Cris-
pin is made to exercise, in honour of his namesake, Saint Crispin, the
trade of shoemaking. There is a tradition that King Edward IV.,
in one of his disguises, once drank with a party of shoemakers, and
pledged them. The story is alluded to in the old play of “George
a-Greene” (1599): –

Marry, because you have drank with the King,
And the King hath so graciously pledged you,
You shall no more be called shoemakers ;
But you and yours, to the world's end,
Shall be called the trade of the gentle craft.

Gentlemen of the French guard, fire first.

Lord C. Hay at the battle of Fontenoy, 1745. To which the Comte

d'Auteroches replied, “Sir, we never fire first ; please to fire yourselves." — FOURNIER : L'Esprit dans l'histoire.

Good as a play.

An exclamation of Charles II. when in Parliament attending the dis.

cussion of Lord Ross's Divorce Bill. The king remained in the House of Peers while his speech was taken

into consideration, - a common practice with him ; for the debates
amused his sated mind, and were sometimes, he used to say, as good
as a comedy. – MACAULAY : Review of the Life and Writings of

Sir William Temple.
Nullos his mallem ludos spectasse. – HORACE: Satires, ii. 8, 79.

Greatest happiness of the greatest number.

That action is best which procures the greatest happiness for the great

est numbers. HUTCHESON : Inquiry concerning Moral Good and

Evil, sect. 3. (1720.) Priestley was the first (unless it was Beccaria) who taught my lips to

pronounce this sacred truth, - that the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation. — Bex.

THAM : Works, vol. x. p. 142. The expression is used by Beccaria in the introduction to his “ Essay

on Criines and Punishments.” (1764.)

Hanging of his cat on Monday
For killing of a mouse on Sunday.

Drunken Barnaby's Four Journeys (edition of 1805, p. 5).

Hobson's choice.

Tobias Hobson (died 1630) was the first man in England that let out

hackney horses. When a man came for a horse he was led into the
stable, where there was a great choice, but he obliged him to take
the horse which stood next to the stable-door ; so that every cus-
tomer was alike well served according to his chance, - from whence
it became a proverb when what ought to be your election was forced
upon you, to say, “Hobson's choice.” – Spectator, No. 509.

Where to elect there is but one,
T is Hobson's choice, take that or none.
THOMAS WARD (1577-1639): England's Reformation,

chap. iv. p. 326.

Intolerable in Almighty God to a black beetle.

Lord Coleridge remarked that Maule told him what he said in the

" black beetle" matter: “Creswell, who had been his pupil, was on the other side in a case where he was counsel, and was very lofty in his manner. Maule appealed to the court : ‘My lords, we are vertebrate animals, we are mammalia! My learned friend's manner would be intolerable in Almighty God to a black beetle.'” (Repeated to a member of the legal profession in the United States.)

It is a far cry to Lochow.

Lochow and the adjacent districts formed the original seat of the

Campbells. The expression of “a far cry to Lochow” was proverbial. (Note to Scott's “Rob Roy," chap. xxix.)

Lucid interval.

BACON: Henry VII. SIDSEY: On Government, rol. i. chap. ii. sect. 24.

FULLER: A Pisgah Sight of Palestine, book iv, chap. ii. South: Ser-
mon, vol. viii. p. 403. DRYDEN: Mac Flecknoe. MATHEW HENRY:
Commentaries, Psalm lrxrriii. Johnson: Life of Lyttelton. BURKE:
On the French Revolution,

Nisi suadeat intervallis.

BRACTON : Folio 1243 and folio 420 b. Register Original, 267 a.

Mince the matter.

CERVANTES : Don Quixote, Author's Preface. SHAKESPEARE: Othello,

act ii. sc. 3. William King: Ulysses and Teresias.

Months without an R.

It is unseasonable and unwholesome in all months that have not an

R in their name to eat an oyster. — BUTLER : Dyet's Dry Dinner. (1599.)

Nation of shopkeepers.

From an oration purporting to hare been delivered by Samuel Adams

at the State House in Philadelphia, Aug. 1, 1776. (Philadelphia, printed; London, reprinted for E. Johnson, No. 4 Ludgate Hill, 1876.) W. V. Wells, in his Life of Adams, says : “No such American edition has ever been seen, but at least four copies are known of the London issue. A German translation of this oration was printed in

1778, perhaps at Berne; the place of publication is not given." To found a great empire for the sole purpose of raising up a people of

customers may at tirst sight appear a project fit only for a nation of shopkeepers. Adam Suth: Wealth of Nations, vol. i. book iv.

chap. vii. part 3. (1775.)
And what is true of a shopkeeper is true of a shopkeeping nation. –

TUCKER (Dean of Gloucester) : Tract. (1766.)
Let Pitt then boast of his victory to his nation of shopkeepers. – BER-

TRAND BARÈRE. (June 11, 1794.)

New departure.

This new page opened in the book of our public expenditures, and this

new departure taken, which leads into the bottomless gulf of civil pensions and family gratuities. — THOMAS H. BENTON : Speech in the United States Senate against a grant to President Harrison's widow, April, 1841.

Nothing succeeds like success.

A French proverb.

Orthodoxy is my doxy; Heterodoxy is another man's

doxy. “I have heard frequent use," said the late Lord Sandwich, in a debate

on the Test Laws, “ of the words 'orthodoxy' and 'heterodoxy;' but I confess myself at a loss to know precisely what they mean." “ Orthodoxy, my Lord,'' said Bishop Warburton, in a whisper,

orthodoxy is my doxy; heterodoxy is another man's doxy.". PRIESTLEY: Memoirs, vol. 1. p. 572.

Paradise of fools; Fool's paradise.

The earliest instance of this expression is found in William Bullein's

“Dialogue," p. 28 (1573). It is used by Shakespeare, Middleton, Milton, Pope, Fielding, Crabbe, and others.

Paying through the nose.

Grimm says that Odin had a poll-tax which was called in Sweden a

nose-tax; it was a penny per nose, or poll. - Deutsche Rechts Alter. thümer.

Public trusts.

It is not fit the public trusts should be lodged in the hands of any till

they are first proved, and found fit for the business they are to be

intrusted with. - MATHEW HENRY: Commentaries, Timothy iii. To execute laws is a royal office; to execute orders is not to be a king.

However, a political executive magistracy, though merely such, is a great trust.

BURKE : On the French Revolution. When a man assumes a public trust, he should consider himself as public property.

Thomas JEFFERSON (“Winter in Washington, 1807 "), in a conversation with Baron Humboldt. See Rayner's

“Life of Jefferson," p. 356 (Boston, 1834). The very essence of a free government consists in considering offices

as public trusts, bestowed for the good of the country, and not for the benefit of an individual or a party. - John C. Calhoun: Speech,

July 13, 1835. The phrase, “public office is a public trust,” has of late become com

mon property. — CHARLES SUMNER (May 31, 1872). The appointing power of the pope is treated as a public trust. — W. W.

CRAPO (1881). The public offices are a public trust. – DORMAN B. Eaton (1881). Public office is a public trust. - ABRAM S. HEWITT (1883). He who regards office as a public trust. - DANIEL S. LAMONT (1884).

Rather your room as your company.

Marriage of Wit and Wisdom (circa 1570).

Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God.

From an inscription on the cannon near which the ashes of President

John Bradshaw were lodged, on the top of a high hill near Martha
Bay in Jamaica. - Stiles : History of the Three Judges of King

Charles I.
This supposititious epitaph was found among the papers of Mr. Jeffer-

and in his handwriting. It was supposed to be one of Dr. Franklin's spirit-stirring inspirations. — RANDALL: Life of Jefferson, vol. iii. p. 585.


Rest and be thankful.

An inscription on a stone seat on the top of one of the Highlands in

Scotland. It is also the title of one of Wordsworth's poems.

Rowland for an Oliver.

These were two of the most famous in the list of Charlemagne's twelve

peers ; and their exploits are rendered so ridiculously and equally extravagant by the old romancers, that from thence arose that saying amongst our plain and sensible ancestors of giving one a “Rowland for his Oliver," to signify the matching one incredible lie with another. – THOMAS WARBURTON,

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Sardonic smile.

The island of Sardinia, consisting chiefly of marshes and mountains,

has from the earliest period to the present been cursed with a noxious
air, an ill-cultivated soil, and a scanty population. The convulsions
produced by its poisonous plants gave rise to the expression of sar-
donic smile, which is as old as Homer (Odyssey, xx. 302).- MAHON:

History of England, rol. i. p. 287.
The explanation given by Mahon of the meaning of "sardonic smile"

is to be sure the traditional one, and was believed in by the late
classical writers. But in the Homeric passage referred to, the word
is “sardanion(rapdáviov), not "sardonion.” There is no evidence
that Sardinia was known to the composers of what we call Homer.
It looks as though the word was to be connected with the verb oalpw,

show the teeth ;'! “grin like a dog;" hence that the “sardonic

grim laugh." - M. H. MORGAN. Sister Anne, do you see any one coming ?

The anxious question of one of the wives of Bluebeard. Stone-wall Jackson.

This saying took its rise from the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861.

Said General Bernard E. Bee, “See, there is Jackson, standing like
a stone-wall."

was a

The King is dead! Long live the King !

The death of Louis XIV. was announced by the captain of the body

guard from a window of the state apartment. Raising his truncheon
above his head, he broke it in the centre, and throwing the pieces
among the crowd, exclaimed in a loud voice, “Le Roi est mort !"
Then seizing another staff, he flourished it in the air as he shouted,

« Vive le Roi !” - PARDOE : Life of Louis XIV., rol. iii. p. 457. The woods are full of them !

Alexander Wilson, in the Preface to his "American Ornithology"

(1808), quotes these words, and relates the story of a boy who had
been gathering flowers. On bringing them to his mother, he said :
“Look, my dear ma! What beautiful flowers I have found grow-
ing in our place! Why, all the woods are full of them!"

Thin red line.

The Russians dashed on towards that thin red-line streak tipped with

a line of steel. — Russel: The British Espedition to the Crimea

(revised edition), p. 187. Soon the men of the column began to see that though the scarlet line

was slender, it was very rigid and exact. – KINGLAKE : Invasion of

the Crimea, vol. iii. p. 455. The spruce beauty of the slender red line. Ibid. (sixth edition), vol.

iii. p. 248.

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