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according Adam Smith adopted advantage agriculture amount appears applied assumed become capital causes century certain chapter classes Compare competition considered contract cultivation custom demand diminishing distribution division doubt economic effects elements employment England English equal especially example fact follows force freedom give given greater hand idea importance improvements increase individual industry interest kind labour land less limited material matter means measure methods Mill moral natural necessary object observed obtained period person political economy population position possible practical present principle production profits progress quantity question recent regards rent result rise saving seems sense simple society supposed taken tenant term theory things tion trade true utility various wages wealth whilst whole
Página 108 - ... if we examine, I say, all these things, and consider what a variety of labour is employed about each of them, we shall be sensible that without the assistance and co-operation of many thousands the very meanest person in a civilized country could not be provided, even according to, what we very falsely imagine, the easy and simple manner in which he is commonly accommodated.
Página 50 - Consumption is the sole end and purpose of all production; and the interest of the producer ought to be attended to only so far as it may be necessary for promoting that of the consumer.
Página 107 - Observe the accommodation of the most common artificer or day-labourer in a civilized and thriving country, and you will perceive that the number of people of whose industry a part, though but a small part, has been employed in procuring him this accommodation, exceeds all computation. The woollen coat, for example, which covers the day-labourer, u coarse and rough as it may appear, is the produce of the joint labour of a great multitude of workmen.
Página 259 - These are the reasons which form the justification in an economical point of view, of property in land. It is seen, that they are only valid, in so far as the proprietor of land is its improver. Whenever, in any country, the proprietor, [Note omitted.] generally speaking, ceases to be the improver, political economy has nothing to say in defence of landed property, as there established. In no sound theory of private property was it ever contemplated that the proprietor of land should be merely a...
Página 369 - There is scarce a poor man in England of forty years of age, I will venture to say, who has not in some part of his life felt himself most cruelly oppressed by this ill-contrived law of settlements.
Página 121 - And the great cry that rises from all our manufacturing cities, louder than their furnace blast, is all in very deed for this, - that we manufacture everything there except men; we blanch cotton, and strengthen steel, and refine sugar, and shape pottery; but to brighten, to strengthen, to refine, or to form a single living spirit, never enters into our estimate of advantages.
Página 265 - Fourthly, by subjecting the people to the frequent visits and the odious examination of the taxgatherers it may expose them to much unnecessary trouble, vexation, and oppression; and though vexation is not, strictly speaking, expense, it is certainly equivalent to the expense at which every man would be willing to redeem himself from it.
Página 232 - We may say that the movement of progressive societies has hitherto been a movement from status to contract.
Página 186 - The immediate check may be stated to consist in all those customs and all those diseases which seem to be generated by a scarcity of the means of subsistence and all those causes independent of this scarcity, whether of a moral or physical nature, which tend prematurely to weaken and destroy the human frame.