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dark green mucous and semifluid substance, called meconium. The liver is of an immense size, and fills two-thirds of the belly.
The renal capsules are very large, equal indeed to the kidnies themselves. Their age is unknown.
The testicle is placed originally in the abdomen, near the kidney; but it passes into the scrotum towards the latter periods of gestation. Sometimes it does not descend on one or both sides till after birth, and sometimes not even during life.
of the Uterus and its Contents in the earlier Months of Pregnancy.
The conception at first is lodged entirely in the fundus uteri; and no part of it extends into the 'cervix; which, on the contrary, remains contracted and hard, and filled with a tough and firm jelly. The neck, however, is gradually distended, so that at last there is no distinction between it and the fundus.
The corpus Interim is larger and more vascular, and contains a cavity filled with fluid.
There is a small membranous bag placed on the outer surface of the amnion, and connected to the navel-string, called the vesicula umbilicalis.
The chorion is at first covered all over with fine shaggy and floating processes, which are continuations of the umbilical vessels. By these it adheres to the decidua, and derives its nourishment and supply. These processes are the fetal portion of the placenta at that time. As the ovum increases they disappear from the general surface of the chorion; become confined to one part, and form the fleshy mass of the placenta.
The decidna is most manifest in the early state of conception, and is thickest at that time. It adheres to the uterus by numerous fine flocculent processes. It is formed by the uterus previously to the entrance of the ovum into its cavity; and is even formed in cases of extra uterine foetus, where the ovum never enters the uterus.
The placenta does not exist in a very young ovum. The whole outer surface of the chorion is covered with shaggy vessels. In the course of a few weeks, one half of the membrane becomes smooth, the remainder being covered as before. These vessels, at their floating extremities, are covered with decidua; and these parts, which at first are separable, gradually become intimately
connected, and form a firm mass adhering to the uterus, which is the placenta.
The navel-string is not visible till towards the sixth or seventh week.
The foetus is discernable about the fourth week after conception. In a particular instance, a very small foetus-was discernible where, from peculiar circumstances, the conception was clearly ascertained to be twenty-two days old.
At this period it consists of two oval masses, the head and trunk; of which the former is bent forwards upon the chest; the eyes are very conspicuous, and form large black prominences; the mouth and tougue are discernible; the body forms a larger and longer oval than the head, with the lower part of the spine curved towards the belly: the upper extremities sprout out from each side of the chest; and the lower from the lower part of the trunk, being considerably smaller than the upper.
FOG, or Mist, a meteor consisting of gross vapours, floating near the surface of the earth. See Meteorology:
FOIL, among glass-grinders, a sheet of tin, with quicksilver or the like, laid on the backside of a looking-glass, to make it reflect.
Foil, among jewellers, a thin leaf of metal placed under a precious stone, in order to make it look transparent, and give it an agreeable different colour) either deep or pale. Thus, if you want a stone to be of a pale colour, put a foil of that colour under it; or if you would have it deep, lay a dark one under it.
FOLIATE, in the higher geometry, a name given by M. dc Moivre to a curve of the second order, expressed by the equation x'-f-y'ssxji; being a species of defective hyperbolas with one asymptote, and consisting of two infinite legs crossing one another, and forming a sort of leaf.
FOLIATING of looking-plassn, the spreading the plates over, after they are polished with quicksilver, &c. in order'to reflect the image. It is performed thus: a thin blotting paper is spread on the table, and sprinkled with fine chalk; and then a fine lamina or leaf of tin, called foil, is laid over the paper; upon this mercury is poured, which is to be distributed equally over the leaf with a hare's foot, or cotton: over this is laid a clean paper, and over that the glass-plate, which is pressed down with the right hand, and the paper drawn gently out with the left: this being done, the plate is covered with a thicker paper, and loaden with a greater weight, that the superfluous jnercury may be driven out, and the tin adhere more closely to the glass. When it is dried, the weight is removed, and the looking-glass is complete. Foliating of globe looking-glasses is done as follows: take five ounces of quicksilver, and one ounce of bismuth; of lead and tin half an ounce each. First put the lead and tin into fusion, then put in the bismuth, and when you perceive that in fusion too, let it stand till it is almost cold, and pour the quicksilver into it: after this, take the glass globe, which must be very clean, and the inside free from dust; make a paper funnel, which nqt into the hole of the globe, as near to the glass as you can, so that the amalgam, when you pour-it in, may not splash, and cause the glass to be full of spots; pour it in gently, and move it about, so that the amalgam may touch every where. If you find the amalgam begin to be curdly and fixed, then hold it over a gentle fire, and it will easily flow again. And if you find the amalgam too thin, add a little more lead, tin, and bismuth to it. The finer and clearer your globe is, the better will the lookingglass be.
FOLIO, in merchants' books, denotes a page, or rather both the right and left hand pages, these being expressed by the same figure, and corresponding to each other.
Folio, among printers and booksellers, the largest form of books, when each sheet is so printed, that it may be bound up in two leaves only. This form is only used in large works, but the quarto or octavo forms are much more handy.
FOLKMOTE, or Folcmote, according to Kennet, was the common-council of all the inhabitants of a city, town, or borough: though Spclman will have the folkmote to have been a sort of annual parliament or convention of the bishops, thanes, aldermen, and freemen on every May-day. Dr. Brady, on the contrary, tells us, that it was an inferior court, held before the king's reeve, or his steward, every month, to do folk right.
FOiWAHAUT, in astronomy, a star of the first magnitude in the constellation Aquarius.
FOMENTATION, in medicine, the bathing any part of the body with a convenient liquor; which is usually a decoction of herbs, water, wine, or milk; and the applying of bags stuffed with herbs and other ingredients, which is commonly called
dry fomentation. Fomentations differ m little else from embrocations, but that they are mostly made with aqueous menstrunms, are more extensive in their manner of application, and arc assisted by actual heat) and hot woollen cloths: add to this, that fomentations, when general, or applied to every part of the body, are called baths.
FONT, among ecclesiastical writers, a large bason, in which water is kept for the baptizing of infants, or other persons. It is so called, probably, because baptism was usually performed among the primitive christians at springs or fountains. In process of time the font came to be used, being placed at the lower end of the church, to intimate, perhaps, that baptism is the rite of admission into the Christian church.
Form See Fount.
FONTANESIA, in botany, so named in honour of Mons. Dest'ontaines, a genus of the Diandric Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Sepiariae. Jasminese, Jnssieu. Essential character: calyx four- parted, inferior; petals two, two-parted; capsule membranaceous, not opening, twocelled ; cells one-seeded. There is but one species,
FONTINALIS, in botany, a genus of the Cryptogamia Musci, or Mosses. Generic character: capsule oblong, with the mouth ciliate; opening with an acuminate lid; covered with a sessile, smooth, comcal veil; included in a pitcher-shaped, imbricate perichsetiiim. Only four species are known, and they are all natives of England: three of them are water mosses, and one grows upon trees. Professor Martyn says, that several new species have been discovered by Swartz in the West Indies,
FOOD, implies whatever aliments are taken into the body to nourish it. See Dietetics.
FOOL, according to Mr. Locke, is a person who makes false conclusions from right principles; whereas a madman, on the contrary, draws right conclusions from wrong principles.
FOOT, pes, a part of the body of most animals, whereon they stand, walk, &c.
Animals are distinguished, with respect to the number of their feet, into bipedes, two-footed ; such are men and birds: quadrupedes, four-footed; such are most landanimals: and multipedes, or many-footed; as insects. The reptile-kind, as serpents, 4tc. have no feet; the crab-kind of fish have got ten feet, but most other fishes have no feet at all; the spiders, mites, and polypusw have right; flies, grass-hoppers, and butterflies have six feet; animals destined to swim, and water-fowl, have their toes webbed together, as the phocx, goose, duck, &c.; the fore-feet of the mole, rabbit, &c. are wonderfully formed for digging and scratching up the earth, in order "to make way for their head. Foot. See Anatomy. Foot, in the Latin and Greek poetry, a metre or measure, composed of a certain number of long and short syllables. These feet are commonly reckoned twenty-eight, of which some are simple, as consisting of two or three syllables, and therefore called disyllabic or trisyllabic feet; others are compound, consisting of four syllables, and are therefore called tetrasyllable feet.
Foot is also a long measure, consisting of twelve inches. Geometricians divide the foot into ten digits, and the digit into ten lines. See Digit and Line.
Foot tquart, is the same measure both in breadth and length, containing 144 square or superficial inches.
Foot cubic, or solid, is the same measure in all the three dimensions, length, breadth, and depth or thickness, containing 1728 cubic inches. The foot is of different lengths in different countries. The Fans royal foot exceeds the English by nine lines ; the ancient Roman foot of the Capitol consisted of four palms, equal to 11/, inches English; Rhineland or Leyden foot, by which the northern nations go, is to the Roman foot, as 950 to 1000. See Measure.
Foot geM, or Fautgeld, in our old customs, an amercement laid upon those who live within the bounds of a forest • for not lawing or cutting out the ball of their dog's feet. To be free of it foot-geld, was a privilege to keep dogs unlawed, within the bounds of a forest
Foot level, among artificers, an instrument that serves as a foot-ruie, a square and a level. See Level.
FORAGE, in military affairs, implies hay, straw, and oats, fur the subsistence of the army horses. It is divided into rations, of which one is a day's allowance for a horse, and contains 20lb. of hay, lolb. of oats, and bib. of straw. When cavalry is stationed in barracks in Great Britain, the number of rations of forage is, to field-officers four, supposing them to have four effective horses; to captains three; to staffofficers two; to quarter-masters, non-commissioned officers, and private, each one.
On foreign service, this article is governed t .. by circumstances.
FORAMEN, in anatomy, a name given to several apertures, or perforations in divers parts of the body; as, the foramen lachrymale, <Scc. See An Atom v.
FORCE, in mechanics, denotes the cause of the change in the state of a body when being at rest it begins to move, or has a motion which is either not uniform, or not direct. Mechanical forces may be reduced to two sorts, one of a body at rest, the other of a body .in motion. See MechaNics. The force of a body at rest is that which we conceive to be in a body lying still on a table, or hanging by a rope, or supported by a'spring, and is called by the names of pressure, via mortua, Sec. The measure of this force being the weight with which the table is pressed, or the spring bent.
The force of a body in motion, called moving force, vis mntrix, and vis rata, to distinguish it from the via mortua, is allowed to be a power residing in that body so long as it continues its motion, by means of which it is able to remove obstacles lying in its way, to surmount any resistance, as tension, gravity, friction, Sic. and which, in whole or in part, continues to accompany it so long as the body moves.
We have several curious, as well as useful observations, in Desagnlier's "Experimental Philosophy," concerning the comparative forces of men and horses, and the best way of applying them. A horse draws with the greatest advantage when the line of direction is level with his breast; in such a situation, he is able to draw 200/6. eight hours a-day, walking about two miles and a half an hour. And if the same horse is made to draw ^40tt. he can work but six hours a-day, aud cannot go quite so fast. On a carriage indeed, where friction alone is to be overcome, a middling horse will draw 100016. But the best way to try a horse's force, is by making him draw up out of a well, over a single, pulley or roller; and, in such a case, one horse with another will draw 9001b., as already observed. Five men are found to be equal in strength to one horse, and can, with as much ease, push round the horizontal beam of a mill, in a walk forty feet wide; whereas three men will do it in a walk only nineteen feet wide. The worst way of applying the force of a horse, is to make him carry or draw up hill; for if the hill be steep, three men will do more than a horse, each man climbing
up faster with a burden of 10015. weight, than a horse (hat is loaded with 300fo.; a difference which u owing to Die position ot the parts of the human body being better adapted to climb than those of a horse. On the other hand, the best way of applying the force of a horse, is in a horizontal direction, wherein a man can exert least force; thus a man weighing 140J6., and drawing a boat along by means of a rope coming over his shoulder:!, cannot draw above 27J6., or exert above one-seventh part of the force of a horse employed to the same purpose. The very best and most effectual posture in a man, is that of rowing, in which he not only acts with more muscles at once, for overcoming the resistance, than in any other position; but, as he pulls backward, the weight of his body assists by way of Jever.
Force accelcratitc, or Retardire Force, is that which respects the velocity of the motion only, accelerating or retarding it; and it is denoted by the quotient of the motive force, divided by the mass or weight of the body. So, if m denote the motive force, and b the body, or its weight, and/ the accelerating or retarding force, tlien is/ as j.
Again, forces are either constant or variable. Constant forces are such as remain and act continually the same for some deteiminate time. Such, for example, is the force of gravity, which acts constantly the same upon a body, while it continues at the same distance from the centre of the earth, or from the centre of force, wherever that may be. In the case of a constant force F, acting upon a body h, for any time t, we have these following theorems; putting/== the constant accelerating force =F-f-6; » = the velocity at the end of the time t; * = the spare passed over in that time, by the constant action of that force on the body : and g — 16^, feet, the space generated by gravity in 1 second, and calling the accelerating force of gravity 1; then is
, = i to = gft' = £-y. r = ! gft =-/
• ?* 'J
= -/*ef>; '= —:■> =— = </ — ./=
v - * __ **
Forces variable, are snch as are continually changing in their effect and intensity , such as the force of gravity at different distances from the centre of the earth, which decreases in proportion as the square
of the distance increases. In variab'e forces, theorems similar to those above may be exhibited, by using the fluxions of quantities, and afterwards taking the fluents of the given fluxional equations. And herein consists one of the great excellencies of the Newtonian or modern analysis, by which We are enabled to manage and compute the effects of all kinds of variable forces, whether accelerating or retarding. Thus, using the same notation as above for constant forces, viz. /, the accelerating force at any instant; f, the time a body has been in motion by the action of the variable force; e, the velocity generated in that time; «, the space run over in that time; and g = 16,'j
. tc 2/r/s
feet; then is s = -, = e t ; v = —-—
_ . . $ B_ f_ii. z.
— «*/'»*— ; — tg/J — Sg.i—tgt. In these four theorems, the force /, though variable, is supposed to be constant for the indefinitely small time t; and they are to be used in all cases of variable forces, as the former ones in constant forces; riz. from the circumstances of the problem under consideration, deduce a general expression for the value of the force /, at any indefinite time t; then substitute it in one of these theorems, which shall he proper to the case in hand; and the equation thence resulting will determine the corresponding values of the other- quantities in the problem. It is also to be observed, that the foregoing theorems equally hold good for the destruction of motion and velocity, by means of retarding or resisting forces, as for the generation of the same by means of accelerating forces.
FORCEPS, a pair of nippers, or pinchers, for laying hold of and pulling out any thing forced into another body.
Forceps, in surgery, &c. a pair of scissars for cutting off, or dividing, the fleshy or membraneous parts of the body, as occasion requires.
Forceps are commonly made of steel, but those of silver are much neater.
FORCER, or forcing pump, in mechanics, is a kind of pump in which there is a forcer or piston without a valve. See Pump.
Korciblb entry and detainer. Forcible entry, is a violent actual entry into a house or land, ic, or. taking a distress of any person, armed, whether he offer violence or fear of hurt to any there, or furiously drive any out of the possession; if one enter another's bouse, without his consent, altfconch the doors be open, this is a forcible entry punishable by the law.
And an indictment will lie at common law for a forcible entry, though generally brought on the several statutes against forcibly entry. The punishment for this offence is by fine and imprisonment.
Forcible marriage, if any person shall take away any woman having lands or goods, or that is heir apparent to her ancestors, by force and against her will, and afterwards she be married to him, or to another by his procurement; or defiled; he, and also the procurers, and receivers of such a woman, shall be adjudged principal felons. And by 39 Eliz. c. 9, the benefit of clergy is taken away from the principals, procurers, and accessaries be- fore. And by 4 and 5 Phil, and Mary c. 8, if any person shall take or convey away any unmarried woman, under the age of sixteen (though not attended with force), he shall be imprisoned two years, or fined, at the discretion of the court; and if he deflower her, or contract matrimony with her without the consent of her parent or guardian, he shall be imprisoned five years, or fined in like manner. And the marriage of any person under the age of twentyone, by licence, without such consent, is void.
FORCING, among gardeners, signifies the making trees produce ripe fruit before their usual time. This is done by plauting them in a hot-bed against a southwall, and likewise defending them from the injuries of the weather by a glass frame. They should always be grown trees, as young ones are apt to be destroyed by this management. The glasses must be taken off at proper seasons, to admit the benefit of fresh air, and especially of gentle showers.
FORECASTLE, in naval affairs, a short deck placed in the fore-part of the chip above the upper deck, it is usually terminated both before and behind in vessels of war by a breast work, the foremost part forming the top of the beak-hend, and the hind part reaching to the after part of the fore chains. Forecastle men, are sailors stationed there, and are of the best kind as to experience and discipline.
Fore foot, in ship-building, a piece of timber which terminates the keel at the fore-end; it is connected by a scarf to the extremity of the keel, and the other end of it which is incurvated upwards into a
sort of knee, is attached to the lower end of the stem; it is also called a gripe.
Fore foot, in the sea-language, signifies one ship's lying, or sailing, across another's way: as if two ship's being under sail, and in ken one of another, one of them lying in her course with her stem so much a weather the other, that holding on their several ways, neither of them altering their courses, the windward ship will run a head of the other: then it is said, such a ship lies with other's fore foot.
Foreign seamen serving two years on board British ships, whether of war, trade, or privateers, during the time of war, shall be deemed natural born subjects.
FORELORN hope, in the military art, signifies men detached from several regiments, or otherwise appointed, to make the first attack in day of battle, or, at a siege, to storm the counterscarp, mount the breach, or the like. They are so called from the great danger they are unavoidably exposed to; but the word is old, and begins to be obsolete.
FOREMAST of a ship, a large, round piece of timber, placed in her fore-part, or forecastle, and carrying the fore-sail and fore-top-sail yards. Its length is usually § of the main-mast. And the foretop-gallant-mast is \ the length of the foretop-mast. See Mast.
Foremast men are those on board a ship that take in the top sails, fling the yards, furl the sails, bowse, trice, and take their turn at the helm, &c.
FORE reach, in the sea language, a ship is said to fore reach upon another, when both sailing together, one sails better, or outgneth the other.
FORESCHOKE, in our old authors, signifies the same with forsaken, and is particularly used in one of our statutes for lands or tenements seised by the lord for want of services performed by his tenant, and quietly held by such lord above a year and a day, without any due course of law taken by the tenant for recovery thereof; here he does in presumption of law disavow or forsake all the rights he has thereto, for which reason those lands shall be called foreschoke.
FORESKIN, in anatomy, the same with prepuce. Sec Prepuce.
FORE staff, or cross-staff, an instrument used at sea for taking the altitude of the sun, moon, or stars, It is called fore-staff, because the observer, in using it, turns his face towards the object; whereas in using