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Paris'* quadrant, the back of the observer is towards the object; and hence its denomination of back-staff.
FORESTALLING, is the buying or bargaining for any corn, cattle, or other merchandize, by the way, before it comes to any market or fair, to be sold; or by the way, as it comes from beyond the seas, or otherwise, towards any city, port, haven, or creek of this realm, to the intent to sell the same again at a higher price.
At the common law, all endeavours to enhance the common price of any merr chandize, and all practices which have an apparent tendency thereto, whether by spreading false rumours, or by purchasing things in a market before the accustomed hour, or by buying and selling again the same thing in the same market, or by any other such like devices, are highly criminal, and punishable by fine and imprisonment.
Several statutes have, from time to time, been made against these offences in general, which were repealed by 12 Geo. Ill, C. 71.
But though these offences are still punishable upon indictment at the common law, by fine and imprisonment, the propriety of laws against forestalling has been lately very much doubted by some of the most eminent writers upon political economy, and fhey are now seldom enforced.
FORESTER, a sworn officer of the folesr, appointed by the king's letters patent, to walk the forest at all hours, watch over the vert and venison; also to make attachments and' true presentments of all trespasses committed within the forest.
Forests, are waste grounds belonging to the king, replenished with all manner of beasts of chase on venery, which are under the king's protection, for the sake of his royal recreation; and there are particular laws, privileges, courts and officers belonging to the king's forests. The forest courts are, the courts of attachments, of regard, of swainmote, and of justice seat, &c. But as the forest laws have long ago ceased to be put in execution, we shall not enumerate them.
FORFEITURE, is a punishment an nexed by law, to some illegal act or negligence in the owner of lands, tenements, or hereditaments, whereby he loses all his interest therein, and they go to the party injured, as a recompense for the wrong Much either he alone, or the public tops
ther with him have sustained. The offenceswhich induce a forfeiture*f lands and tenements, are principally the following: treason, felony, misprision of treason, premunire, drawing a weapon on a judge; or striking any one in the presence of the king's court of justice. By the common law ; all lands of inheritance whereof the offender is seised in his own right, and also all rights of entry to lands, in the hands of a wrong doer, are forfeited to the king on an attainder of high treason, although the lands are holden of another. Also upon an attainder of petit treason or felony, all lands of inheritance, whereof the offender is seised in his own i ight, as also rights of entry to lands in the hands of a wrong doer, are forfeited to the lord of whom they are immediately holden; for this by the feudal law, was deemed a breach of the tenants' oath of fealty in the highest manner; his body with which he had engaged to serve the lord, being forfeited to the king, and thereby his blood corrupted, so that no person could represent him; and all personal states, whether they are in action or possession, which the party has, or is entitled to, in his own right, aud not as executor or administrator to another, are liable to such forfeiture in the following cases:
1st. Upon a conviction of treason or felony. ?d. Upon a flight found before the coroner, on view of a dead body. M. Upon an acquittal on a capital felony, if the party be found to have fled. 4th. If any person indicted of petit larceny and acquitted, be found to have fled for it, he forfeits his goods as in cases of grand larceny. 5th. Upon a presentment by the oaths of 12 men, that a person arrested for treason or felony, fled from, or resisted those who had him in custody, and was killed by them in the pursuit or scuffle. 6th. If a felon waive, that is, leave any goods in his flight from those who either'pursue him, or are apprehended by him so to do, he forfeits them, whether they are his own goods, or goods stolen by him; and at common law, if the owner did not pursue and appeal the felon, he lost the goods for ever: but by 21 Hen. VIII. c. 11. for encouraging the prosecution of felons, it is provided, that if the party came in as evidence on the indictment, and attaint the felon, he shall have a writ of restitution. 7 th. If a man be felo de se, he forfeits his goods and chattels. 8th. A convict, within clergy, forfeits all his goods, though he be burnt in the hand; yet thereby he becomes capable of purchasing other goods. But, on burning in the hand, he ought to be immediately restored to the possession of his lands. The forfeiture upon an attainder of treason or felony shall have relation to the time of the offence, for the avoiding all subsequent alienation of the lands; but to the time of conviction, on fugam fecit found, Arc. only, as to chattels, unless the party were killed in flying from, or resisting those who had arrested him: in which case, it is said that the forfeiture shall relate to the time of the offence.
FORFICULA, in natural history, the earwig, a genus of insects of the order Colioptera. Antennas setaceous; feelers unequal, filiform; shells half as long as the abdomen; wings folded up under the shells; tail armed with a forceps. There are eighteen species enumerated by Gmelin, two of which are natives of this country, riz. F. anricnlaria and F. minor. The former is too well known to stand in need of any particular description: it flies only by night, and can scarcely be made to expand its wings by day. The female deposits her esc?, which are rather large, white, and oval, under stones, in any damp situation, where they may be secure from too great heat or drought. From the eggs are hatched the larvae, which are small, but possessing the general aspect of the parent animal, except being of a white colour. The parent insect, it is said, broods over her young, as the hen over her chickens. They change their skin at certain intervals during the earlier stages of their growth, and thus gradually acquire a darker colour, till at length the wing-sheaths and wings are formed, and the animals may be considered as perfect. The usual food of the earwig consists of decayed fruit: it will, however, if kept without food, attack and devour its own species. Gmelin seems to agree with the vulgar notion of its creeping u.to the ears of such as sleep in the open air; but Dr. Shaw regards it as an ancient, though generally received error. Others have, however, taken for granted, that such accidents may happen ; and observe, that when this or any other insect falls into the ear, a little oil poured in will immediately kill it, after which it may be picked out, or discharged with a syringe of warm prater.
FORGE, properly signifies a little farpace, wherein smiths and other artificers yf iron ur steel, fitc. beat their metals
red hot, in order to soften and render them more malleable and manageable on the anvil. An ordinary forge is nothing but a pair of bellows, the nozzle of which is directed upon a smooth area, on which coals are placed. The nozzle may also be directed to the bottom of any furnace, to excite the combustion of the coals placed there, by which a kind of forge is formed. In laboratories there is generally a small furnace consisting of a cylindrical piece, open at top, which has at its lower side a hole for receiving the nozzle of a double bellows. This kind of forge furnace is very convenient for fusions, as the operation is quickly performed, and with few coals. In its lower part, a little above the hole for receiving the nozzle of the bellows, may be placed an iron plate of the same diameter, supported upon two horizontal bars, and pierced near its circumference with four boles diametrically opposite to each other. By this disposition the wind of the bellows, pushed forcibly under this plate, enters at these holes; and thus the heat of the fire is equally distributed, and the crucible in the furnace is equally surrounded by it. As the wind of bellows strongly and rapidly excites the action of the fire, a forge is very convenient when a great heat is required. The forge, or blast-bellows, is used to fuse salts, metals, ores, ice. It is much used also in works which require strong heat, without much management; and chiefly in the smelting of ores, and fusion of metallic matters.
Force, in the train of artillery, is generally called a travelling forge, and may not be improperly called a portable smith's shop: at this forge all manner of smith's work is made, and it can be used upon a march, as well as in camp.
Forge is also used for a large furnace, wherein iron-ore, taken out of the mine, is melted down; or it is more properly applied to another kind of furnace, wherein the iron-ore, melted down and separated in a former furnace, and then cast into sows and pigs, is heated and fused over again, and beaten afterwards with large hammers, and thus rendered more soft, pure, ductile, and tit for use.
FORGERY, is where a person counterfeits the signature of another, with intent to defraud; which by the law of England is made a capital felony. This law is now extended by statute to the counterfeiting of almost every written instrument which is either a security for money or a public doeument or voucher upon which money may be received, or by which any one may be defrauded of money by the act of imposing upon him such a false instrument. To enumerate the several statutes upon the subject, would here be impossible. It is generally punished with the most rigorous severity. We shall add a few detached points with respect to the cases of forgery, which may be useful to explain cases of frequent occurrence.
Forgery may be committed by making a mark in the name of another person. It may be also committed in the name of a person who never had existence. Thus, indorsing a real bill of exchange, with a fictitious name, is forgery, although the use of a fictitious name was not essential to the negotiation.
A receipt indorsed on a bill of exchange, in a fictitious name, is forgery, although such name does not purport to be the name of any particular person. If a person, who has for many years been known by a name which was not his own, and afterwards assume his real name, and in that name draw a bill of exchange, he will not be guilty of forgery, although such bill were drawn for fraudulent purposes.
The following statute is one of the most generally applicable to cases of forgery. If any person shall falsely make, forge, or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be falsely made, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly aid or assist in the false making or counterfeiting any deed, will, bond, writing, obligatory, bill of exchange, promissory note for payment of money, acquittance, or receipt, either for money or goods, with intent to defraud any person, or shall utter or publish the same as true, knowing the same to be false, forged, or counterfeited, he shall be guilty of felony without benefit of clergy; but not to work corruption of blood, or disherison of heirs. 2 Geo. II. c. 25. From this, as well as other statutes, it will be seen that not only the counterfeiting or forging false instruments, but the uttering, passing, or putting them off knowingly, is a capital felony; and in order to detect counterfeiters or forgers of bank notes, the being possessed only of such forged notes, knowing them to be forged, is now made by a late statute a transportable offence.
FORGING, in smithery, the beating or hammering iron on the anvil, after having first made it red hot in the forge, in order to extend it into various forms, and fashion it into works. Sec Forge.
Forging, or imitating stamps to defraud the revenue, is a capital forgery by the several stamp acts; and the receiving them knowingly is made single felony, punishable with seven years transportation. 12 Geo. III. c. 48. A person was lately executed for forging the ace of spades to a pack of cards.
FORM denotes the external appearance or surface of a body, or the disposition of its parts, as to the length, breadth, and thickness.
Form, among mechanics, for a sort of mould, whereon any thing is fashioned or wrought: as the batters' form, the papermakers' form, &c.
Form, printers', an assemblage of letters, words, and lines, ranged in order, and so disposed into pages by the compositor; from which, by means of ink and a press, the printed sheets are drawn. Every form is inclosed in an iron chase, wherein it is firmly locked by a number of pieces of wood; some long and narrow, and others of the form of wedges. There are two forms required for every sheet, one for each side ; and each form consists of more or fewer pages, according to the size of the book.
Form of a series, in algebra, that affection of an undcterminate series, which arises from the different values of the indices of the known quantity. See Series.
FORMA pauperis, in law, is when any person has cause of suit, and is so poor that he cannot support the usual charges of suing at law or in equity.' Upon his making oath that he is not worth five pounds, his debts being paid, and bringing a certificate from some barrister, that he has just cause of suit, the judge admits him to sue in forma pauperis, that is, without paying fees to counsellor, attornies, or clerk ; and he shall have original writs and subpoenas gratis. And he shall, when plaintiff, be excused from costs, but shall suffer other punishment at the discretion of the judge. And it was formerly usual to give such paupers, if nonsuited, their election either to be whipped, or pay the costs; though the practice is now disused.
It seems agreed, that a pauper may recover costs, though he pay none; for although the counsel and clerks are bound to give their labour to him, yet they are not bound to give it to his opponent.
FORMEDON, a real action to recover the right by the tenant in tail, or the reversioner,and which is called formed on because the title or form of the done or gift is stated in the writ; there are three sorts, in the descender, remainder, and revertor. But these writs are now seldom brought, except in some special cases, where it cannot be avoided; the trial of titles by ejectment is now the usual method, and is done with much less trouble and expense.
FORMIC add. It has long been known that ants contain a strong acid, which they occasionally emit ; and which may be obtained from the ants either by simple distillation or by infusion of them in boiling water and subsequent distillation of as much of the water as can be brought over without burning the residue. After this it may be purified by repeated rectifications, or by boiling to separate the impurities; or after rectification it may be concentrated by frost.
This has now lost its rank as a separate acid, and it has been shewn by Fourcroy and Vauqnelin to be a compound of the malic and acetic.
We have been informed that it has been employed among quacks as a wonderful remedy for the tootli-ach, by applying it to the tooth with the points of the fore-finger and thumb.
FORMICA, in natural history, the ant or emmet, a genus of insects of the order Hymenoptera. Feelers four, unequal, with cylindrical articulations, placed at the tip of the lip, which is cylindrical and nearly membranaceous; antennae filiform; a small erect scale between the thorax and abdomen ; females and neuters armed with a concealed sting; males and females with wings, but to neuters there are no wings. This is a gregarious and very industrious family, consisting, as the generic character shews, of males, females, and neutrals. The last are well-known insects, who construct the nests or ant-hills, who labour with unremitting assiduity for the support of themselves and the males and females, and who guard with such ferocity the larvae, or what are usually denominated ant's eggs. They wander about all day in search of food or materials for the nest, and assist each other in bringing home what is too heavy or large for such as have attempted it. They bring out of their nest, to expose to the warmth of the sun, the newly hatched larvae, and feed them till they are able to provide for themselves. In the evening they consume together whatever has been collected during the day, and do not, as is commonly supposed, lay up any store for the winter.
They are very covetous of aphides, (see Aphis) and are themselves eagerly sought after by the formica-leo, and various birds. Ants feed on animal and vegetable substances, devouring the smaller kind of insects, caterpillars, &c. as well as fruits of different kinds. The largest of the European ants is the F. herculanea, or great woodant, of a chestnut colour, which is found in dry woods of fir, where it inhabits a large nest or hillock, composed of dry vegetable fragments, chiefly of fir-leaves.: the nest is internally distributed into several paths or tubes, converged towards a central part, and opening externally; in the centre reside the larvae, which are nursed by neutral ants. When full grown, they envelope themselves in oval white silken cases, in which they undergo their change into the chrysalis state, and at length emerge in their complete form.
F. nigra is the common black ant, well known in our gardens and fields. The great desire that ants have for animal food has been made use of by anatomists, who, when they wish to obtain the skeleton of an animal too small or delicate to admit of being prepared in the usual way, dispose the animals in a proper position in a small box, with perforations in the lid, and deposit it in a large ant-hill, in consequence of which, after a certain time, the whole of the softer parts are eaten away by these insects, and the skeleton remains in its proper position.
F. nif'a contains an acid which has undergone a chemical analysis, &c. See Formic acid.
FORMULA, or Formulary, a rule or model, or certain terms prescribed or decreed by authority, for the form and manner of an, act, instrument, proceeding, or the like.
Formula, in church history and theology, signifies a profession of faith.
Formula, in medicine, imports the constitution of medicines, either simple or compound, both with respect to their prescription and consistence.
Formula, a theorem or general rule or expression for resolving certain particular
cases of some problem, Sec. So —t- - is >
general formula for the greater of two quantities whose sum is s and difference d ,
and - — - is the formula, or general value
for the less quantity. Again ^/dx — a" a the formula or general value of the ordinate to a circle, whose diameter is d and absciss x.
FORMULARY, a writing containing the form of an oath, declaration, attestation, abjuration, &c. to be made on certain occasions.
FORNICATION, the act of incontinence in single persons ; for if either party be married, it is adultery; the spiritual court hath the proper cognizance of this offence; but formerly the conrts'-leet had power to inquire of and punish fornication and adultery; in which courts the King had a fine assessed on the offenders, as appears by the book of domesday.
FORSKOHLEA, in botany, so named in honour of Peter Forskahl, a Swede, a genus of the Octandria Tetragynia class and order. Natural order of Urticae, Jute tieu. Essential character : calyx four or five leaved, longer than the corolla t petals eight or ten, spatulate; pericarpinm none; seeds five, connected by wool. There are three species.
FORSTER (john Reinhold), in biography, an eminent naturalist and philologist, was born on the 22d of October 1729, at Derschaw, in Polish Prussia, where his father was a burgomaster. He received very little education, except what he acquired himself by the natural strength of his own genius, till the year 1743, at which period he was placed for a year at the public school of Marienwerder; and when about fifteen, he was sent to Berlin, where he was admitted into the gymnasium of Joachimsthal. Having a decided attachment to the learned languages, he made great progress under Mezelius and Heinsius; and even while at school, applied to the study of the Coptic. He applied also to several of the modern languages, and particularly the Polish, which he had nn opportunity of speaking with his schoolfellows, many of whom were Poles, and among whom, at that time, was a very extraordinary genius, Stanislaus von Mes. trrenrewitz, who, through ambitious views, afterwards embraced the Catholic religion, and, on account of his eloquence, was raised to the dignity of a bishop. Among his school-fellows also at this time, were Cochins, KesewiU, Irving, and the celebrated Pallas, now professor at Petersburg.
In the year 1748, he was entered at the University of Halle • his inclination led him to the study of medicine ; but his father was desirous that he should apply to jurisprudence :• he however studied theology, and
indulged his taste for the learned language** among which he included the Oriental.
In the year 1751, he left the University, and repaired to Dantzic, where he soon distinguished himself by his sermons, in which he imitated the French rather than the Dutch manner, at that time the most pre« valent. After being two years a candidate,, he obtained a settlement, in 17 jj, at Nassenhuben, and in the month of February next year, married his own cousin, Elizabeth Nikolai. While in this situation, he devoted great part of his leisure hours to philosophy, geography, and the mathematics, which were now his favourite pursuits) and he improved himself still farther in the knowledge of ancient and modern languages's but his income being small, and his family increasing, he had to 'struggle with difficulties, which induced him to accept an offer made to him by the Russian resident at Dantzic, of going to Russia to superintend the new colonies at Saratow. At Petersburgh he gave so much satisfaction to the members of government, that Count Orlof, who at that time enjoyed unli-' mited power, wrote to the resident at Dantzic, to thank him for having engaged a man of such great talents, and so agreeable to his wishes. But, whether Forster had shewu himself too warm a friend of the colonists, had expressed his sentiments with too much freedom, or given offence to Orlof in some other manner, he soon returned to Petersburgh without completing his engagement. On his return to the capital, he had advantageous offers made to him by the Academy of Sciences, and by that of Moscow, but he declined both. In the mean time the congregation at Nassenhuben, whombc had left, insisted either on his returning or giving up the place. As he had still hopes that the Russian government would fulfil its promise, and make some provision for him, he preferred the latter; but his patience having been exhausted, his friends at Berlin, who had reason to expect hearing of his being on the Banks of the Wolga, rereived letters from London, in the month of July 1766, in which he stated that he had left Russia in disgust, and had proceeded to England, with very little money, but with strong recommcudations. After his arrival in London, he received from the Russian government a present of it hundred guineas; and by translating Kalm'sTravels, and Qsbeck's Voyage, he procured some additional funds towards the support of his family. He had an offer from Lord Balti