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of the proposed bell's diameter. This they call a mill-stone. The parts of the mould are the core, the model of the bell, and the shell. When the outer surface of the core is formed, they begin to raise the core, which is made of bricks that are laid in courses of equal height upon a lay of plain earth. At the laying each brick they bring near it the branch of the compasses, on which the curve of the core is shaped, so as_ that there may remain between it and the curve the distance of a line, to be afterw ards filled up with layers of cement. The work is continued to the top,only leavingan opening for the coals to bake the core. This work is covered with a layer of cement, made of earth and horse-dung, on which they move the compasses of construction, to make it of an even smoothness every where.
The first layer being finished, they put the fire to the core, by filling it half with coals, through an opening that is kept shut, during the baking, with a cake of earth, that has been separately baked. The first fire consumes the stake, and the fire is left in the core half, or sometimes a whole day: the first layer being thoroughly dry, they cover it with a second, third, and fourth; each being smoothed by the board of the compasses, and thoroughly dried before they proceed to another.
The core being completed, they take the compasses to pieces, with intent to cut off the thickness of the model, and the compasses are immediately put in their place, to begin a second piece of the mould. It consists of a mixture of earth and hair, applied with the hand on the core, in several cakes that close together. This work is finished by several layers of a thinner cement of the same matter, smoothed by the compasses, and thoroughly dried, before another is laid on. The first layer of the model is a mixture of wax and grease spread over the whole. After which are applied the inscriptions, coats of arms, &c. besmeared with a pencil dipped in a vessel of wax in a chafing-dish: this is done for every letter. Before the shell is begun, the compasses are taken to pieces, to cut off all the wood that fills the place of the thickness to be given to the shell.
The first layer is the same earth with the rest, sifted very fine; whilst it is tempering in water, it is mixed with cow's hair, to make it cohere. The whole being a thin cnlhs, is gently poured on the model, that fills exactly all the sinuosities of the figures, &c. and this is repeated till the whole is
two lines thick over the model. When this layer is thoroughly dried, they cover it with a second of the same matter, but something thicker: when this second layer becomes of some consistence, they apply the compasses again, and light a fire in the core, so as to melt off the wax of the inscriptions, &c.
After this, they go on with other layers of the shell, by means of the compasses. Here they add to the cow's hair a quantity of hemp, spread upon the layers, and afterwards smoothed by the board of the compasses. The thickness of the shell comes to four or five inches lower than the millstone before observed, and surrounds it qnite close, which prevents the extravasation of the metal. The wax should be taken out before the melting of the metal.
The ear of the bell requires a separate work, which is done during the drying of the several incrustations of the cement. It has seven rings; the seventh is called the bridge, and unites the others, being a perpendicular support to strengthen the curves. It has an aperture at the top, to admit a large iron peg, bent at the bottom;'and this is introduced into two holes in the beam, fastened with two strong iron keys. There are models made of the rings, with masses of beaten earth, that are dried in the fire, in order to have the hollow of them. These rings are gently pressed upon a layer of earth and cow's hair, one half of its depth; and then taken out, without breaking the mould. This operation is repeated twelve times for twelve half-moulds, that two and two united may make the hollows of the six rings: the same they do for the hollow of the bridge, and bake them all, to unite them together.
Upon the open place left for the coals to be put in, are placed the rings that constitute the ear. They first put into this open place the iron ring to support the clapper of the bell; then they make a round cake of clay, to fill up the diameter of the thickness of the core. This cake, after baking, is clapped upon the opening, and soldered with a thin mortar Spread over it, which binds the cover close to the core.
The hollow of the model is filled with an earth sufficiently moist to fix on the place, which is strewed at several times upon the cover of the core; and they beat it gently with a pestle, to a proper height; and a workman smooths the earth at top with a wooden trowel dipped in water.
Upon this cover, to be taken off afterPS
wards, they assemble the hollows of the rings. When every thing is in its proper place, they strengthen the outsides of the hollows with mortar, in order to bind them with the bridge, and keep them steady at the bottom, by means of a cake of the same mortar, which (ills up the whole aperture of the shell. This they let dry, that it may be removed without breaking. To make room for the metal they pull off the hollows of the rings, through which the metal is to pass, before it enters into the vacuity of the mould. The shell being unloaded of its ear, they range under the millstone five or six pieces of wood, about two feet long, and thick enough to reach almost the lower part of the shell; between these and the mould they drive in wooden wedges with a mallet, to shake the shell of the model whereon it res ts, so as to be pulled up, and got out of the pit.
When this and the wax are removed, they break the model and the layer of earth, through which the metal must run, from the hollow of the rings, between the bell and the core. They smoke the inside of the ...hell, by burning straw under it, that helps to smooth the surface of the bell. Then they put the shell in the place, so as to leave the same interval between that and the core ; and before the hollows of the rings or the cap are put on again, they add two vents, that are united to the rings, and to each other, by a mass of baked cement. After which they put on this mass of the cap, the rings, and the vent, over the shell, and solder it with thin cement, which is dried gradually, by covering it with burning coals. Then they fill up the pit with earth, beating it strongly all the time, round the mould.
The furnace has a place for the fire, and another for the metal. 'Hie fin place has a large chimney, with a spacious ash-hole. The furnace, which coutaius the metal, is vaulted, whose bottom is made of earth, rammed down ; the rest is built with brick. It has four apertures; the first, through which the flame reverberates; the second is closed with a stopple that is opened for the metal to run; the others are to separate the dross, or scoria.', of the metal by wood' n rakes: through these last apertures passes the thick smoke. The ground of the furnace is built sloping, for the metal to run down.
Koundery of great guns and mortarpuce*. The method of casting these pieces is. little different from that of bells; they
are run massy, without any core, being determined by the hollow of the shell; and they are afterwards bored with a steel trepan, that is worked either by horses or a water-mill or steam.
Founder Y, Letter, or casting of printing types. The first thing requisite is to prepare good steel punches, on the face of which is drawn the exact shape of the letter with pen and ink, if the letter be large; or with a smooth blunted point of a needle, if small; and then, with proper gravers, the cutter digs deep between the strokes, letting the marks stand on the punch; the work of hollowing being generally regulated by the depth of the counter punch: then be files the outside, till it is tit for the matrice.
They have a mould to justify the matrices by, which cousi■ ts of an upper and under part, both these are alike, except the stool and spring behind, and a small roundish wire in the upper part, for making the nick in the shank of the letter. These two parts are exactly fitted into each other, being a male and female gage, to slide backwards and forwards.
Then they justify the mould, by casting about twenty samples of letters, which are set in a composing-stick, with the nicks towards the right hand; and comparing these every way with the pattern letters, set up in the same manner, they find the exact measure of the body to be cast.
Next they prepare the matrice, which is of brass or copper, an inch and a half long, and of a proportionable thickness to the size of the letter it is to contain. In this metal is sunk the face of the letter, by striking the letter-punch the depth of an H. After this, the sides and face of the matrice are justified, and cleared, with files, of all bu m!ii n_s that have been made by sinking the punch.
Then it is brought to the furnace, which is built upright of brick with four square sides and a stone at top, in which is a hole for the pan to stand in. They have several of these furnaces.
Printing-letters are made of lead, hardened with iron or stub-nails. To make the iron run, they mingle an equal weight of antimony, beaten small in an iron mortar, and stub-nails together. They charge a proper number of earthen pots, that bear the tire, with the two ingredients, as full as they can hold, and melt it in an open furnace, built for that purpose. When it bubbles, the iron is then melted, but it evaporates very much. This melted compost is ladled into an iron pot, wherein is melted lead, that is fixed on a tin mice close to the former, 3/6. of melted iron to 85/6. of lead; this they incorporate according to art.
The caster taking the pan off the stone, and having kindled a good fire, he sets the pan in again, and metal in it to melt. If it be a small-bodied letter, or a thin letter with great bodies, that he intends to cast, his metal most be very hot, and sometimes red-hot, to make the letter come. Then taking a ladle, of which he has several sorts, that will hold as much as will make the letter and break, he lays it at the hole where the flame bursts out; thru he ties a thin leather, cut with its narrow end againsl'the face, to the leather groove of the matrice, t>y whipping a brown thread twice about Hie leather groove, and fastening the thread with a knot. Then he puts both pieces of the mould together, and the matrice into the matriee-cheek ; and places the foot of the matrice on the stool of the mould, and the broad end of the leather on the wood of the upper haft of the mould, but not tight up, lest it hinder the foot of the matrice from sinking close down upon the stool, in a train of work. Afterwards laying a little resin on the upper part of the mould, and having his casting-ladle hot, he, with the boiling side, melts the resin and presses the broad end of the leather hard down on the wood, and so fastens it thereto. Now he comes to casting, when placing the under half of the mould in his left hand, with the hook or jag forward, he holds the ends of its wood between the lower part of the ball of his thumb and his three hinder fingers; then ha lays the upper half of the mould upon the under half, so as the male gages may fall into the female; and, at the same time, the foot of the matrice places itself upon the stool, and clasping his left hand thumb strongly over the upper half, he nimbly catches hold of the bow or spring, with his right hand fingers at the top of it, and his thumb under it, and places the point of it against the middle of the notch in the backside of the matrice, pressing it forwards, as well towards the mould as downwards, by the shoulder of the notch, close upon the stool, while at the same time, with his hinder fingers, as aforesaid, he draws the under half of the mould towards the ball of his thumb, and thrusts, by the ball of his thumb, the upper part towards his lingers, that both the registers of 'the mould may press against both sides of
the matrice, and his thumb and finger? press both sides of the mould close together.
Then he takes the handle of his ladle in his right hand, and with the ball of it gives two or three strokes outwards upon the surface of the melted metal, to clear it of the scum; then he takes up the ladle full, and having the mould in the left hand, turns his left side a little from the furnace, and brings the j_c.it of his ladle to the mouth nf the mould; and turns the upper part of his right hand towards him, to pour the metal into it, while, at the same instant, he puts the mould in his left hand forwards, to receive the metal with a strong shake, not only into the bodies of the mould, bur, while the metal is yet hot, into the very face of the matrice, to receive its perfect form there as well as in the shank. Then he takes the upper half of the mould off, byplacing his right thumb on the end of the wood next his left thumb, and his two middle fingers at the other end of the wcod: he tosses the letter, break and all, out upon a sheet of waste paper, laid on a bench a little beyond his left hand; and then is ready to cast another letter as before, and likewise the whole number in that matrice.
Then boys, commonly employed for this purpose, separate the breaks from the shanks, and rub them on a stone, and afterwards a man cute them all of an even height, which finishes the fount for the use of the printer. See the next article. A workman will ordinarily cast ;W00 of these letters in a day. Tne perfection of letters thus cast, consists in their being all severally square and straight on every side; and all generally of the same height, ami evenly lined, without stooping one way or other; neither too big in the foot nor the head; well grooved, sg as the two extremes of the foot contain half the body of the letter , and well ground, barbed, and scraped, with a sensible notch, &c. See Printing.
FOUNT, or Font, among printers, a set or quantity of letters, and ,.h the appendages belonging thereto, as numeral characters, quadrates, points, Sec. cast by a letterfounder, and sorted. Founts aie large or small, according to the demand of the printer, who orders them by the hundred weight, or by sheets. When a printer orders a fount of five hundred, he means that the fount, consisting of letters, point:-, spaces, quadrates, &c. shall weigh ftOO/i. When he demands a fount of ten sheets, it is understood, that with that fount he shall
be able to compose ten sheets, or twenty forms, without being obliged to distribute. The founder takes his measures accordingly; he reckons 1201b. for a sheet, including the quadrates, &c. or 60/4. for a form, which is only half a sheet: not that the sheet always weighs VlOlb., or the form 60(6.; on the contrary, it varies according to the size of the form; besides, it is always supposed that there are letters left in the cases. As, therefore, every sheet does not comprehend the same number of letters, nor the same sort of letters, we must observe, that, as in every language some sounds recur more frequently than others, some letters will be in much more use, and' oftener repeated than others, and consequently their cells or cases should be better stored than those of the letters which do not recur so frequently: thus, a fount does not contain an equal number of a and b, or of 6 and c, &c. the letter-founders have therefore a list or tariff, or, as the French call it, a police, by which they regulate the proportions between the different sorts of characters that compose the fount; and it is evident that this tariff will vary in different languages, but will remain the same for all sorts of characters employed in the same language. Suppose a fount of 100,000 characters, which is a common fount, here a should have 5,000; c, S,000; e, 11,000; i, 6,000; m, 3,000; the k, only 30; and the x, y, and 2 not many more.
FOUNTAIN, in philosophy, a spring or source of water, rising out of the earth. Among the ancients, fountains were held sacred, and even worshipped as a kind of divinities. For the phxuomena, theory, and origin of fountains or springs, see Spring.
Fountain, or Artificial Fountain, in hydraulics, called also a jet d'eau, is a contrivance by which water is violently spouted upwards. See Hydraulics.
Fountain pen. See Pen.
FOURTH, in music, one of the harmonical intervals, called coucords. It is called fourth, as containing four sounds or terms between its extremes, and three intervals; or, as being the fourth in order of the natural or diatonic scale, from the fundamental. The ancients called it diatcssaron, and speak of it as the principal concord, on whose divisions all the rest depend; but the moderns, so far from allowing it such perfections, find it one of the most imperfect, and even dispute whether it ought to
be received among the number of concords at all. It consists in the mixture of two sounds in the ratio of 4:3; that is, of two sounds produced by two chords, whose lengths, Se.. are in that proportion.
FOWLING, the art of taking or killing birds. It is either practised as an amusement by persons of rank and property, and then principally consists in killing them with a light fire-arm, called a fowling-piece, and the diversion is secured to them by the game-laws; or it is practised for a livelihood, by persons who use nets and other apparatus. Though there is much skill and knowledge displayed in fowling with the fowling-piece, not only in the use of the instrument, but likewise in the training of dogs, and discovering and starting the game, we must, from the nature of our limits, avoid entering into this subject. The other artifices by which birds are taken, consist in imitating their voices, or leading them, by other means, into situations where they become entrapped by nets, or birdlime, or otherwise.
The pipe, or call, affords the most common means used, to take great numbers of birds; this is done in the months of September and October. A thin wood is the spot chosen for this purpose; under a tree a little distant from the others, is erected a cabin, and there are only those branches left on the tree, which are necessary for the placing of the birdlime, which are supple twigs, and are covered with birdlime. There are placed around the cabin avenues with twisted perches, which are also besmeared with birdlime. The birdcatcher places himself in the cabin, and at sun-rise and sun-set, imitates the cry of a small bird, calling the others to its assistance; for animals have also their cries to express their different passions, which are well known to each other. If a cry is made to imitate the owl, immediately different sorts of birds assemble at the cry of their common enemy, and they are seen falling to the ground at every instant, their wings, from the birdlime, being of no use to them. The cries of those birds which are thus caught attract others, and great quantities are in this manner taken. It is only during the night that the great and small owls are taken, by counterfeiting the cry of the mouse.
To take the lark, nets are spread, and about the middle of the net is placed a looking-glass, to which a cord is attached, wtiich, upon being drawn, makes the glass tnrn round like the sails of a windmill; during the time that the sun shines, it is put in motion, its brilliancy attracts the larks, whose feet get entangled in the meshes of the nets. The clap-net is also made use of during the night.; this is a large slender net, which is supported at each end by two men upon long poles; they walk about the ground until they hear the larks, when they let it fall, and take by this means vast quantities.
Water-fowl may be taken in great numbers, by nets properly managed. The net for this purpose should be always made of the smallest and strongest packthread that can be got. The meshes may be large, but the nets should be lined on both sides with other smaller nets, every mesh of which is to be about an inch and a half square, each way, that as the fowls strike either through them or against them, the smaller may pass through the great meshes, and so streighten and entangle the fowl.
These nets are to be pitched for every evening-flight of fowl, about an hour before sunset, staking them on each side of the river, about half a foot within the water, the lower side of the net being so pluimned, that it may sink so far, and no farther; place the upper side of the net slantwise, shoaling against the water, but not touching it by nearly two feet; and let the strings which support this upper side of the net, be fastened to small yielding sticks set in the bank; these, as the fowl strikes, will give the net liberty to play, and to entangle them. Several of these nets should be placed at once over different parts of the river, at about twelve-score fathom distance one from another; and if any fowl come that way, the sportsman will have a share of them. It is a good method, when the nets are set, to go to places sufficiently distant from them with a gun, to frighten them toward the places where the nets arc; and wherever any of the fowl are started from, it may not be amiss to plant some nets also there, to take them as they return. The nets are to be left thus placed all night, and in the morning, the sportsman is to go and see what is caught; he should visit the river first, and take up what are caught there; and, frightening the rest away to the other places where his nets are, he is next to visit them, and take what are there secured.
The Ceylonese have great plenty of water-fowl wild on their island, and have a
very remarkable way of catching therr, which is this: the fowler enters a lake or other water, which has a good bottom, and is not very deep; he puts an eartlicrn pot upon his head, in which there are bored holes, through which he can see; he keeps himself so bent down in the water, that only the pot is above the surface; in this manner he enters the place where the wildfowl are in. clusters, and they think it is only some floating block. He then takes some one by the legs, and gently draws it nrder water, and wrings its neck till he has killed it,; then putting it into his bag, which is fastened about his middle, he takes hold of another in the same manner, and so on, till he has got as many as he can carry off, and then he goes back in the same manner in which he came, not disturbing the rest of the birds, who never miss their companions, as they seem to dive down for their diversion, when the fowler pulls them under. In places where this has been practised so lon£, or so carelessly, that the birds are shy, the fowler uses a gun; bat this he does in the following manner: he makes a screen of about five feet high, and three feet wide, which he carries in one hand straight between himself and his game, and in the other hand his gun. The birds are not alarmed at what appears only a bush; for this screen is always covered with branches of trees, fresh cut down, and full of leaves, so that the sportsman behind advances as near as he pleases, aud then putting the gun through some crevice of the screen, he fires. See Decoy.
Fowling, was formerly used for the pursuing and taking birds with hawks, more properly called falconry.
Fowling piece, a light gun for shooting birds. That piece is always reckoned best which has the longest barrel, from 5j to 6 feet, with a moderate bore; though every fowler should have them of different -sizes, suitable to the game he designs to kill. The barrel should be well polished and smooth within, and the bore of an equal bigness from one end to the other; which may be proved by putting in a piece of pasteboard, cut of the exact roundness of the top; for if this goes down without stops or slipping, yon may conclude the bore good. The bridge-pan must be somewhat above the touch-hole, and ought to have a notch to let down a little powder; this will prevent the piece from recoiling, which it would otherwise be apt to do. As to the locks, choose such as are well filed with true work, whose