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are four facilities, viz. 1. Of arts, which include humanity and philosophy. 2. Of theology. 3. Of physic. And, 4. Of civil law. The degrees in the several faculties of our universities are those of bachelor, master, and doctor.
Faculty ofadvocates, a term applied to the college or society of advocates in Scotland, who plead in all actions before the Court of Session. They meet in the beginning of every year, and choose the annual officers of the society, viz. dean, treasurer, clerks, private and public examinators, and a curator of the library.
Fjecula, in chemistry, the substance obtained by bruising or grinding certain vegetables,' or grain, in water; the fsecula is that part which after standing some time talk to the bottom o' this, in plants, appears to be only a slight alteration of their muchlage, for it differs from mucilage in no other respect than in being insoluble in cold water. Most plants contain taenia, but the seeds of gramineous and leguminous vegetables, and all tuberose roots contain it in great abundance.
FAGARA, in botany, a genus of the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Dumosse. Terebintacea;, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx fourcleft; corolla four-petalled; capsule ■ twovalved, with one seed. There are ten species.
FAGONIA, in botany, a genus of the Decandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Gruinales. Rutacese, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx five-leaved; petals five, cordate; capsule five-celled, ten-valved, with one seed in each cell. There are three species.
FAGRJEA, in botany, so called in honour of Jonas Theodor Faarceus, M. D. a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Contorts. Apocinex, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx bell-shaped , corolla funnel-shaped; berry two-celled, fleshy; seeds globular; stigma peltate. Only one species.
FAGUS, in botany, chesnul tree, a genus of the Monoecia Polyandria class and order. Natural order of Amentace*. Essential character: male, calyx five-cleft, bell-shaped ; corolla none; stamina twelve: female, calyx four-tootbed; corolla none; styles three; capsule muricate, four-valved; seeds two. There are five species, viz. two chesnut trees, a nd three of the beech, one of which is a native of Cochmchina.
FAINT action, or Feigned action, in law, is a sort of fictitious suit, contrived for the purpose of trying a particular question of fact, and is generally directed by the Court of Chancery.
FAIR, a greater kind of market, granted to a town, by privilege, for the more speedy and commodious providing of such things as the place stands in need of. It is incident to a fair, that persons shall be free from being arrested in it for any other debt contracted than what was contracted in the same; or, at least, promised to be paid there. These fairs are generally kept once or twice a year, and, by statute, they shall not be held longer than they ought, by the lords thereof, on pain of their being seized into the King's hands, &c. Also proclamation is to be made how long they are to continue; and no person shall sell any goods after the time of the fair is ended, on forfeiture of double the value, one fourth to the prosecutor, and the rest to the King. There is a toll usually paid in fairs, on the sale of things, and for stallage, picage, &c.
Fairs and Markets, in law. No person can claim a fair or market, unless by grant from the King, or by prescription, which supposes such grant. Owners and governors of fairs are to take care that every thing be sold according to just weight and measure, and for that and other purposes may appoint a clerk of the fair or market, who is to mark and allow such weights, and for his duty can only take his reasonable and just fees.
Generally, all regular sales of things usually sold there shall be good, not only between the parties, but also binding on all those that have any right or property therein.
FAIRY rings. The circles of dark-green grass frequently observed in old pastures, have long been known under the name of fairy rings, and have generally been supposed to be occasioned, in some way or other, by electricity. Dr. Wollaston has, in a late volume of the "Transactions of the Royal Society," given a new and very ingenious theory, of which we shall present our readers with a brief account, premising that Mr. Davy, in the course of his lectures at the Royal Institution, had occasion to refer to the subject, and seemed to coincide in opinion with Dr. Wollaston. That which first attracted his notice was the position of certain fungi which are always found growing upon these circles, if examined in a proper season. The position of these fungi led him to imagine that the progressive increase from a central point was the probable mode of formation of the ring: hence be conjectured that the soil, which had once contributed to the support of the fungi, might be so exhausted of some peculiar pabulum necessary for their production as to be rendered incapable of producing a second crop. The second years crop would, if this theory be just, appear in a small ring surrounding the original centre of vegetation, and at every succeeding year the defect of nutriment on one side would necessarily cause the new roots to extend themselves solely in the opposite direction, and would occasion the circle of fungi continually to proceed, by an annual enlargement, from the centre outwards. An appearance of luxuriance of the grass would follow as a natural consequence, as the soil of an interior circle would always be enriched by the decayed roots of fungi of the year's growth. This theory is supported by some observations of Dr. Withering; and Dr. Wollaston says, by way of confirmation, that whenever two adjacent circles are found to interfere, they not only do not cross each other, but both circles are invariably obliterated between the points of contact: the exhaustion occasioned by each obstructs the progress of the other, and both are starved. Phil. Trans. 1807, Part II.
Though it cannot be doubted that most fairy rings, if not all of them, have considerable relation to the running of a fungus; there, nevertheless, seems reason to conclude that electricity may likewise be concerned in their production. The electrical effect may relate to fairy rings of a different kind from those occasioned by the fungus, or it may have been antecedent to the production of the vegetable. It is a familiar effect in our experiments that the spark proceeding from a positive conductor breaks or radiates at about one third of its course, and strikes the receiving conductor by a central spark surrounded by other smaller ones. The concentric rings produced upon polished metallic surfaces by the strong explosion of a battery, as first observed by Priestley, appears to be a fact of the same kind; and the forked radiations of lightning are well known. The editor of this work related in the Phil. Journal, Vol. I, 4tp. some events which happened in Kensington Gardens in June, 1781, when a very powerfill thunder storm passed over the western
extremity of London. The explosions were very marked and distinct, and in many instances forked at the lower end, but never at the top; from which it seems proper to conclude that the general mass of clouds, or, at least, that extremity which passed over London, was in the state called positive.
Five days afterwards, upon visiting Kensington Gardens, it was observed, that every part of that extensive piece of ground showed marks of the agency of the lightning, chiefly by discolouration of the grass in zigzag streaks, some of which were 50 or 60 yards in length. Instances of this superficial course of the lightning, along the ground, before it enters the earth, are sufficiently frequent. But the circumstance applicable to our present subject is, that five trees, out of a grove consisting of seven, had been struck by the lightning. Two of them, which stood on the outside to the westward, had holes torn in the ground, close to the trunk; and round one of these trees was a space of six feet in diameter, in which the grass was very much scorched. Another tree on the west was surrounded by a faint ring of burnt or faded glass, which seemed to be occasioned by some earlier stroke, as the vegetation had began to shoot up again. Another tree, standing on the outside to the south, was surrounded by a ring of 12 feet diameter and 18 inches broad. Within the ring the grass was fresh; but on the surface of the ring, the grass and the ground were much burned. To the eastward of the tree, upon the ring itself, were two holes, in which the ground had the appearance of ashes. Another tree, on the east-side of the grove, had the half of a faint ring to the westward. And, lastly, a tree which stood in the middle was surrounded by a faint ring of 12 feet diameter, within which the grass was unhurt; and to the westward, at the distance of about three feet from the inner ring, was part of another similar ring, of nearly the same appearance; the verdure being unhurt in the interval between the rings.
FALCU, the fakon, in natural history, a genus of birds of the order Accipitrcs. Generic character: the bill hooked and covered at the base with a cere; head and neck covered with closely-set feathers; tongue bifid at the end; nostrils placed in the core; legs and feet scaly; middle toe connected with the outermost by a strong membrane as far as the first joint; claws large, much hooked, and very sharp; the female stronger and larger than the male. The falcon tribe uniformly have closeset feathers on the head and neck, and, in this respect, are particularly distinguished from the vulture tribe, which are destitute of feathers always on part of the head, and sometimes on the whole head and neck. The claws of the falcon class are more hooked and sharp also than those of the vulture. The falcon derives exquisite delight from destroying its prey, and devouring it while fresh. Though it will sometimes devour a quantity of food calculated to excite astonishment, at one repast, it will endure abstinence of several days' duration, and has been even stated by some to survive in situations in which, for weeks, it has not had the smallest supply. It lives on fish, as well as on flesh, and also on snakes and reptiles. It is confined to no particular climate, but found in almost all. To the falcon class belongs the eagle, which takes the precedence among birds, as the lion among quadrupeds, from its strength, activity, and courage; and some ingenious naturalist, have been fond of running it parallel between these animals, to a considerable extent and minuteness. It is observed of the eagle, that he never undertakes a chase singly, but when the female is engaged in incubation, or in feeding her young; during this period he supplies, by his solitary exertions, the wants of his partner and of himself; at every other season their efforts are united in the pursuit of prey. They often soar beyond the reach of the human eye; but, though unseen, their sounds are heard with considerable distinctness, and have been compared to the barking of a dog.
There belong to the falcon genus, according to Latham, 98 species, and Gmelin enumerates no fewer than 136. The following merit the principal attention.
F. chryasxtus, or the golden eagle, measures more than three feet in length, and above eight in breadth, and weighs about 16 pounds; the male weighs little more than two-thirds of the female. This bird has been known to breed in the highest mountains of Wales, and among the Cheviot hills, but is very rarely indeed recognized in Great Britain, though it is said to be seen not (infrequently in the mountainous districts of the sister island: it is very seldom found beyond the 55th degree of northern latitude. See Aves, Plate VII, fig. l.
The F. leucocephalus, or the bald eagle, is found in Europe, but more frequently in
North America, and lives on fish as well as flesh. The singular manner in which it procures the former is deserving of notice: fixing on some convenient situation, open to the water, it watches with its intensely observant eye the movements of the osprey; when it perceives this bird bearing off a fish in its mouth, the eagle quits its station, and pursues it with the swiftness of a meteor; the fish is instantly dropped from the mouth of the osprey, and, in its fall, intercepted by the eagle with the most energetic and successful dexterity.
F. ossifragus, or sea-eagle, frequents the sea-shore, and subsists principally upon fish; it is nearly of the size of the golden eagle, and is found in many countries both of Europe and America; its sight is stated to be equally clear by night and by day. Mr. Barlow relates, that he saw a bird of this species engaged once in a violent conflict in the air with a cat which he had lifted in his talons, whose efforts, however, were finally too powerful for him, and brought him again to the ground.
F. haliaetus, or the osprey, is to be found in almost all parts of Europe, on the borders of lakes and rivers, which it frequents for the sake of the fish contained in them, which constitute its principal subsistence, and on which it darts with unerring accuracy; it builds on the ground among reeds, and is the most numerous of the larger birds of prey. See Aves, Plate VII. fig. 3.
F. buteo, or the common buzzard. The buzzard is abundantly provided with means of defence, as well as attack; but is sluggish and cowardly with all its strength, and will suffer itself to be brought to the ground by a sparrow hawk, without at all employing those means, which, if fully exerted, would uniformly and inevitably prove fatal to the assailant. The length of the common buzzard is about 20 inches; scarcely any two of the species are marked alike; its food consists of birds, vermin, reptiles, and insects. If the female bird be destroyed by violence or disease during incubation, the male will, it is said, succeed to the charge, and perfectly accomplish it.
F. milvus, or the kite, is about two feet long, and distinguished from the buzzard by a forked tail. In England it continues during the whole year: in various parts of Europe it is migratory, and, as winter approaches, takes its flight to Egypt. It preys chiefly upon small birds, and, from a distance in the air at which it it invisible to
the sight of man, will pounce on them with incredible rapidity and ratal precision. It frequently makes attempts and depredation on broods of young chickens, and furnishes hereby to the observer an interesting spectacle of maternal affection and courage in the hen: from these conflicts the kite generally retires worsted, and obliged to await the opportunity when he may elnde the almost incessant vigilance of the dam, or pick up an unfortunate straggler beyond the reach of her sitperintendance.
F. palumbarius, or the goshawk, is about twenty indies in length; it feeds on mice and small birds, which last it plucks, before it devours them, with great dexterity and neatness; it tears these and other animals to pieces before eating them, then swallows these pieces whole, and throws up from its stomach the hair or remaining feathers which belonged to them, in the form of small pellets. This bird was formerly in high estimation in this country when the diversion of falconry prevailed, and was trained by very careful discipline to the most accurate obedience of its keeper, and to the most vigorous and fatal pursuit of numerous animals, which, in a state of nature, it left unmolested: even geese and cranes, and also rabbits, it was taught to consider as its prey, and by the judicious application of rewards and punishments, its natural powers attained an improvement which previously would scarcely have been deemed possible, from any efforts for this purpose. So difficult was it, however, to meet with that coincidence of circumstances, necessary to produce this great discrimination, tractability, courage, and obedience, that the price of a well-trained cast of these birds was extremely high, and is recorded, in one instance, to have been no less than the immense sum, in those days, of a thousand pounds. The ladies partook in this interesting sport with the keenest relish, notwithstanding its fatigues and dangers. The cultivation of this island has long been so far improved as to preclude the continuance of this diversion, which requires for its purpose a large tract of uninclosed country; in some parts of Europe it is still in use; in China it is practised, occasionally, for the Emperor's amusement, and conducted with all the form and splendour characteristic of Oriental manner*. In England the goshawk is to be seen very rarely; in Scotland it is comparatively frequent; in France and* Gerni.my,
in Siberia and North America, it is far from uncommon.
Various other species of the falcon were in use formerly for the diversion above noticed, especially the jer-falcon, and the kestrel, belonging to the class of the longwinged hawks, and the sparrow-hawk, which belonged to the short-winged class, a class less active and rapid than the former. The sparrow-hawk is the terror of pigeons, partridges, and poultry, and commits its depredations with the most astonishing boldness. The male weighs only five ounces, and the female nine, presenting the strongest known case of this sexual difference. For the stone-falcon, see Plate VII. fig. 2. FALCONRY, the art of training all manner of hawks, but more especially the larger sort, called falcons, to the exercise of hawking.
FALKIA, in botany, so called in honour of J. P. Falck, professor at Petersburgh, a genus of the Pentandria Digynia class and order. Natural order of Campanacca;. Borraginea>, Jussien. Essential character: calyx bell shaped, rivc-cleft; corolla bell shaped; stigmas orbicular peltate; seeds four-arilled. There is but one species, viz. F. repens, creeping Falkia.
FALL, in the sea-language, that part of the rope of a tackle, which is hauled upon. Also when a ship is under sail, and keeps not so near the wind as she should do, they say she falls off; or when a ship is not flush, but hath risings of some parts of her decks more than others, it is called falls. Falling-stah, in meteorology, a phenomenon that is frequently seen, and which has been usually supposed to depend on the electric fluid. Mr. Davy, in a lecture delivered a few weeks since at the Royal Institution, gave many reasons against this opinion: he conceives that they are rather to be attributed to falling stones. It is observable that when their appearance is frequent they have all the same direction; and it has been remarked that they are the forerunners of a westerly wind in our conn try.
FALLOPIAN tabet, two canals of a tortuous figure, but approaching to a conic form, joined to the fundus of the uterus, one on each side. See Anatomy.
FALLOWING, in agriculture, the practice of preparing lands by repeated ploughing, harrowing, &c. so as to render them fit for*the growth of grain. Though by the frequent turning of land and exposing new surfaces of the soil to the operation and influence of the atmosphere, various changes are effected in the earthy particles, yet one great purpose in fallowing, is to destroy more effectually the weeds, which, in consequence of previous mismanagement, and of over-cropping, have increased to such a degree as to render cultivation for grain no longer profitable. Land being allowed to rest for a season from yielding a crop, and being repeatedly ploughed, the soil exposed to the influence of the different seasons, and at the same time completely pulverized, its fertility is again somewhat restored, so that, by the application of a smaller portion of manure than would be otherwise necessary, it is rendered fit for again producing valuable crops of grain or grass. It is universally acknowledged, that all soils, even those naturally the most fertile, are capable of being rendered unproductive by constant and severe cropping, and that the more improper the modes of cropping are, the sooner, and the more certainly, will a comparative barrenness ensue. Hence the propriety of fallowing, where imperfect modes of culture are adopted. Fallowing, in what may be called the infancy of improvements in agriculture, is also essentially necessary. If land be greatly exhausted, no matter by what sort of previous mismanagement, fallowing is the most expeditious, the most effectual, and, every thing considered, the least expensive method that can be adopted for restoring its fertility, and rendering it productive. It is the most expeditious, because it is completely done in the course of one season; whereas. several years of culture, and a great additional quantity of manure, would be requisite, were any other less effectual mode of tillage adopted. It is the most effectual, because the farmer has it in his power to destroy every weed, to turn over and expose the soil to the influence of the weather in the different seasons, and also to level and straighten the ridges, drain the land, and remove every obstruction to the introduction of better modes of husbandry, none of which could be so conveniently or effectually performed between the harvest of one year and the seed-time of the next. Fallowing is also the least expensive method by which the fertility of land greatly exhausted can be restored, and the only one that can be adopted with a certainty of success, for the removal of every obstacle to the introduction of more perfect agriculture. Manure
operates more powerfully when applied to a field that has been properly summer-fallowed than when laid on one that has been long under an improper course of cropping. The returns, after fallowing, will be to a certainty greater; and, therefore, although the actual expense of fallowing is considerable, yet the crop that succeeds is so much greater as to counterbalance that expense, while those that follow, if properly adapted to the soil, will yield the farmer a proper compensation for his extra trouble and expense. Such is the opinion of Mr. Donaldson, to which Mr. A. Young does not assent; he thinks every advantage is to be attained by judicious cropping. See Agriculture.
FALSE imprisonment, in law. To constitute the injury of false imprisonment, two points are necessary: the detention of the person, and the unlawfulness of such detention. Every confinement of the person is imprisonment, whether in a common prison, or a private house, or even by forcibly detaining one in the streets.
FALX, in anatomy, a process of the dura mater placed between the two hemispheres of the brain, and resembling a reaper's sickle.
FAMES canina, an excessive appetite. See Bulimy.
FAMILY, denotes the persons that live together in one house, under the direction of one head or chief manager. It also signifies the kindred or lineage of a person, and is used by old writers for a hide or portion of land sufficient to maintain one family.
Family, in natural history, a term used by authors to express any order of animals, or other natural productions of the same class.
FAN, an instrument used in winnowing corn.
FARINA, a term given to the pulverulent and glutinous part of wheat and other seeds, obtained by grinding and dressing. See Fjecula.
TARinxfcecundans, among botanists, the impregnating meal or dust on the apices or anthems of flowers, which, being received into the pistil or seed-vessel of plants, fe- , cundates the rudiments of the seeds in the ovary, which otherwise would decay and come to nothing. The manner of obtaining the farina of plants for microscopical observation is this: gather the flowers in the midst of a dry sun-shiny day, when the dew is perfectly off; then gently.