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which lies parallel to the notched side, forming an angle somewhat like a carpenter's square. When the legs of this angle are applied to the outside of the crown, and the board lies flat on the rim of the hat, the notched edge will lie nearly in the direction of the radius or line pointing to the centre of the hat. A knife being, therefore, inserted in one of the notches, it is easy to draw it round by leaning the tool against the crown, and it will cut the border very regular and time. This cut is made before the hat is quite finished, and is not carried entirely through, so that one of the last operations consists in tearing off the redundant part, which by that means leaves an edging of beaver round the external face of the flap. When the hat is completely finished, the crown is tied up in gauze paper, which is neatly ironed down. It is then ready for the subsequent operations of lining, &c.
Hats are also made for women's wear, of chips, straw, or cane, by plotting, and sewing the plats together; beginning with the centre of the crown, and working round till the whole is finished. Hats for the same purpose are also wove and made of horsehair, silk, &e. See Straw hat.
HATCHEL, or Hitchel, a tool with which flax and hemp are combed into fine hairs. It consists of long iron pins, or teeth, regularly set in a piece of board.
HATCHES, in a ship, a kind of trapdoors between the main-mast and fore-mast, through which all goods of bulk are let down into the hold.
Hatches also denote flood-gates set in a river, &c. to stop the current of the water; particularly certain dams or mounds made of rubbish, clay, or earth, to prevent the water that issues from the stream-works and tin-washes in Cornwall, from running into the fresh rivers.
HATCHWAY, the place where the hatches are. Thus, to lay a thing in the hatchway, is to put it so, that the hatches cannot be become at, or opened.
HATCHING,the maturating fecundated eggs, whether by the incubation and warmth of the parent bird, or by artificial heat, so as to produce young chickens alive.
The art of hatching chickens by means of ovens, has long been practised in Egypt; but it is there only known to the inhabitants of a single village named Berme, and to those that live at a small distance from it. Towards the beginning of autumn they scatter themselves all over the country, where each person among them is ready to
undertake the management of an oven, each of which is of the different size, but in general they are capable of containing from forty to fourscore thousand eggs. The number of these ovens placed up and down the country is about three hundred and eightysix, and they usually keep them working for about six mouths. As, therefore, each brood takes up in an oven, as under a hen, only twenty-one days, it is easy in every one of them to hatch eight different broods of chickens. Every Bei mean is under the obligation of delivering to the person who intrust- him with an oven, only two-thirds of as many chickens as there have been eggs put under his care; and he is a gainer by this bargain, as more than two-thirds of the eggs usually produce chickens. In order to make a calculation of the number of chickens yearly so hatched in Egypt, it has been supposed that only two-thirds of the eggs are hatched, and that each brood consists of at least thirty thousand chickens; and thus it would appear that the ovens of Egypt give life yearly to at least ninety-two millions six hundred and forty thousand of these animals.
HATCHMENT, in heraldry, a name sometimes used for an achievement, or escutcheon over a gate, door, or on the side of an house.
Hatchment, also signifies the marshalling of several coats of arms in an escutcheon.
HAUL the wind, in naval affairs, to direct the ship's course nearer to that point of the compass from which the wind arises. Example, It a ship sail south-west, with the wind northerly, and it is necessary to haul the wind farther to the westward: to perform this operation, it is necessary to arrange the sails more obliquely with her keel; to brace the yards more forward, and to haul the lower sheets farther aft, and finally to put the helm over the larboard side of the vessel. When her head is turned directly to the westward, and her sails are trimmed accordingly, she is said to have hauled the wind four points, that is to say, from south-west to west.
HAUTBOY, a musical instrument of the wind kind, shaped much like the flute, only that it spreads and widens towards the bottom, and is sounded through a reed. See Music.
11 AW finch, in ornithology, the English name of a bird, known among authors by the name coccotbraustcs. See Ayes, Plate VIII, fig. 6.
HAWKERS and PEDLARS, are such dealers or itinerary petty chapmen who travel to different fairs or towns with goods or wares, an' are placed under the contioul of commissioner, by whom they are licensed for that purpose, pursuant to Stat. 8 and 9 William III. c. «5, and 29 George III. c. M. Traders in linen and woollen, send? ing goods to markets and fairs, and selling them by wholesale ; manufacturers selling their own manufactures, and makers and sellers of English bone-lace going from house to house, &c, are excepted out of the acts, and not to be taken as hawkers.
HAWSER, in the sea-lansuagc, a large rope, or a kind of small cable, serving for various uses aboard a ship, as to fasten the main and fore shrouds, to warp ll ship as she lies at anchor, and wind her up to it by a capstan, he. The hawser of a man of war may serve for a cable to the sheet-anchor of a small ship.
HAWSES, in a ship, are two large holes tinder the bow, through which the cables run when she lies at anchor. Thus the hawse-pieces are the large pieces of timber in which these holes are made. Hawsebags, are bags of canvass made tapering, and stuffed full of oakum ; which are generally allowed small ships, to prevent the ship from washing in at these holes: and liawse-plup, are plugs to stop the hawses, to prevent the water from washing into the manger.
There are also some terms in the sea-language that have an immediate relation to the hawses. As "a bold hawse," is when the holes are high above the water. "Fresh the hawse," or veer ont more cable, is used when part of the cable that lies in the hawse is fretted or chafed, and it is ordered that more cable may be veered out, so that another part of it may rest in the hawses. "Fresh the hawse," that is, lay new pieces upon the cable in the hawses, to preserve it from fretting. "Burning in the hawse," is when the cables endure a violent stress. "Clearing the horses," is disentangling two cables that come through different hawses. "To ride hawse-full," is when in stress of weather the ship falls with her head deep in the sea, so that the water runs in at the hawses.
HAZARD, a game on dice, without tables. It is played with only two dice , and as many may play at it as can stand round the largest round table.
Two things are chiefly to be observed, viz. main aud chance; the latter belonging
to the caster, and the former, or main, to the other gamesters. There can be no main thrown above nine, nor under five; so that five, six, seven, eight, and nine, are the only mains flung at hazard. Chances and nicks are from four to ten: thus four is a chance to nipe, five to eight, six to seven, seven to six, eight to five; and nine and ten a chance to five, six, seven, and eight: in short, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, and ten, are chances to any main, if any of these nick it not. Now nicks are either when the chance is the same with the main, as five and five, or the like ; or six and twelve, seven and eleven, eight and twelve. Here observe, that twelve is out to nine, seven, and five; eleven is out to nine, eight, six, and five ; andames-ace and deuce ace, are out to all mains whatever.
But to illustrate this game by a few examples: suppose the main to be seven, and the caster throws five, which is his chance; he then throws again, and if five turn up, he wins all the money set him; but if seven is thrown, he must pay as much money as there is on the, board : again, if seven be the main, and the caster throws eleven, or a nick, he sweeps away all the money on the table; but if he throws a chance, as in the first case, he must throw again : lastly, if seven be the main, and the caster throws ames-ace, deuce-ace, or twelve, he is out; but if he throws from four to ten, he hath a chance; though they are accounted the worst chances on the dice, as seven is reputed the best and easiest main to be thing. Four and five are bad throws (the former of which being called by the tribe of nickers, little dick-fisher) as having only two chances, viz. trey-ace and two deuces, or trey-deuce and quatre-ace: whereas seven hath three dances, viz. cinque-dence, five-ace, and quatre-trey. Nine and ten are in the like condition with four and five; having only two chances. • Six and eight have indeed the same number of chances with seven, ri2. three ; but experienced gamesters nevertheless prefer the seven, by reason of the difficulty to throw the doublets, two quatres, or two treys. It is also the opinion of most, that at the first throw, the caster hath the worst of it. On the whole, hazard is certainly one of the most bewitching and ruinous games played on the dice. Happy, therefore, the man who either never heard of it, or who has resolution enough to leave it off in time. See Chances and Gaming.
HAZLE. Sec Corylus.
HEAD. See Anatomy.
HEADBORROW, or Headbouolgh, the chief of the frank pledge, and he that had the principal government of them within his own pledge. He was called also burrowhead, bursbolder, third-burrow, tithing-man, chief-pledge, or borrow-elder. He is now occasionally called a constable.
HEALTH, is a right disposition of the body, and of all its parts ; consisting in a due temperature, a right conformation, just connection, and ready and free exercise of the several vital functions. HEARING. See Sound. The organ of hearing is the ear, and particularly the auditory nerve and membrane. See Anatomy and Physiology.
HEAT. The laws according to which the temperature of bodies is subject to increase or diminution, have been discussed in the articles Caloric, Capacity, Cold, Combustion, and Chemistry. In the first of these articles, caloric was considered as a substance capable of passing from body to body, and subsisting in them in different states. This is the general doctrine of chemical philosophers: many of these, however, as well as others, incline to the hypothesis, that heat may consist in an modulatory or other intestine motion, either in the parts of bodies, or in some subtle fluid, or Ether, which see. Among these, we may reckon Sir Isaac Newton, Mr. Cavendish, Dr. Young, and Count Rumford.
"If heat," says Dr. Young," when attached to any substance, be supposed to consist in minute vibrations, and, when propagated from one body to another, to depend on the undulations of a medium highly elastic, its effects must strongly resemble those of sound, since every sounding body is in a state of vibration ; and the air, or any other medium, which transmits sound, conveys its undulation to distant parts, by means of its elasticity: and we. shall find, that the principal phenomena of heat may actually be illustrated by a comparison with those of sound. The excitation^f heat and sound are not only similar, but often identical; as in the operations of friction and percussion: they are both communicated sometimes by contact, and sometimes by radiation; for, besides the common radiation of sound through the air, its effects are communicated by contact, when the end of a tuningfork is placed on a table, or on the sounding-board of an instrument, which receives from the fork an impression that is afterwards propagated as a distinct sound. And the effect of radiant heat, in raising the
temperature of a body, upon which it falls, resembles the sympathetic agitation of a string, when the sound of another string, which is in unison with it, is transmitted to it through the air. The water, which is dashed about by the vibrating extremities of a tuning-fork dipped into it, may represent the mauner in which the particles at the surface of a liquid are thrown out of the reach of the force of cohesion, and converted into vapour, and the extrication of heat, in consequence of condensation, may be compared with the increase of sound produced by lightly touching a chord which is slowly vibrating, or revolving in such a manner as to emit little or no audible sound; while the diminution of heat by expansion, and the increase of the capacity of a substance for heat, may be attributed to the greater space afforded to each particle, allowing it to be equally agitated with a less perceptible effect on the neighbouring particles. In some cases, indeed, heat and sound not only resemble each other in their operations, but produce precisely the same effects; thus, an artificial magnet, the force of which is quickly destroyed by heat, is affected more slowly in a similar manner, when made to ring for a considerable time; and an electrical jar may be discharged, either by heating it, or by causing it to sound by the friction of the finger." See the articles first mentioned.
Heat, animal. The temperature which animals, and even vegetables raainrahi during life, above that of surrounding objects, is a very striking phenomenon. By general analogies it has frequently been referred to the process of combustion; and from facts more distinctly pointed, the doctrine, that it depends upon the absorption of oxygen, has been advanced by modern chemists. But it is to Dr. Crawford we are indebted for a direct series of experiments, by which the nature of the process is directly made out. It would carry us too far into physiological disquisition, if we were to proceed to enquire respecting the nature of the parts, and the functions of organized beings. The blood which circulates through the lungs absorbs oxygen in the act of respiration, by means of which a portion of the carbon which it contains is acidified and carried off in the elastic state. After this, and perhaps other changes, the fluid passes through the arteries to the extreme vessels, depositing in some manner the elementary parts or principles of animal matter during the act of nutrition, in which state of still
further change the blood returns by the veins, and again passes through the course of circulation. From his experiments on the capacities of arterial and venous blood, Dr. Crawford found the capacity of the former for heat to be 1.030, and that of the latter only 0.892, whence he concludes, that though heat must be given out in consequence of the diminished capacity of the combined oxygen absorbed by respiration, yet the increased capacity of the arterial blood will prevent its becoming sensible immediately in the lungs; instead of which, it will be given out at the smaller ramifications where the blood becomes changed in its nature, and in its capacity for heat by its conversion to the venous state. It has also been established by the experiments of the same philosopher, that the process of absorption'of oxygen is less in a higher than in a low temperature; the difference between the arterial and venous blood being at the same time less, and consequently the augmentation of temperature in the animal less considerable. This law of the animal economy, assisted by the increased evaporation, and by the slow conducting power of an animal body, and perhaps by the permanency of the enlarged capacity, seems sufficient to account for the power which animals possess of maintaining their natural temperature without any remarkable change in an atmosphere greatly heated, as was shown in the experiments of Kordyce and Blngden. (See Philos. Trans. 1775.) It must be confessed, however that some farther investigations seem wanting on this subject.
Though the lungs appear to be the great organ of oxygenation in the larger animals, it is well ascertained that a processof nearly the same nature is carried on at the skin; and in many of the smaller or less perfect animals there appears to be no other means for effecting this absorption. HEATH. See Erica. HEAVINESS,in general, the same with weight or gravity. See Gravity and Weight.
HEBENSTREITIA, in botany, a genus of the Didynamia Angiospennia class and order. Essential character: calyx emarginate, cleft underneath; corolla one-lipped, lip ascending, four-cleft; stamens inserted into the edge of the border of the corolla; capsule containing two seeds. There are six species, all natives of the Cape. HECTIC. See Medicine. HEDERA, in botany, English try, a ge
nus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Hederacese. Caprifolia, Jussieu. Essential character: petals five, oblong; berry five-seeded, surrounded by the calyx. There are six species, with several varieties.
Hederaceje, in botany, the name of the forty-sixth order of Linnaeus'* "Fragments of a Natural Method," consisting of the ivy, vine, and a few other genera, which from their general habit and appearance seem nearly allied. This order consists ofherbaceous and shrnbby plants, most of which, particularly the ivy and vine just mentioned, have creeping branches, that attach themselves by tendrils to the bodies in their neighbourhood. The roots are long; the stems and young branches commonly cylindric. The leaves are alternate, sometimes simple, as in the ivy and vine; sometimes winged, as in the zanthoxylum, or tooth-ach tree, in which the surface of .the leaves is covered with points. On each side of the fijot-stalk of the leaves of the vine are placed two pretty large stipula?, or scales; from the side opposite to the leaves proceeds a branching tendril, which serves to fasten the plant to the bodies in its neighbourhood. The flowers are either hermaphrodite, as in the ivy and vine; male and female upon different roots, as in the ginseng; or hermaphrodite and male upon different roots, as in the zanthoxylum. The calyx, or proper flower cup, consists of one leaf divided into five parts, which are small, and generally permanent. The petals are commonly five; but in the cissus four, and in the zanthoxylum none. There are five stamina; but the missus has only four. The anthers, or tops of the stamina, arc roundish: in the ivy they are attached to the filaments by the sides. In the zanthoxylum the filaments are crowned with twin anthem The seed bnd is ofdiffcrent shapes ; the seed-vessel is of the berry kind, with one, two, or five cells, and the seeds are from one to five in number, placed Either in distinct cells, or, as in the case of the ivy and vine, dispersed throngh the pulp without any partition. See Panax, Arc.
HEDGES, in agriculture, are either planted to make fences round inclosures, or to divide the several parts of a garden. When they are designed as outward fences, they are planted either with hawthorn, crabs, or blackthorn; but those hedges which are planted in gardens, either to surround wilderness-quarters, or to screen the other parts of a garden from sight, are
planted according to the fancy of the owner, some preferring evergreens, in which case the holly is best; next the yew, then the laurel, laurustinus, phillyrea, ,vc. others prefer the beach, the hornbeam, and the elm.
Hedge hog. See Erinaceus.
Hedge sparrow, the brown motacilla, white underneath, and with a grey spot behind the eyes. See Motacilla.
HEDWIGIA, in botany, so called from J. Hedwig, a genus of the Octandria Monogynia class and order. Essential character: calyx four-toothed; corolla four-cleft; style none; capsule tricoccousl seed a nut. There is only one species; viz. H. balsamifera, a lofty tree more than sixty feet in height, and nearly five feet in circumference, a native of St. Domingo. The wood is used for many purposes: the red gum that issues from the bark has a strong aromatic smell, and is serviceable in the cure of wounds: it is frequently called bois cochon.
HEDYCARYA, in botany, a genus of the Dioecia Icosandria class and order. Natural order of Scabridaj. Urtica?, Justied. Essential character: calyx eight or ten cleft; corolla none: male, filaments none; anthers in the bottom of the calyx, four-furrowed, bearded at the tip: female, germs pedicelled; nuts pedicelled, oneseeded. There is but one species; viz. H. dentata, a native of New Zealand.
HEDYCKEA, in botany, a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and order. Essential character: calyx one-leafed, hemispherical, five-toothed; corolla none; drupe oval, one-celled; nut ovate, covered with fibres, one-celled; the shell hard. There is but one species; eat. H. incana, a native of Guiana, where it is called caligni by the natives, who are remarkably fond of the fruit, which is about the size of a large olive: the pulp is- white, and of a sweetish taste; the shell is bony, and separates with difficulty from the fibres in the pulp; the kernel is two-lobed: it is but a small tree, not exceeding four feet in height.
HEDYOSMUM, in botany, a genus of the Monoecia Polyandria class and order. Essential character : male, ament covered with anthers; no perianth, corolla, or filaments: female, calyx three-toothed; corolla none; style one, three-cornered; berry three-cornered, one-seeded. There are two species, both natives of Jamaica.
HEDYOTIS, m botany, a genus of the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Stellatx. Kubiacea?, Jus
sien. Essential character: corolla monopetalous, funnel-shaped ; capsule two-celled, many-seeded, inferior. There are eight species, natives of the East and West Indies, also of Cochin-china.
HED YPN () is, in botany, a genus of the Syugenesia Polygamia /Equalis class and order. Natural order of Composite SemiUosculosac. Cichoraceii-, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx calycled, with short scales; seeds crowned with the calycle; outer without down, covered up in the scales of the calyx; inner having a down of five erectish awned charts: receptacle naked, hollow dotted. This genus, according to Professor Martyn, embraces some species of Hyosehis and of Crepis, which see.
HEDYSAKUM, in botany, a genus of the Diadelphia Decandria class and order. Natural order of Papilionacea: or Leguminosav Essential character: corolla keel transversely obtuse , legume jointed, with one seed in each joint. There are ninety species, only one of which is a native of Great Britain, Ill. H. onobrychis, saintfoin, or cockshead, and but ten which are natives of Europe. Most of these are perennial. Linmrns relates a remarkable phenomenon belonging to H. gyrans, sensitive liedysarum, which is as follows: "This is a wonderful plant, on account of its voluntary motion, which is not occasioned by any touch, imitation, or movement iu the air, as in the Mimosa, Oxalis, and Dionsea; nor is it so evani scent as in Amorpha. No sooner had the plants raised from seed acquired their ternate leaves, than they began to be in motion this way and that: this movement did not cease during the whole course of their vegetation, nor were they observant of any time, order, or direction; one leaflet frequently revolved, whilst the other on the same petiole was quiescent; sometimes a few leaflets only were in motion, then almost all of them would be in movement at once; the whole plant was very seldom agitated, and that only during the first year. It continued to move in the stove during the second year of its growth, and was not at rest even in winter."
HEEL, in the sea language. If a ship leans on one side, whether she be aground or afloat, then it is said she heels a starboard, or a-port; or that she heels offwards, or to the shore ; that is, inclines more to one side than to another.
Heel of the mast, that part of the foot of any mast which is pared away slanting on the aftward side thereof, in order that it