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would answer the contempt thereof at their that king, for a safe conduct to come and
peril, commune with him.
The said Thomas Earl of Lancaster, also In 1436, the Duke of Gloucester sent his
ordained, that (for the better observing of herald, named Pembroke, to defy the Duke
the aforesaid order) all the Kings of Arms of Burgundy; and the Duke of Bedford
should keep their chapters once every had his herald, named 'Bedford, whom he
quarter of the year, at least, and that they sent to defy Charles VII. of France,
should make their visitations in their pro- In 14%, the thirteenth of Henry VII.
their marshals for them, every the Earl of Surry sent Norroy king of arms,
seventh year. And he likewise ordained, that the heralds, at the interment of every gentleman, (where they were called to that service) should take the pedigree, with diligent examination of old folks, and record the same.
The heralds, in former times, frequently attended their sovereigus in their wars abroad; and in their progress, were often
to the captain of Hay ton-Castle, (which was one of the strongest places between Berwick and Edinburgh) to deliver him the said castle, which he refused; and whilst the said Earl lay at Hayton, the King of Scotland sent to him Marchmont^ and another herald, with a challenge, either to fight army to army, or person to person.
Heralds have likewise been employed in
dispatched to other princes, with messages justs and tournaments; and as to shields and
of war, as defiances, &c. and if they re ceived any violence or affront from those princes to whom they were sent, it was highly resented by him whom they served.
In the reign of King Edward III, Henry King of Castile sent an herald to the Black Prince, to know why he invaded his kingdom; and in 1415, King Henry V. of England, sending Antelope Pursuivant at Arms, from Southampton to the French King, to demand restitution of what he had detained wrongfully from him; the said King of France sent Montjoy King of Arms, from Koan, to assorc King Henry he would yjr give him battle.
The Emperor's herald defied Francis I. king of France; and giving his master all his titles, of Castile, Leon, Arragon, Naples, &c. in a long roll, King Francis commanded his heralds to receive the challenge, and to repeat Francis as many times as the other had kingdoms and petty titles.
At the baptism of Madame Isabelle de France, to whom King Henry VIII of England was godfather, the infant's name was proclaimed by the king's and heralds of arms, both of France and England, having their coats of arms adorned with the arms of both kings.
In the year 1635, a French herald was sent from Paris to Flanders, where, by sound of trumpet, he denounced and proclaimed war against the King of Spain, and all his dominions, and fixed up and left the defiance in all the towns he passed.
Besides kings and princes, divers noblemen in ancient time had also their heralds and pursuivants^" in the reign of Richard II. anuo 1379, the Earl of Northumberland sent an herald named Northumberland to
arms, we read that King Henry III. in the twenty-eighth of his reign, anno 124-1, commanded the keepers of the Archbislioprick of Canterbury, that they caused to be brought a fair stone, to be laid upon the body of Gerald Fitz-Maurice, who was justice of Ireland, and died at Canterbury, and also commanded them to set thereon his shield with his arms. And thus much may suffice to show the antiquity of heralds, and in some measure their use; next of their college.
of the College of Heralds. This college is seated upon St. Bennet's Hill, near Doctor's Commons, and was the ancient house of Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby, who married Margaret Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII.; and the Duke of Norfolk, having in lieu thereof exchanged lands with the crown, he procured the same to be bestowed by Queen Mary on the King's heralds and pursuivants of arms for ever; to the end that they might reside together, (if they pleased) aud assemble and agree together, for the good government of their faculty, and that their records might be there safely preserved, &c.
Since the tire of London, 1666, which consumed the whole house, it is fairly and conveniently rebuilt, with a large room for the keeping the Court of Honour, together with a library and houses and apartments for the officers thereto belonging.
They were made a college or corporation by charter of King Richard III, and by him (being wholly employed and entrusted in regulating all affairs belonging to the noble science of arms) had several privileges granted them, as to be free from subsidies, tolls, and all manner of offices in the kingdom; all which privileges were confirmed by King Edward VI. in the third of his reign; and for their regular proceedings have a public signet, wherewith they seal and authorise all business concerted in the office.
Of this collegiate society are (besides the Earl Marshal, who is their head) three kings of arms, six heralds, and four pursuivants; of all which, we will speak in their order.
Of the Earl Marshal. This great office, which is hereditary in the noble family of Howard, Dukes of Norfolk, (descended by the mother's side from Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham, the first Earl Marshal of England) which office is now held by his Grace Charles Duke of Norfolk; and by the statute of 31 Henry VIII. has his place next after the Lord Great Chamberlain, and Constable, and before the Lord High Admiral, and Lord Steward of the King's house. .
This officer, who is governor of the college of heralds, has sometimes been the King's lieutenant general in martial affairs, and is an Earl by his office, which no other officer in England is.
The Earl Marshal's court was held in the college of heralds, wherein he took cognizance of all matters of war and arms, being commonly guided by the civil law.
He determines all questions and differences that may arise between the heralds and other persons, concerning pedigrees, honour, arms, crest, supporters, and ensigns armorial; and he, or his deputy, being judge and head of the college, has power of making rules, ordinances, and decrees, for regulating thereof.
As in the college of heralds, the arms of all the families and names in England are (or ought to be) recorded, together with the time when their arms were granted, and upon what occasion; and as in the said office every man's fame and dignity is preserved, so his Lordship hath power by special commission, under the great seal of England, of prohibiting the provincial kings (which are Clarencieux and Norroy) to give and grant any new arms without his Lordship's consent: and when any such are usurped, and unjustly borne, he has power to examine and disclaim the same, and to punish the parties that shall falsely assume the arms of another.
He hears a staff of gold tipped with black, having the king's arms enamelled on one end, and his own at the other, and takes his place with the Lord Great Cham
berlain, or the Constable, next before the sword.
At a coronation the Earl Marshal has the ordering of the Abbey of Westminster, and sees the regalities and robes of King Edward the Confessor to be in a readiness, where the solemnity is held.
He appoints the building of the throne whereon the King or Queen is to be crowned, and gives orders to the gentlemen-ushers, for the covering and furnishing thereof with hangings, chairs, carpets, dubious, &c.
At such time the Earl Marshal is one of those that does all the nearest offices to the King's person, as to help to lead him, and to support his Majesty in his chair, putting his hand, with others of the nobility, to set the crown on his head, doing his homage first, and then presenting the nobility in their several degrees, being all vested in their robes of estate, wearing their coronets when they do their homage.
At the creation of any great estate, as Duke, Marquis, 'or Earl, the Earl Marshal has the furniture of the said estate, or a composition for it, as also by ancient custom he has had the like of archbishops, bishops, and abbots, at their consecrations.
At the funeral obsequies of kings, queens, and princes, the Earl Marshal is a chief commissioner appointed with the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Great Chamberlain, and others of the Lords of the King's Council, to give orders to the wardrobe, for the distribution of black for mourners, for the furnishing the hearse with velvets, palls of cloth of gold, escutcheons, banners, and hatchments, giving charge to the officers of arms to give their attendance, and to see all things royally and princely performed.
Assisted by the kings and heralds, he marshals and orders the proclamation and coronation of our kings, their marriages, christenings, funerals, cavalcades, royal interviews, feasts, &c.; and also when war or peace is proclaimed: so that he keeps a court of chivalry in the common hall of the college of heralds, where they sit as his council and assistants, in. their rich coats of his Majesty's arms, being all the King's servants in ordinary: and besides these, there are six proctors, who are to plead all causes relating to coats of arms, that are tried before the Earl Marshal, or his deputy, in the college of heralds.
The manner of admitting officers into the College of Arms is as follows:
At their first entry, they are commended to the Sovereign by a bill signed by the G g S
Earl Marshal'* hand ; which done, the King signs the same, and so it passes the privy seal and broad seal; and tliat once obtained, they are to be sworn ami created by the Earl Marshal, or his deputy.
Of the Kings of Arms. 1. Garter principal King of Arms of Englishmen, and chief officer of arms of the most noble order of the Garter. 2. Clarencicux King of Arms. 3. Norroy King of Arms.
Garter. This officer was constituted by King Henry V. wi!h the advice and consent of the Knights of the Garter, for the service of the said most noble society, and from thence took his name; and his Majesty, for the greater dignity of the order, being pleased to annex thereto the office of principal King of Arms, from hence he is honoured with two distinct titles, Garter, and principal King of Arms.
The duty of bis office, in relation to the Garter, is in general, to perform whatever the Sovereign, prelate, or chancellor of the said order, shall enjoin hint relating thereto; such as carrying the rod and sceptre at every feast of St. George, when the Sovereign is present, to notify the election of such Knights as are newly elected, to call npon them to be installed at Windsor, to attend the solemnity at their installation, to cause their arras to be put over their seats in the chapel there, to marshal the funeral rights and ceremonies of those knights, to carry the Garter to foreign kings and princes, that are chosen to be knights of that most noble order, to take cognizance of the arms of the nobility, and to make supporters to those created to any new degree of peerage; for which he has allowed him a salary and fees, both from the Sovereign and the knights.
This officer, as principal Herald or King of Arms in England (as Lion is in Scotland, and Ulster in Ireland) marshals the solemn funerals of the higher nobility of England, as Princes, Dukes, Marquisses, Earl;, Viscounts, and Barons, as also does many other services to the King and State; and therefore, as the other Kings have, has a salary out of the Exchequer, and double their fees at the instalments of the Knights of the Garter, and a composition for the uppermost garment of each knight at his installation.
It may not be improper to notice the peculiar bearings or attributes of the greatest antiquity before we proceed to treat of more modern facts. The Heathen divinities had each their distinctive mark; Jupi
ter wielded the lightning in his right hand; Neptune bore the three pronged trident; Mars the spear; Saturn the scythe; and Bacchus the spear, encircle;! by ivy; the Phrygians, the sow; the Goths, a bear; the Thracians, Mam; the ancient French, the lion, which was afterwards changed to the toad, and that again for the fleur de lis, sent them from Heaven by an angel, whose commission was directed to Clous, their first Christian monarch; the Saxons, a horse; the Flemings, a bull; the King of Antioch, an eagle grasping a dragon; the Romans, the eagle; Pompey, a lion holding a sword ; yet the Roman people, who were saved by the cackling of geese, despised that bird in too great a degree to admit it into their ensigns: exclusive of the above, there were many nations and individuals who distinguished themselves by exhibiting every description of weapons on their banners. It should also be observed, that the most ferocious beasts and birds were selected as emblematic of honour and courage, for this reason, shields, with their figures only, are considered as most honourable and ancient; but those with trees, flowers, plants, the sun, moon, planets, varieties of colours, or charged with any of the honourable ordinaries, or artificial objects, are deemed of less importance.
The science of heraldry consists principally of blazoning and marshalling ; the former is the art of displaying a coat ol arms in its proper colours, the latter is the combining various arms in one shield. In blazoning it is usual to begin with the field, and then proceed with the charge, and in naming the objects charged in the field, to mention the most predominant, and next the field, first; and then the most remote. Gwillim observes, that tincture is a variable hue of arms, and as applicable to differences as to the arms, and is distributed into colours and furs. The same author considers colours an external dye, or the gloss of any illuminated object, and the colour alluded to is considered general and special. The general implies the natural colour of bodies, whether artificial or otherwise; those borne in their natural colours must be blazoned proper, without mentioning the colours.
There are forms in heraldry which have names only applied to them, and no colour specified in Jic blazoning, the term sufficiently explaining the colour of each; they resemble a globe or ball, and are called besants the colour or plates argent; hurts, azure; torteauxes, gale*; pellets or ogresses,sable, pomeis, vert; golpes, piirpuro j oranges, tenne, and grosses, sanguine. In these nine varieties are included all the colours generally used in blazonry.
The blazoning of the arms of gentlemen, esquires, knights, and baronets, is derived from metals and colours; those of barons, viscounts, earls, marquesses, and dukes, from precious stones; and those of princes, kings, and emperors from the planets. See CoLours.
Or, gold, is expressed by dots (see Plate of I. Heraldry, fig. 1) and is intended as an intimation that as gold surpasses all other metals in value and purity, he that bears it should endeavour to excel in the same proportion, the same insinuation is implied in the topaz and the sun.
Argent, or white, is represented by a perfect blank (see fig. 2), this colour ranks next to Or, and without gold and silver Heraldry would be imperfect, argent signifies innocence, temperance and hope, the pearl was supposed by the antients to possess a restorative property, and Luna is acknowledged to be the mistress of honour, the sea:t and tides.
Gulen, red, is expressed by perpendicular lines, or lines paleways from the chief to the base (see fig. 3), this colour has ever been considered as s\ mholiral of majesty and dignity; the ruby cannot be wasted by fire or water, and Mars, the planet, alludes to the heathen God of battle, the patron of courage and military address.
Azure, blue, the lines in this instance are horizontal (see fig. 4) and intended for the tint of the air or sky, end is said to denote loyalty, fidelity, and chastity; the precious stone and planet in azure were adopted as possessed of superior qualities, emblematic of the worth of nobles and princes.
Sable, or black, represented by perpendicular and horizontal lines crossing each other at right angles (see fig. 5). Sable indicates gravity, constancy, and grief for the loss of friends; the diamond is the most valuable of all stones, and Saturn presides over counsellors and other grave chaiacters.
Vert, green, the lines are bendways (see fig. 6) or from the sinister corner of the chief to the opposite of the base, and is emblematical of youth, peace, and concord.
Purpure, is a colour composed of a large part of crimson, and a less of blue, and the lines which express it tend directly con
trary to those of vert, (see fig. 7) this word is derived from the fish called purpura; the amethyst was preferred for its excellence to decorate the breast of Aaron, and the planet Mercury signifies goodness of temper.
Tonne, or tawny, is a mixture of red and yellow, and represented by lines like those of purpure, it has been but little used in England, but was formerly in a considerable degree in France.
Sangujne, is composed of lake and a small quantity of Spanish brown, and expressed by lines as purpure, it was much used by the knights of the Bath, and by the Serjeants at law in their vestments ; the Saidonix is said by St. John to be the sixth atoms in the Heavenly Jerusalem.
Furs are the next object to be considered, the use of which may be thus explained.
Ermine, implies a field argent, with the powdering sable, (see fig. 8.)
Ermines, is the reverse, or a field sable, and the powderings argent.
Ermiuois signifies a field or, and the powdering sable.
Pean, is a field sable, and the powderings or.
Vair, is of two descriptions, if it consists of argent and azure it is sufficient to say vair, but if it is compounded of any other colours, it is usual to say vairy of the colours adopted, (see fig. 9.)
Fig. 10 is blazoned potent-counter potent, and the colours argent and azure.
Doublings, or furs,were antiently, and are at present used for the linings of the robes and mantles of senators, consuls and kings.
The bordure is extended to a great variety^* (fig. 11) gules a bordure, or; (fig. 12),' a bordure indented, argent; (fig. 13) a bordure counter compone, argent and gules.
The borddre is generally one-sixth part of the brcallh of the shield, and is ingrailed, indented, charged, componed and countered. If the inner line of the bordure is strait and the latter plain, the colour of the bordure alone is named in blazoning; if it is charged with parts of plants or flowers, it is described as vcrdoy of trefoils. If it consists of ermines, Vair or vairy, or any of the furs, the heralds say pnrflew of ermines. When charged with martlets, charged with an enaluron of martlets.
The label is the first of the distinctive marks of the branches of a family, and is borne by the eldest son during the life of his father (see fig. 14). The second son bears a crescent, the third a mullet, the fourth a martlet, the fifth an annnlet, the sixth a fleur de lis, the seventh a rose, the eighth a cross moline, and the ninth a double quatrefoil, (see figures 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, SI, 22.)
Those differences should be strictly observed by every brother or house, to prevent contention relating to coat armour.
In the second house, the first son bears a crescent charged with a label during his father's life only; the second son, of the same home, a crescent charged with another crescent; the third, a crescent charged with a mullet; the fourth, a crescent charged with a martlet; the fifth, a crescent charged with an anmdet; and the sixth, a crescent charged with a fletir dc lis.
The mullet, which is the difference of the third house, is (bus charged: the first son, with a label during the life of his father; the second, with a crescent; the third, with a mullet; the fourth, with a martlet; the fifth, with an annulet; and the sixth, a fleur de lis.
The martlet, annulet, and fleur de lis, the differences of the fourth, fifth and sixth houses, are charged for distinctions similar to the mullet.
The daughters of families are permitted to bear their father's arms, with the same distinctions used by them.
The shield, or escocheon, the mantle, the helmet and crest, are the several parts of arms which compose an achievement. Accidents in the escocheon, are points and abatements; the former are places in the shield named according to their position in the middle, or remote, the middle are near the centre. The fess point is the centre of the escocheon. The honour point is in a direct line above it, and the nombril is next below it. Remote points are placed at still greater distances from the fess point, some of which are superior and others inferior ; the former occupy the upper part of the escocheon, and of those there are middle and extremes, the middle is the exact middle of the chief between the two extremes; the two superior extreme points occupy the corners of the chief part of the escocheon, and are termed the dexter and sinister. The inferior points are at the base, and of them there are middle and remote, (see fig. 23) in which A is the dexter chief point; B, the precise middle chief; C, the sinister chief; D, the honour point; E, the fess point; F, the nombril point; G, the dexter base; H, the dexter middle
base; I, the sinister base point. An aba t emeut is a casual mark annexed to coat armour, which announces some dishonourable act of the bearer. Abatements consist of diminution and reversing, the first is the blemishing of some particular point of the escocheon by sanguine and testing, which are stains; were the metals used they would be considered additions of honour. See fig. 24.
Augmentations are additional charges borne on an escutcheon, a canton, or chiefs, and given as particular marks of honour. See fig. 26.
Escochcons are either of one or more tinctures: of those of more than one, that is said to be predominant, when some one metal-colour or fur is supposed to be spread over the whole surface of the escutcheon, which is termed the field, or shield: in such as have more than one tincture, the field and charge must be observed.
The charge is that which possesses the field, whether natural, artificial, vegetable, or sensitive, and may be placed throughout the superfices, or in some particular part of the escocheon.
Ordinaries consist of lines variously drawn. The properties of them depend upon their deviations from a right line. Those are termed engrailed, invected, waved, crenelle, or embattled, nebulc, indented, and dancette. (See fig. 27.) Of these, and straight lines, honourable ordinaries, abatements, and rewards of honour are composed.
The honourable ordinaries are the cross, chief, fess, barr, pale, chevron, bend, saltier, and escocheon.
The cross occupies the fifth part of the escocheon; if charged, the third; and is borne engrailed, invected, wavey, &c. between a charge, and charged as the rest of the ordinaries are. (See fig. 28.) Argent a ci"• •. sable.
The chief is peculiar to those who have obtained it by extraordinary merit: it contains one third part of the escocheon in depth, and is divided into a fillet, which includes a fourth part of the chief, and is placed in the chief point. (See fig. 29.) Or, a chief gules,
The fess is situated in the centre of the shield, and contains in breadth the third part of the escocheon. (See fig. 30. Azure a fess, or.) The bar differs from the fess only, as it is but the fifth part of the shield. It is divided into the closet, or a moiety of the bar; and the hamlet, or half the closet.
The pale contains the third part of Uin