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escocheon, and is divided into a pallet, or one half of the pale. An, endorse is the fourth part of a pale, and is not used but when the pale is between two of them. If the pale is upon an animal, it is usual to say, he is debrnsed with the pale, if the beast is on the pale, he is supported of the pale. (See fig. St.) Gules, a pale, or.
The chevron resembles the rafters of a house, and occupies the fifth part of the field, and is divided into the chevronel, which contains half the chevron; and a couple close, the fourth part of the chevron. Those are not borne but in pain, unless there is a chevron between them. (See fig. 32.) Gules, a chevron argent.
The bend contains the fifth part of the field in breadth when not charged; when charged, the third; and is divided into the bemllet, which is limited to the sixth part of the shield; into a garter, the moiety of a bend; into a cost, the fourth part of a bend; and a riband, the half of a cost. (See fig. 33.) Or, it bend azure.
There is, besides, the bend sinister,which passes obliquely across the escocheon, from the sinister chief to the dexter base. This U divided into the scrape, half the bend; and the bat tune, the fourth part of the bend, the most common badge of illegitimacy. (See fig. 34.) Gules, a baltunc argent.
The saltirc contains the fifth part of the shield; if charged, the third. This object represents an ancient description of scaling ladder; and, similar to the other ordinaries,a is borne enirrailed, wavy, &c. &c. (See fig. 35.) Sable, a saltire embattled, counter embattled, argent.
An inescoeheou consists of the fifth part of the field, and is to be placed in the fess point. Those who marry an heiress bear her arms on an escutcheon of pretence. (See fig. So.) Ermine, an incscocheon gules. The pile is an ordinary, in form like a wedge; is an ancient addition to armoury, and adopted from the pointed instrument nsed to secure foundations on marshy grounds. (See fig.37.) Azure, apile ermine. Partitions are such in which there is no tincture from metal, colour, or fur predominating in them, and are formed of various lines of partition, often causing counterchanging and transmutation. This kind of bearing may be engrailed, &c. (See fig. 38. Plate II.) Parted per pale, argent and gules. An example of counterchanges is given in fig. 39. Or, a cross per pale, gules and sable.
Another of ordinaries joined is shewn in fig. 40. Gules on a chevron argent, three bars, gemells sable.
The artificial objects used in heraldry are very numerous, and far too much so for enumeration: they express ensigns of dignity, both spiritual and temporal, the liberal and mechanical professions, and military and naval acts. See fig. 41.
Military figures are equally usual, and consist of castles, battering rams, daggers, spears, &c, &c.
Common charges are composed of objeets* natural or artificial; celestial are borne single, upon or between any of the honourable ordinaries, and then three are the usual number. (See fig. 42.) Diamond, a fess ermine, between three crescents topaz.
Under the article of vegetables are included trees, plants, leaves, flowers, and fruits. An illustration is given in fig. 43. Vert, five fig-leaves in saltier.
Various parts of the 'imnan body and the blood are borne in heraldry. (See fig. 44.) Argent, goutte de sang. Those are, however, seldom borne alone, but upon or with some of the ordinaries. Goutte de Sang only, always signifies gules; goutte de larmes, drops of tears, azure; goutte de eau, drops of water, argent; de poix, or sable, drops of pitch and d'or. The form of each is the same. The bloody hand is the appropriate mark of a baronet.
Of the various animals used, the lion is the most honourable; and all quadrupeds are considered more so than the bearings of fishes or fowls, particularly the males. The lion is borne rampant, (see fig. 43.) argent, a lion rampant sable; and passant, (see fig. 46) or, a lion passant sable, in chief three piles of the second. Parts of the lion are also generally adopted (see fig. 47.) Argent, a lion's head crazed vert. The varieties of beasts and their parts are extremely common, and cannot possibly be specified in an article so brief as the present, (see fig. 48.) Gules, a talbot passant, or, a chief ermine. All animals which are quadrupeds, and oviparous, may be borne. (See fig. 49.) Azure a tortoise erect, or. Fowls of every description are to be represented in the natural acts of standing or flying: those that are either whole footed, or have their feet divided, and have no talons, should be termed membered; the cock, and all birds of prey, must be called armed, and the arming or membering of them is to be of a different colour from the fowl or
bird: in the blazoning of fowls which make much use of their wings, if they are not exhibited spread, they must be termed close. The parts and members are generally borne both coiiped and erazed, and that on or between any of the honourable ordinaries. Birds are considered a more noble bearing than fish. (Seefig. 50.) Ermine, an eagle displayed gules.
Fishes are bome in many positions, directly upright, etnbowed, extended, and indorsed, and surmounting each other, fretted and triangle. (See fig. 51.) Azure, three trout, fretted in triangle argent. Those upright, with fins, were anciently termed in blazoning hauriant, signifying the act of respiration, to accomplish which fish frequently rise to the surface for fresh air; when borne transverse, or swimming, they were called in blazoning naiant. Fishes are borne in part, and on or between any of the honourable ordinaries.
There are, besides, animals or monsters, (see fig. 52.) Argent, 'a dragon's head erazed vert, holding in his mouth a sinister hand, couped at the wrist, gules.
Such are the peculiarities which distinguish the shield within the boundaries of its surface, we shall now proceed to treat of the helmet, and shew how it is placed in various cases, on the shield, above the corenet, and in others without the latter symbol of rank which equally marks the gradation of title with the helmet. The crown or coronet is more ancient than the helmet, and was invented as a testimony of triumph and victory; the radiated crown was assigned to Emperors; but the coronet with pearls on the circle, and foliage intervening, was not used in heraldry more than 500 years past. (See fig. 53—56) the coronet of a Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount,and Baron; besides ducal, mural, naval, civic, celestial, custom, salary, &c.
The helmet was worn in battle and at tournaments, both for use and distinction. Since the invention of fire arms it has been nearly confined to heraldic purposes. The manner of placing them on shields is shewn with in figs. 57, 5U, 59. Those right in front, many bars, to Sovereigns; those nearly in profile to Peers; when front and open, to Baronets and Knights; in profile close, to Esquires and Gentlemen.
The wreath is a roll of silk, of two colours
blazoned on the shield, and laid on the
helmet as a support to the crest. See
The crest is the most elevated part of the
armour of the head, and is said to be derived from crista, or cocks-comb. The original use appears to have been a protection from the edge of the sword, when aimed at the upper part of the skull. Gwillim asserts, that the crest, or cognizance, should possess the highest place next to the mantle, yet so as to permit the interposition of a scroll, wreath, chapeau, or crown. The knights who celebrated justs wore plumes, of the heron and ostrich feathers, with crests of various materials, which were altered at pleasure. They are of great antiquity, and were of superior honour, as no person was admitted to tilt at a just till he had given proof of his noble descent, and they were limited to those only, (See fig. 61) which exhibits a crest on the wreath.
The mantle is the drapery that is thrown around a coat of arms: it is doubled, or lined throughout by one of the furs.
Supporters are figures by the side of a shield, appearing as if they actually held it erect, (tig. i) j.) In England supporters are confined to Peeiv, and Knights of the fonr orders and proxies of the Princes of the Blood Royal, at installations, except by an especial grant from the Sovereign.
Heralds. The heralds, which are six in number, are distinguished by the names of Richmond, Lancaster, Chester, Windsor, Somerset, and York, and are all equal in degree, only preceding according to the seniority of their creation, their patents being under the great seal of England.
HERB, in botany, is that part of the plant which rises from the root, and is terminated by the fructification. It comprehends the trunk and stem ; the leaves; the fulcra, or supports; and the buds, or, a* they are sometimes denominated, the winter quarters of the future vegetable.
Herbaceous plants, in botany, are those which have succulent stems that die down to the ground every year; those are annual that perish stem and root every year; biennial, which subsist by the roots two years; perennial, which are perpetuated by their roots for a series of years, a new system being produced every spring.
HERCULES, in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere. See Astronomy.
HEREDITAMENTS, all such things immoveable, whether corporeal or incorporeal, as a man may leave to him and his heirs, by way of inheritance; or which not being otherwise devised, naturally descend to him who is next heir of blood, and not to an executor or administrator, as chattel s do. It is a word of large extent, and muc is tued in conveyances; for by the grant of hereditament?, isles, seiguorics, manors, houses, and lands, of all sorts, charters, rents, services, advowsons, commons, and whatever may be inherited, will pass. Hereditaments are of two kinds, corporeal and incorporeal. Corporeal hereditaments consist wholly of substantial and permanent objects, all which may be comprehended under the general denomination of land only ; for land comprehends, in its legal signification, any ground, soil, or earth whatsoever, as arable, meadows, pastures, woods, moors, waters, marches, fumes, and heath. Incorporeal hereditaments are not the object of sensation, are creatures of the mind, and exist only in contemplation. They are principally of ten sorb, viz. advowsons, tithes, commons, ways, offices, dignities, franchises, presents, and rents.
HERIOT, in law, signifies a tribute given to the lord for his better preparation towards war. And by the laws of Canute, it appears, that at the death of the great men of this nation, so many horses and arms were to be paid for, as they were in their respective life-times obliged to keep for the King's service. A heriot was first paid in arms and horses; it is now by some custom sometimes the best live beast which the tenant dies possessed of, sometimes the best inanimate goods, under which a jewel or piece of plate may be included. Some are due by custom, some by tenure, and by reservation on deeds executed within time of memory; those due by custom are the most frequent.
For an heriot service, or for an heriot reserved by way of tenure, the lord may either seize or distrain.
HERISSON, in fortification, a beam armed with a great number of iron spikes, with their points outwards, and supported by a pivot, on which it turns.
HERITIERA, in botany, so named in honour of Charles Louis L'Heritier, a genus of the Monoecia Monadelphia class and order. Essential character: calyx five-toothed; corolla none, male anthers ten, without filaments; female germs five; drupes with one subglobular seed. There is but one species, viz. H. littoralis, looking-glass plant, a native of the East Indies.
HERMAN NIA, in botany. This name was given in honour of the celebrated Paul Hermann, a genus of the Monadelpliia Pen
tandria class and order. Natural order of Columnifera. Tiliaceae, Jussieu. Essential character: styles five; capsule fivecelled; petals semitubular at the base, oblique. There are twenty-one species. The hcrmannias are shrubs from two to seven feet in height. Natives of the Cape of Good Hope.
HERMAPHRODITE, a term formerly applied exclusively to signify a human creature possessed of both sexes. The term is now applied to other animals, and to plants. It is now well known there is no such thing as an hermaphrodite in the human species. In most species of animals, the production of hermaphrodites appears to be the effect of chance, but in the black cattle it seems to be an established principle of their propagation. It is a well known fact, and, as far as has yet been discovered, appears to be universal, that when a cow brings forth two calves, o ne of them a bull, and the other a cow to appearance, the cow is unfit for propagation, but the bull-calf becomes a very proper bull. They are known not to breed; they 'do not shew the least inclination for the bull, nor does the bull ever take the least notice of them. Among the conntry people in England, this kind of calf is , called a free-martin; and this singularity is just as well known among the farmers as either cow or bull. When they are preserved, it is for the purposes of an ox or spayed heifer; ris. to yoke with the oxen, or fatten for the table. They are much larger than either the bull or the cow, and the horns grow longer and bigger, being very similar to those of an ox. The bellow of a free-martin is also similar to that of an ox, and the meat is similar to that of the ox or spayed heifer, viz. much finer in the fibre than either the bull or cow, and they are more susceptible of growing fat with good food.
Among the reptile tribe, indeed, such a» worms, snails, leeches, &c. hermaphrodites are very frequent. In the memoirs of the French Academy, we have an account of this very extraordinary kind of hermaphrodites, which not only have both sexes, but do the office of both at the same time. Such are earth-worms, round tailed worms found in the intestines of men and horses, landsnails, and those of fresh waters, and all the sorts of leeches. And as all these are reptiles, and without bones, it is inferred that all other insects which have these two characters are also hermaphrodites. The method of coupling practised in this class
bird: in (lie blazoning of fowls which make much use of their wings, if they are not exhibited spread, they must be termed close. The parts and members are generally borne both coiiped and crazed, and that on or between any of the honourable ordinaries. Birds are considered a more noble bearing than fish. (See fig. 50.) Ermine, an eagle displayed gules.
Fishes arc borne in many positions, directly upright, enibowed, extended, and indorsed, and surmounting each other, fretted and triangle. (See fig. 51.) Azure, three trouts fretted in triangle argent. Those upright, with fins, were anciently termed in blazoning hauriant, signifying the act of respiration, to accomplish which fish frequently rise to the surface for fresh air; when borne transverse, or swimming, they were called in blazoning naiant. Fishes are I the
its surface, we shall now proce
obliciieiy; a gland
. stamens; siliqna still';
.hi ked base, and converging
closed. There are seven spe
Use plants are much cultivated for
,/eat fragrancy of the flowers: tli
,,iies in Germany have pots of it placed i
their apartments, whence it obtained the
name of dames violet.
HETEROCLITE, among grammarians, one of the three variations in irregular nouns, and defined by Mr. Ruddiman, a noun that varies in declension. Other grammarians take the word heteroclite in a larger sense,applyingit to all irregular nouns. HETEROGENOUS, or HeterogeNeal, something that consists of parts of dissimilar kinds, in opposition to homogeneous.
Heterogeneous, in mechanics, such bodies whose density is unequal in different parts of their bulk ; or they are such whose gravities in different parts are not proportionable to the bulks thereof; whereas bodies equally dense or solid in every part, or whose gravity is proportionable to their bulk, are said to be homogeneous.
Heterogeneous light, is, by Sir Isaac Newton, said to be that which consists of rays of different degrees of refrangibility: thus the common light of the sun or clouds
is heterogeneous ; being a mixture of all sorts of rays.
Heterogeneous nouns, one of the three variations in irregular nouns; or such as are of one gender in the singular number, and of another in the plural. Heterogeneous, under which are comprehended mixed nouns, are six-fold. 1. Those which are of the masculine gender in the singular number, and neuter in the plural. 2. Those 'hich are masculine in the singular num- • 'r, but masculine and neuter in/the plural. "Ii as are feminine in the singular num••t neuter in the plural. 4. Such >rc neuter in the singular number, ie in the plural. 5. Such as are uneular, but neuter and mas'ural. 6. Such as are neuter but feminine in the plural
Iiogeneous numbers, mixed numconsisting of integers and fractions.
Heterogeneous quantities, are those which are of such different kinds, as that one of them taken any number of times, never equals or exceeds the other.
Heterogeneous surds, are such as have different radical signs, as ^/ a a, j/ b b, y' 9, v7 18, &c. See Surd.
If the indices of the powers of the heterogeneous «urds be divided by their greatest common divisor, and the quotients be set under the dividends ; and those indices be , multiplied crosswise by each others quotients; and before the products be set the common radical sign ,/, with its proper index; and if the powers of the given roots be involved alternately, according to the index of each others quotient, and tha common radical sign be prefixed before those products, then will those two surds be reduced to others, having but one common radical sign.
HEUCHERA,in botany, a genus of the Pentandria Digynia class and order. Natural order of Succulent*. Saxifrage, Jussieu. Essential character: petals five; capsule two-beaked, two-celled. There are two species, viz. H. aincricana, American heuchera or sanicle, and H.dichotoma.
HETEROSCII, in geography, a term of relation denoting such inhabitants of the earth as have their shadows falling but one way, as those who live between the tropics and polar circles, whose shadows at noon, in north latitude, are always to the northward; and in south latitude, to the southward. Thus we who inhabit the northern temperate zone, are heteroscii with regard