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of hermaphrodites, may be illustrated in the instance of earth-worms. These little creatures creep, two by two, out of holes proper to receive them, where they dispose their bodies in such a manner, as that the head of the one is turned to the tail of the other. Being thus stretched lengthwise, a little conical button, or papilla, is thrust forth by each, and received into an aperture of the other, these animals being male in one part of the body and female in another.
Among the insects of the soft or boneless kind, there are great numbers indeed which are so far from being hermaphrodites, that they are of no sex at all. Of this kind are all the caterpillars, maggots, and worms, produced of the eggs of flies of all kinds. But the reason of this is plain: these are not animals in a perfect state, but disguises under which animals lurk. They have no business with the propagating of their species, but are to be transformed into animals of another kind, by the putting off their several coverings; and then only they are in their perfect state, and, therefore, then only show the differences of sex, which are always in the distinct animals, each being only male or female. These copulate, and their eggs produce those creatures which show no sex till they arrive at that perfect state again.
Hermaphrodite flowers, in botany, are so called on account of their containing both the anthers and stigma, the supposed organs of generation within the same calyx and petals. Of this kind are the flowers of all the classes in Linnxus's method, except the classes Monoecia and Dioecia; in the former of which, male and female flowers are produced on the same root ; in the latter, in distinct plants from the same seed. In the class Polygamia, there are always hermaphrodite flowers mixed with male or female, or both, either on the same or distinct roots. In the plaintain-tree the flowers are all hermaphrodite; in some, however, the antherx or male organ, in others the stigma, or female organ, proves abortive. The flowers in the former class are styled female hermaphrodites; in the latter, male hermaphrodites. Hermaphrodites are thus as frequent in the vegetable kingdom as they are rare and scarce in the animal one.
HERMAS, in botany, a genus of the Polygamia Monoecia class and order. Natural order of Umbellatx or Umbelliferae. Essential character: hermaphrodite, umbel
terminating; involucre universal and partial; nmbellets with truncate rays, the central one floriferous; petals five; stamina five, barren j seeds in pairs, suborbicnlate: male, umbels lateral, with universal and partial involucres; nmbellets many-flowered; petals five; stamina five, fertile. There are five species.
HERMETICAL teal, among chemists, a method of stopping glass vessels, used in chemical operations, so closely, that the most subtle spirit cannot escape through them. It is commonly done by heating the neck of the vessel in a flame, till ready to melt, and then twisting it closely together with a pair of pincers. Or vessels may be her metically sealed by stopping them with a glass plug, well luted.
HERNANDIA, in botany, from Francis Hernandez, a genus of the Monoecia Triandria class and order. Natural order of Tricoccae. Lauri, Jussieu. Essential character: male, calyx three-parted; corolla thrce-petalled: female, calyx truncate, quite entire ; corolla six peUlled ; drupe hollow, with an open mouth, and a moveable nucleus. There are two species, Fri. II. So nora, whistling hernandia; and H. ovigera, egg-fruited hernandia. The first mentioned is an upright lofty tree, with a beautiful head ; the flowers are of a pale yellow colour, in panicled racemes; the calyx of the fruit are also yellow. It is very common in the West Indies, in gullies, near rills of water ; the English there call it jack in a box. Dr. Patrick Browne attributes the whistling noise to the cups that sustain and partly envelope the nuts; these he adds are very large, and as they move in the wind, produce sound enough to alarm unwary travellers. The seeds are very oily.
HERNIARIA, in botany, English mpture-wort, a genus of the Pentandria Digynia class and order. Natural order of Ho. loraeeae. Amaranthi, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx five-parted ; corolla none; stamina five, barren, besides the fertile ones ; capsule one-seeded. There are four species; as none of these plants possess any beauty, they are rarely cultivated in gardens.
HERON, in ornithology, a bird of the ardca kind, with a hanging crest. See Ardea.
HERRING. See Clupea.
HESPERID.K, the name of the nineteenth order in Linnaeus's fragments of a natural method, consisting of five genera, among which are the caryopbyllus or clovetree ; ami the myrtns, myrtle; allspice or pimento. Tlic plants of this order arc of the shrub and tree-kind, and chiefly evergreen. The bark of the stalks is slender; the leaves are generally opposite, but in the myrtle, the leaves are placed opposite at the bottom of the stalks, and alternate above. The buds are generally conical, concealed in the cavity, which is formed by the footstalk of each leaf at its origin. The flowers are commonly hermaphrodite: in a species of the myrhis, however, they are male and female upon different roots. The calyx is placed above the seed-bnd: the petals are three, four or five in number ; the stamina are upwards of twenty, nearly equal, and attached in several rows to the middle of the tube of the calyx. The seed-bud is large, and placed below the receptacle of the flower; the style is single, of the length of .he stamina, and terminated with a single stigma. The seed vessel is sometimes a berry, sometimes a capsule, and sometimes a stone.
HKSPERIS, in botany, English rocket, or dames violet, a genus of the Tetradynamia Siloqnosa class and order. Natural order of Siiiquosu-. Cruciformes, Tournefort. Cruciferae, Jussicii. Essential character: petals bent obliquely; a gland within the shorter stamens; siliqua stilt"; stigma with a forked base, and converging tip ; calyx closed. There are seven species. These plants are much cultivated for the great fragrancy of the flowers: th ladies in Germany have pots of it placed i their apartments, whence it obtained the name of dames violet.
HETEROCLITE, among grammarians, one of the three variations in irregular nouns, and defined by Mr. Ruddiman, a noun that varies in declension. Other grammarians take the word heteroclite in a larger sense, applying it to all irregular noons.
HETEROGENOUS, or HeterogeNeai., something that consists of parts of dissimilar kinds, in opposition to homogeneous.
Heterogeneous, in mechanics, such bodies whose density is unequal in different parts of their bulk ; or they are such whose gravities in different parts are not proportionable to the bulks thereof; whereas bodies equally dense or solid in every part, er whose gravity is proportionable to their bulk, are said to be homogeneous.
Heterogeneous light, is, by Sir Isaac Newton, said to be that which consists of rays of different degrees of refrangibility: thus the common light of the sun or clouds
is heterogeneous ; being a mixture of all sorts of rays.
Heterogeneous nouns,one of the three variations in irregular nouns; or such as are of one gender in the singular number, and of another in the plural. Heterogeneous, under which are comprehended mixed nouns, are six-fold. 1. Those which are of the. masculine gender in the singular number, and neuter in the plural. 2. Those which arc masculine in the singular num-' ber, but masculine and neuter in/the plural. 3. Such as are feminine in the singular number, but neuter in the plural. 4. Such nouns as are neuter in the singular number, but masculine in the plural. 5. Such as arc neuter in the singular, but neuter and masculine in the plural. 6. Such as are neuter in the singular, but feminine in the plural number.
Heterogeneous numbers, mixed numbers consisting of integers and fractions.
Heterogeneous quantities, are those which are of such different kinds, as that one of them taken any number of times, never equals or exceeds the other.
Heterogeneous surds, are such as have different radical signs, as ^/ a a, J/ b b, y' 9, jf 18, &c. See Surd.
If tlic indices of the powers of the heterogeneous «urds be divided by their greatest common divisor, and the quotients be set under the dividends ; and those indices he , multiplied crosswise by each others quotients; and before the products be set the common radical sign vS with its proper index; and if the powers of the given roots be involved alternately, according to the index of each others quotient, and tha common radical sign be prefixed before those products, then will those two surds be reduced to others, having but one common radical sign.
HEUCHERA, in botany, a genus of the Pentandria Digynia class and order. Natural order of Succulentae. Saxifrav,aB, Jussieu. Essential character: petals five; capsule two-beaked, two-celled. There are two species, viz. H. americana, American heuchera or sanicle, and H.dichotoma.
HETEROSCII, in geography, a term of • relation denoting such inhabitants of the earth as have their shadows falling but one way, as those who live between the tropics and polar circles, whose shadows at noon, in north latitude, are always to the northward; and in south latitude, to the southward. Thus we who inhabit the northern temperate zone, are heteroscii with regard
to those who inhabit the southern temperate zone, and they are heteroscii with respect to us. Hence it follows, that only the inhabitants of the two temperate zones are heteroscii, though in reality there is always one part of the torrid zone whose inhabitants are heteroscii with respect to those of the rest, and with regard to those of one of the temperate zones, except at the time of the solstice, and even at this time all of the torrid zone are heteroscii with regard to . those of one of the temperate zones; but as the people of thetorrid zone have their shadows now on this, and then on that side, they are called amphiscii.
HEXACHORD, in ancient music, a concord called by the moderns a sixth. The hexachord is twofold, greater and less. The greater hexachord is composed of two greater tones, and two less, and one greater semitone, which make five intervals. The less hexachord is of two greater tones, one lesser, and two greater semitones.
HEXAEDRON, or Hexahedron, one of the five regular or platonic bodies; being indeed the same as the cube ; and is so called fr om its having six races. The square of the side or edge of a hexahedron, is onethird of the square of the diameter of the circumscribing sphere; and hence the diameter of a sphere is to the side of its inscribed hexahedron, as */ 3 to 1, See Body.
HEXAGON, in geometry, a figure of six sides and angles, and if these sides and angles be equal it is called a regular hexagon. The side of every regular hexagon,' inscribed in a circle, is equal in length to the radius of that circle. Hence, it is easy, by laying oil' the radius six times upon the circumference, to inscribe an hexagon in a circle. See Geometry.
To describe a regular hexagon upon a given hue, describe an equilateral triangle upon it, the vertex of which will be the centre of the circumscribing circle. The side of a hexagon being s, the area will be
S.598»l = |sa X tang. 6<P=?s'x/T.
Hexagon, in fortification, is a place defended by six bastions.
HEXAGYNIA, in botany, the name of an order of plants, consisting of those which, besides their classical character, have their flowers furnished with six styles.
HEXAMETEK, in ancient poetry, a kind of verse consisting of six feet; the first four of which may be indifferently, either spondees or daclyls; the fifth is generally a
dactyl, and the sixth always a spondee. Such is the following verse of Horace:
13 3 4 5 6
Aut pro\desse vo\lunt, aut\dclr\dare po\rtir.
Sometimes, indeed, a spondee constitutes the fifth foot; whence such hexameter verses are called spondaic; as in this of Virgil.
1 2 3 4 5
Cava De ]um sobo\les magnum Joris | incre-1
Epic poems, as the Iliad, /Encid, &c, consist wholly of hexameter verses; whereas elegies and epistles consist usually of hexameter and pentameter verses, alternately.
HEXANDRIA, the name of the sixth class in the Linnaean system, consisting of plants with hermaphrodite flowers, which are furnished with six stamina or male organs that are of an equal length. This numerous class of plants is divided into five sections, from the number of the styles or female organs: the narcissus, snow-drop, tulip, hyacinth, &c, have one style; the rice, atraphaxis,&c. two ; dock,star-flower, &c. three; guinea-hen weed, four; and water-plantain five. The Hexandria class is distinguislied from the Tetradynaniia by the proportion of the stamina, which in the former are of an equal length, in the latter anequal, four stamina being long, and twoshort.
HIATUS, properly signifies an opening, chasm, or gap; but it is particularly applied to those verses, where one word ends with a vowel, and the. following word begins with one, and thereby occasion the mouth to be more opened, and the sound to be very harsh.
The term hiatus is also used in speaking of manuscripts, to denote their defects, or the parts that have been lost or effaced.
HIBISCUS, in botany, a genus of the Monadelphia l'olyandria class and order. Natural order of Columniferae. Malvacea>, Jnssieu. Essential character: calyx double; outer many-leaved; capsule five-celled, with many seeds. There are forty-five species, most of these are perennials; several of them have shrubby stalks; and some are herbaceous; the leaves are alternate and commonly of a soft texture, The flowers are of the mallow kind, axillary, and terminating; the bark in several is capable of being drawn into threads, and manufactured for packthread and ropes; the capsule in some is eatable; others are much esteemed for their ornamental flowers.
HIDE. See Cutis.
Hide. Hides are the skins of beasts:
but the denomination is particularly applied to those of large cattle, as bullocks, cows. buffaloes, horses, &c. Raw hides are still a considerable object in the Egyptian trade: about 80,000 hides of buffaloes, camels, cows, and oxen, are exported yearly. Nearly 10,000 go to Marseilles, and a still greater number to Italy. The buffaloe hides being thicker and heavier than the others, arc chiefly transported to Syria. As the pastures of Lower Egypt are excellent, the hides of its cattle, in consequence of their being so well fed, are of the very best quality. Great numbers of buffaloes are also in North America. They are larger than an ox, and their head is so full of hair that it falls over their eyes, and gives them a frightful look. There is a hunch on their back, which begins at the haunches, and encreasing gradually to the shoulders, reaches on to the neck. The whole body is covered with long hair, or rather wool, of a dun or mouse colour, which is exceedingly valuable, especially that on the forepart of the body, being proper for the manufacture of various articles. The hide makes a considerable article of export from America. There a>-e hides of several denominations, according to their state and quality. Raw or green hide, is that which has not undergone any preparation, being in the same condition as when taken off the carcase. There are also hides dried in the hair. Salted hide, is a green hide seasoned with sea-salt and alum, or salt-petre, to prevent its corruption. Most of the hides imported from Holland and France are so prepared. Tanned hides are further prepared by the tanner, by paring off the hair, and steeping them in pits of lime and tan. Curried hides are those which, after tanning, have passed through the curriers' bands, and have thus received their last preparation, so as to be fit for use.
Hide of land, was such a quantity of land as might be ploughed with one plough within the compass of a year, or so much as would maintain a family; some call it sixty, some eighty, and some an hundred acres.
The distribution of this kingdom by hides of land is very ancient, mention being made of it in the laws of King Ina. Henry I. had three shillings for every hide of land, in order to raise a dowry for his daughter: this tax was called hidage.
HIERACIUM, in botany, English hawktoted, a genus of the Syogenesia Polygamia Aequalis class and order. Natural order of Composite Semiflosculosx. Cichoracea?, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx imbri
cate, ovate; down simple, sessile; recep. tacle naked. There are fifty-five species: most of these plants are reputed to be weeds; few of them are cultivated except in botanic gardens.
HIERARCHY, denotes the subordination of the clergy, ecclesiastical polity, or the constitution and government of the Christian Church considered as a society.
HIERO's crown. Under the article ArChimedes we have given an account of the interesting fact to which this phrase alludes; we shall only add here, an example to shew how the fraud was detected by a simple arithmetical process: suppose each of the three masses above referred to weighed' 64 ounces, and that immersing them separately in the same vessel of water, there were displaced boz. of water by the golden ball, 9oz. by the silver, and 6oz. by the compound, or the crown itself, then the respective bulks being as the quantities of water displaced, will be as 5, 9, and 6; and we say, 9 — 6 = 3 6 — 5= t
4:64:: S : 48
And under such circumstances the crowu consisted of 48oi. of gold and 16 of silver.
HIEROGLYPHICS, in antiquity, mystical characters, or symbols, in use among the Egyptians, and that as well in their writings as inscriptions; being the figures of various animals, the parts of human bodies, and mechanical instruments.
But besides the hieroglyphics in common use among the people, the priests had certain mystical characters, in which they wrapped up and concealed their doctrines from the vulgar. It is said that these something resembled the Chinese characters, and that they were the invention of Hermes. It has been thought that the use of these hieroglyphical figures of animals introduced the strange worship paid them by that nation: for as these figures were made choice of, according to the respective qualities of each animal, to express the qualities and dignity of the persons represented by them, who were generally their gods, princes, and great men, and being placed in their temples as the images of their deities; hence, they came to pay a superstitious veneration to the animals themselves.
The meaning of a few of these hieroglyphics has been preserved by ancient writers. Thus we are told they represented
ttie Supreme Deity by a serpent, with the head of a hawk. The hawk itself was the hieroglyphic of Osiris; the river-horse, of Typhon; the dog, of Mercury; the cat, of the moon, or Diana; the beetle, of a courageous warrior; a new-born child, of the rising sun; and the like.
Hieroglyphics. SeeAVHiTiNG, origin of.
HIGHWAY, a public passage for the king's people, whence it is called the king's highway. It seems that anciently there were but four highways in England which were free and common to all the king's subjects, and through which they might pass without any toll, unless there were a particular consideration for it. All others which we have at this day are supposed to have been made through the grounds of private persons, on writs of ad quvd dammum, Arc. which being an injury to the owner of the soil, it is said they may prescribe for toll without any special consideration.
There are three kinds of ways, a footway, a pack and prime way, which is both a horse and foot way, and a cart way, which contains the other two. But notwithstanding these distinctions, it seems that any one of these ways which is common to all the king's subjects; whether it lead directly to a market town, or only from town to town, may properly be called an highway, and that any such cartway may be called the king's highway. A river, common to all men, may also be called the king's highway; and that nuisances in any such ways are punishable by indictment; otherwise they would not he punished at all j for they are not actionable unless they cause a special damage to some particular person; because if such action would lie, a multiplicity of suits would ensue.
If passengers have used, time out of mind, where the roads are bad, to go by outlets on the land adjoining to an highway in an open field, such outlets are parcels of the highway; and, therefore, if they are sown with corn, and the track is fouuilrous, the king's subjects may go upon the corn.
Repairing highways. By the common law, the general charge of repairing all highways lies on the occupiers of the lands in the parish wherein they are. But it is said that the tenants of the lands adjoining arc bound to scour their ditches.
Particular persons may be burdened with the general charge of repairing an highway, in two cases; in respect of an inclosure, or by prescription. As where the owner of lands not enclosed, next adjoining to the highway, incloses his lands on both sides
thereof j in which case he is bound to in.lkc a perfect good way, and shall not be excused for making it as good as it was at the time of the inclosure, if it were then any way defective ; because, before the inclosure, when the way was bad the people, for their better passage, went over the fields adjoining out of the common track, a liberty which the inclosure has deprived them of. Particular persons may be bound to repair an highway by prescription. But in all cases, whether a private person be bound to repair an highway by inclosure or prescription, the parish cannot take the advantage of it on the general issue, but must plead it specially -. and, therefore, if to an indictment against the parish for not repairing an highway, they plead not guilty, this shall be intended only that the ways arc in repair, or that it is not an highway, but does not go to the tight of reparation.
At common law, it is said that all the country ought to make good the reparations of an highway, where no particular persons are bound to do it; by reason the whole connty have their ease and passage by the said way.
By the ancient common law, villages are to repair their highways, and may be punished for their decay; and, if any do injury to, or straighten the highway, he is punishable in the King's Bench, or before the justices of peace in the court leet, &c. Destroying any public turnpike-gate, or the rails or fences thereto belonging, subjects the offender to hard labour for three months, and to be publicly whipped. 1 Geo. II. c. 19. On conviction at the assizes, the offender may he transported for seven years. And on a second offence, or on demolishing any turnpike-house, he shall be guilty of felony, and transported for seven years. Bat in both these cases the prosecution must be within six months; and on the convict's returning from transportation he shall suffer death. 5 Geo. II. c. 33.
Every justice of the peace, by the statute, upon his own view, or on oath made to him by the surveyor, may make presentment of roads being out of repair; and, thereupon, like process shall be issued as upon indictment. For the repairingofhirhways, there are certain regulations, by statute; and every inhabitant of a parish is bound to perform certain duties for that purpose.
HIGH water, that state of the tides, when they have flowed to the greatest height, or have ceased to flow. It is highwater several minutes, as many as between lb and SO, before it begins to ebb again.