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alcohol and water; the same also obtains when we mingle, by fusion, copper with sine, in order to form the compound metal called brass: it is then observed that the density of the mixture is augmented by about its tenth part. This apparent penetration is owing to the circumstance that the molecules of the two bodies, in consequence of their respective formation, generally approach one another more than in the two bodies taken separately: there hence results, in the figure of the pores, such a change as diminishes the space equal to the sum of these pores. On the contrary, in the alloy of silver with copper, a kind of rarefaction is produced, such that the volume of the mixture is larger than the sum of the volumes of the two bodies, previous to fusion.

IMPERATIVE, one of the moods of a verb, used when we would command, entreat, or advise: thus, go, read, take pity, be advised, are imperatives in our language.

IMPERATORIA, in botany, a genus of the Peutandria Digynia class and order. Natural order of Umbellatse, or Umbellifenc. Essential character: fruit roundish, compressed, gibbose in the middle, surrounded by a margin ; petals index, eniarginate. There is but one species, Ariz. I. ostruthiuin, master-wort, the root of which is thick, running obliquely in the ground; it is fleshy, aromatic, and has a strong acrid taste, biting the tongue and mouth; the leaves arise immediately from the root, having foot-stalks seven inches Ions, divided into three very short ones at the top, each sustaining a trilobate leaf, indented on the border; the footstalks are deeply channeled, and when broken emit a rank odour; the flower stalks rise two feet high, dividing into two or three branches, each terminated by a pretty large umbel of white flowers, whose petals are split: these are succeeded by oval compressed seedy, resembling those of dill, but larger. Linnaeus observes, that the floral leaves are opposite, that there is a petiolary, membranaceous, ventricose, stipule, one within another. It is a native of many parts of the Alps, Austria, Syria, Tyrol, Silesia, and Daupliine.

IMPERFECT, something that is defective, or that wants some of the properties found in other beings of the same kind: - thus mosses are called imperfect plants, because almost all the parts of fructification are wanting in them; and for the like reason

is the appellation imperfect given to the fungi and submarine plants.

Imperfect numbers, such whose aliquot parts taken together do either exceed, or fall short of that whole number of which they are parts: they are either abundant or deficient. Thus 12 is an abundant imperfect number, because the sum of its parts 1 -|- •_' + 3+ t + '' = ">• which is greater than if. But 10 is a deficient imperfect number, because 1 +2-1-5 = 8 only, which is less than 10.

IMPERSONAL rerb, in grammar, a verb to which the nominative of any certain person cannot be prefixed, or, as others define it, a verb destitute of the two first and primary persons.

IMPETIGENES, in medicine, descriptive of those disorders which, from a general bad habit, manifest themselves principally by disfiguring the skin and external parts of the body.

IMPETUS, in mechanics, the force with which one body impels or strikes another.

IMPLEAD, to sue or prosecute by course of law.

IMPLICATION, in law, is where the law implies something that is not declared between parties in their deeds and agreements, and when our law gives any thing to a man, it gives by implication whatever is. necessary for enjoying it An implied contract is such, where the terms of agreement are not expressly set forth in words, but are such as reason and justice dictate, and which therefore the law presumes that every man undertakes to perform. Estates often arise by implication in a will,and sometimes in a deed; but they are more readily implied in the former than in the latter in which the words must be more strict.

IMPONDERABLE substances. See StBSTAKCES, imponderable.

IMPORTATION, the act of bringing goods into a country from foreign parts. It has generally been considered, that for any country to carry on a profitable trade, it is necessary that the value of the goods sent nut of it should be greater than that of the articles imported: this, however, is a very erroneous axiom, iiiilc-s it is understood with great limitations. All articles of merchandize, imported merely for reexportation, and also such as are used or worked up in our own manufactures, are far from being hurtful to our commerce, and may even, in many respects, be deemed of equal profit with our own native commodities. It is therefore an excess of such importations alone, as are either for mere luxury, or mere necessity, or for both together, which is disadvantageous to the country, and not such importations as, like many of ours, consist of raw silk, Spanish wool, cotton wool, and yarn, mohair, flax and hemp, oils, potash, dyeing stuffs, naval stores, &c, either used in our ship-building, or worked up in our manufactures, a principal part of which are for exportation: nei

1831

User can our importations of Ea»t Gs goods and colonial produce, which sr» chiefly designed to be afterwards c3tponerbe deemed unprofitable, but are, on 4r contrary, some of the most Incrav branches of ourforeign trade. The foIJ*» ing statement of the total value of the ** ports of England, in the year 1334, fir Dishes a good comparison with tueir pre»ex< magnitude.

Fine cloths, at 67. per cloth, which, with the customs,

cometo. 11,083 IS O

597^ Hundred weight of wax, at 40s. per hundred weight,

which, with the customs, come to 815 7 5

1829J Tons of wine, at 40s. per ton, which, with the cus:

toms, come to 5,841 19

Linen cloth, mercery, grocery, and all other wares 22,943 6
On which the customs were 585 18

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Total 38.970

At this period, and for a long time after, foreigners were the principal importers of goods in this country ; and as it was thought that many of them, after disposing of their merchandise here, returned with the value in money to their own country, which was deemed a serious injury, many laws were made against carrying out-of the realm any gold or silver, either in coin, plate, or bullion; and merchant strangers were compelled to give security that they would lay out all the money they received for the wares they imported, in English merchandize to be exported. These injudicious restrictions have been long since done away, and, excepting the prohibition of some foreign manufactures, the import trade of this country is probably as free as the regulations necessary to secure the payment of heavy duties on almost every article of trade will admit. Total official value of the imports of Great Britain in the year 1800.

£. s. d. Port of London ... 18,843,172 2 10 The Out Ports 9,514,648 11 10

England 28,357,814 14 8

Scotland 2,212.790 11 8

30,570,605' 6 4
r ■ ■■ ' ■ ■'
In 1801 .£32,795,556

1802 31,441,318

1803 27,992,164

1801 29,201,490

1805 30,344,688

,1806 88,835,907

1807 29,556,330

These sums are the official value of sroci imported, which is very different from in* real value ; as an instance which may sere for every case, the official value of the insports for 1807, 29r556,S30/. ; but the real value, according to the average of the last three years, is 53,500,990/.

IMPOSTHUME, a collection of matter or pus in any part of the body, either ovrm; to previous inflammation of the part, or a translation of it from some other part.

IMPOSSIBLE roofs, in algebra. To discover how many impossible roots are contained in any proposed equation, Sir I. Newton gave this rule in his algebra, etc. Constitute a series of fractions, whose denominators are the series of natural numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4,5, &c. continued to the number showing the index or exponent of the bigaest term of the equations, and their numerators the same series of numbers in the contrary order; and divide each of these fractions by that next before it, and place the resulting quotients over the intermediate terms of the equation; then under each of the inter mediate terms, if its square multiplied by the fraction over it, be greater than the product of the terms on each side of it, place the sign -J-; but if not, the sign —; and under the first and last term place the sign -f-. Then will the equation have as many imaginary roots as there are changes of the underwritten signs from -f- to —, and from — to -f-. So for the equation a:1— 4 x* -f- 4 a — 6 = 0, the scrips of fractions is J, {, J: then the second, divided by the 6rst, gives f or \, and

the third divided by the aecond gives \ also; hence these quotients, placed over the intermediate terms, the whole will stand thus:

*' — 4xa+4x — 6.

+ + - +

Now because the square of the second terra, multiplied by its superscribed fraction, is y x4, which is greater than 4 r4, the product of the two adjacent terms, therefore the sign -f- is set below the second term; and because the square of the third term, multiplied by its over written fraction, it 'j at*, which is lew than 84 i', the product of the terms on each side of it; therefore the sign — is placed under that term; also the sign + is set under the lint and last terms. Hence the two clianges of

the underwritten sign* + -f- (-, the one

from -f- to —, and the other from — to -\-, •how that the eiven equation has two impossible roots. When two or more terms arc wanting together, under the place of the first of the deficient terms write the sipi — under the second the sign -(-, under the third —, and so on, always varying the signs, except that under the last of the deficient terms must always be set the sign -)-, when the adjacent terms ou both sides of the deficient terms have contrary signs. As in the equal ion.

x' + or* « O * + o» = 0,

which has fonr imaginary roots.

IMPOSTS, in architecture, the capitals of pillars, or pilasters, which support arches. An impost, sometimes called chaptrel, is a sort of a plinth, or little corniche, whir** crowns a pier, and supports the fiist stone wheuce'an arch or vault commences. The imposts are conformable to their proper orders. The Tuscan has only a plinth, the Doric has two faces crowned; (he Ionic, a larmier, or crown over the two faces, and its mouldings may be carved; the Corinthian and Composite have a larmier, frieze, and other mouldings. See Architecture. IMPOTENCY, in the ecclesiastical law, signifies an inability of generation, or propagating the species, which is a cause of divorce a eiaraio matrimonii, as being merely void, and therefore needs only a sentence declaratory of its being so.

IMPRESSING men. The power of impressing seamen for the sea-service, by the King's Commission, has been a matter of some dispute, and submitted to with (rat reluctance, though it has very clearly VOL III.

and learnedly been shown by Sir Michael Forster, - that the practice of impressing, and granting power to the Admiralty for that purpose, is of very ancient date, and has been uniformly continued, by a regular series of precedents, to the present time, whence he concludes it to be part of the common law. The difficulty arises from hence, that no statute has expressly declared this power to be in the crown, though many of them very strongly imply it. The statute S Richard II. c. 4, speaks of mariners being arrested and retained for the King's service, as of a thing welfknown and practised without dispute, and provides a remedy against their running away. By statute s and S Philip and Mary c. 16, if any waterman who uses the river Thames, shall hide himself during the execution of any commission for pressing for the King's service, be is liable to heavy penalties. By statute 5 Elizabeth, c 6, no fisherman shall be taken by the Queen's commission to serve as a mariner', but the commission shall be first brought to two justices of the peace inhabiting near the sea coast where the mariners are to be taken, to the intent that the justices may choose ont, and return snch a number of able bodied men as in the commission are contained to serve her Majesty. And by statute 7 and 8 William, c. 21; 2 Anne, c. 6; 4 and 5 Anne, c. 19; 13 George II. c. 17, especial*protections are allowed to seamen in particular circumstances, to prevent them from being impresseil. All which do most evidently imply a power of impressing to reside somewhere; and if any where, it must, from the spirit of our constitution, as well as from the frequent mention of the king's commission, reside in the crown alone. The Liverymen of London claim an exemption from being pressed; bnt by a late decision of the Court of King's Bench, this exemption is denied. Landmen, entering into the merchant service, and apprentices, arc exempt for two years from the impress, and all apprentices to the sea-service, under eighteen.

IMPKESSION denotes the edition of a book, regarding the mechanical part only; whereas edition, besides this, takes in the care of the editor, who corrected or aiiginrntcd the copy, adding notes, Ace. to reudcr the work more useful.

IMPRISONMENT, is the restraint »f a maul liberty under the custody of another, and extends not only toa gaol, bnt an house, stocks, or where a man is held in the Oo

street, or any other place; for, in all these cases the party so restrained is said to be a prisoner, so long as be bath not his liberty freely to go about his business, as at other times. None shall be imprisoned bnt by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land.

IMPROPRIATION, is properly so called, when a benefice ecclesiastical is in the hands of a layman, and appropriation when in the hands of a bishop, college, or religious house, though sometimes these terms are confounded. It is said there are three thousand eight hundred and forty-five impropriations in England.

IMPULSE, in mechanics, the single and instantaneous action or force by which a body is impelled, in contradistinction to the application of continued forces.

INACCCESSIBLE, something that cannot be come at, or approached, by reason of intervening obstacles, as a river, rock, &c. It is chiefly nsed in speaking of heights and distances. See Surveying.

INARCHING, in gardening, is a method of grafting, commonly called grafting by approach, and is used when the stock intended to graft on, and the tree from which the graft is to be taken, stand so near, or can be brought so near, that they may be joined together. The method of performing it, is as follows: take the branch you would inarch, and having fitted it to that part of the stock where you intend to join it, pare away the rind and wood on one side, about three inches in length. After the same manner cut the stock or branch in the place where the graft is to be united, so that the rind of both may join equally together; then cut a little tongue upwards in the graft, and make a notch in the stock to admit it; to that when they are joined, the tongue will prevent their slipping, and the graft will more closely unite with the stock. Having thus placed them exactly together, tie them with some bass, or other soft tying; then cover the place with grafting clay, to prevent the air from entering to dry the wonnd, or the wet from getting in to rot the stock: you shoulil also fix a stake in the ground, to which that part of the stock, together with the graft, should be fastened, to prevent.the wind from breaking them asunder, which is often the case, when this precaution is not observed. . In this manner they are to remain about four months, in which time they will be sufficiently united, and the graft may then be cut from the mother

tree, observing to slope it off close to tnw stock; and if at this time yon rover rar joined parts with fresh grafting-clay, it wal be of great service to the graft.

IN AUTER DROIT, in another's right, as where executors or administrators sae for a debt or duty, &c. of the testator or intestate.

INCEST, is the carnal knowledge of persons within the Levitical degrees at* kindred. Thee by our law, are totally prohibited to marry with each other; ami sentence of divorce in such case, is oaly declaratory of the illegality of the marriage, for the marriage itself is void, «fr initio.

INCH, a well known measure of length; being the twelfth part of a foot, and eoaal to three barley-corns in length. See MeaSure.

Inch of candle, or sale by inch of candfe. See Candle.

INCHASING. See Enchasing.

INCIDENCE, in mechanics, denotes the direction in which one body strikes oa another. See Mechanics and Optics.

It is demonstrated that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of renectka, and that they both lie in the same place. That the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction are to each other, either accurately or nearly, in a given or constant ratio: that from air to glass, the sine of the angle of incidence is to the sine of the angle of refraction as 14.9.

INCIDENT,signifies a tiling neceasaruV depending upon another as more principal For example, a court baron, is an incident to a manor, and a court of pye-powder to _; fair, so inseparably that they cannot b* severed by grant.

INCINERATION, in chemistry, a tern applied to the burning of vegetables for tie sake of their ashes: it is usually referred to the burning of kelp on the coasts for making mineral alkali.

INCLINATION*, is a word frequently used by mathematician*, and signifies the mutual approach, tendency or leasing of two lines, or two planes towards each other, so as to make an angle. Inclination of a right line to a plane, is the acute angle, which that line makes with another right line drawn in the plane through the point where the inclined liue intersects it, and through the point where it is also cut by a perpendicular drawn from any point of the inclined plane. Inclination of the axis of the earth, is the angle which it makes with the plane of the ecliptic; or the auglt.

contained between the planes of the equator and ecliptic. Inclination of a planet, is an arch of the circle of inclination, comprehended between the ecliptic and the plane of a planet in its orbit. See Astro

HOMY.

INCLINED plane, in mechanics, one that makes an oblique angle with the horizon. If a force, with a given direction, supports a weight upon an inclined plane; that force is to the weight, as the sine of the inclination of the plane to the sine of the angle which is made by the line in which the force acts, and the line perpendicular to the plane. See Mechanics.

INCLOSURES. Auy person who shall wilfully or maliciously demolish, pull down, or otherwise destroy or damage, any fence raised or made for dividing or inclosing any common, waste, or other lands, in pursuance of any act of parliament, or shall cause or procure the same to be done, shall be guilty of felony, and transported for seven years. Prosecution to be commenced in eighteen months after the offence committed.

INCOMBUSTIBLE, something that cannot be burnt, or consumed by fire. Authors talk much of an incombustible cloth, made of the asbestus. See Asbes

TUi.

1NCOMBUSTIBLE8, simple. See Substances, simple.

INCOME tax, a direct contribution of a certain proportion of the annual gains of individuals for the public service, which has recently become an important branch of the revenue of Great Britain. An attempt was made in 1702 to levy a tax of this description; but it proved very unproductive, and therefore was discontinued. Towards the end of the year 179B, Mr. Pitt proposed, in lien of the additional assessed taxes, a general tax on income, whether arising from land, personal property, or from any profession, office, trade, or other employment. The act was passed 9th January, 1799; and the duties imposed by it were, ten per cent, on all incomes of 2001. per annum and upwards, and lesser proportions on incomes between that amount and 601. perannum,which paid a one-hnndred-and twentieth part, or ten shillings per annum: incomes below 601. a year were wholly exempt. The great object of this tax was, to raise a considerable proportion of the public supplies within the year, and to liquidate within a short time what might be further raised by loan; with the latter view the payment of the interest, and redemption of the capital, of

part of the loans for the years 1798,1799, and 1800, was charged on the produce of the tax; but it being a tax which from its commencement had been very unpopular, both from its weight and the disclosure of the circumstances of individuals with which it was attended, it was repealed in April, 1802, and the charges upon it transferred to the Consolidated Fund.

In 1803 the income tax was revived, with some alterations in the mode of collecting it, under the title of the property tax: the rate at which it was now imposed was 5 per cent, on all incomes above 1501. per annum, and lesser proportions on incomes between that amount and 601. per annum. In 1805 it was increased to 6$ per cent.; and in 1806 it was raised to the original rate at which it had been imposed, or 10 per cent., while the scale of lesser rates was made to comprehend all incomes amounting to 501. per annum. By this means, and by deducting the tax on the dividends of the public funds at the Bank, and abolishing most of the former abatements and exemptions, the sum raised by it has been considerably augmented, the estimated produce being as follows:

1804 at Is. in the pound £ 4,650,000

1805 at Is. 3d. ditto 5,937,500

1806 at ts ditto 11,500,000

An income tax, if it could be so regulated as to bear a just proportion to the different modes in which the incomes of individuals arise, and did not extend to such amounts of income as are absolutely necessary for subsistence, would become the most equitable, as well as the most productive mode of taxation.

INCOMMENSURABLE, a term in geometry, used where two lines, when compared to each other, have no common measure, how small soever, that will exactly measure them both. And in general two quantities are said to be incommensurable, when no . third quantity can be found that is an aliquot part of both. Such are the diagonal and side of a square; for though each of those lines have infinite aliquot parts, as the half, the third, &c. yet not any part of the one, be it ever so little, can possibly measure the other, as is demonstrated in prop. 117. lib. x. of Euclid.

Incommensurable numbers are such as have no common divisor that will divide them both equally.

INCOMPLETE, in botany,a term used to denote the sixteenth class of the Liunaun Oof

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