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the plain and simple chic to solve all the difficulties that have occurred upon the subject.

INOCARFUS, in botany, a genus of the Decandria Monogynia clan and order. Natural order of Piimnsr. Sapotx, Jus•ieu. Essential character: calyx bifid; -orolla funnel-form ; stamens in a double row; drupe one-seeded. There is but one species, mu. I. edulis, a native of the Society, Friend ly, New Hebrides Isles, ice. in the South Seas; also in Am bo Vim.

INOCULATION, in medicine, the art of transplanting a distemper from one subject to another, by incision, particularly used for ingrafting the small-pox. See VacCination.

Inoculation. See Budding.

INORDINATE proportion, is where there are three magnitudes in one rank, and three others proportional to them in another, and you compare them in a different order. Thus suppose the numbers in one rank to be 2, 3, 9; and those of the other rank 8, 24, 36; which are compared in it different order, Ariz. « : 3 :: 24 : 36; aud 3: 9 :: 8 : 14. Then rejecting the mean terms of each tank, you conrlude 2 : 9:: 8: 36.

INQUEST, in law, an inquisition by jurors, or a jury, which is the most usual trial of all causes, both civil and criminal, within this realm.

INQUISITION, in law, a manner of proceeding by way of search and examination, and used in the king's behalf on temporal causes and process, in which sense it is confounded with office. This inquisition is upon an outlawry found, in case of treason and felony committed; upon a felo ie te, etc. to entitle the king to a forfeiture of lands and goods; and there is no such nicety required in an inquisition as in pleading: because an inquisition is only to inform the court how process shall issue for the king, whose title accrues by the attainder, and not by the inquisition; and yet in cases of the king and a common person, inquisitions have been held void for uncertainty. Some of the inquisitions are in themselves convictions, and cannot afterwards be traversed or denied, and therefore the inquest ought to hear all that can be alledged on both sides. Of this nature are all inquisitions of felo de u; of flight, in persons accused of felony; of deodands, and the like; and presentment of petty offences in the sheriff's term, or court leet, whereupon the presiding officer may set a fine. Other inquisitions may be afterwards traversed and

examined; as particularly the coroner's inquisition of the death of a man; for in such cases the offender may be arraigned upon the inquisition, and dispute the truth of it.

INROLLMENT, in law, is the registering, recording, or entering in the rolls of the Chancery, King's Bench, Common Pleas, or Exchequer, or by the clerk of the peace in the records of the quarter sessions, of any lawful act; a statute or recognizance acknowledged, a deed of bargain and sale of lands, and the like. But the inrolling a deed does not make it a record, though it thereby becomes a deed recorded; for there is a difference between a matter of record and a thing recorded to be kept in memory; a record being the entry In parchment of judicial matters controverted in a court of record, and whereof the court takes notice, whereas an enrollment of a deed is a private act of the parties concerned, of which the court takes no cognizance at the time of doing it, although the court permits it. By statute 27 Henry VIII. c. 16, no lands shall pass, whereby any estate of inheritance or freehold shall take effect, or any use thereof be made, by reason only of any bargain and sale thereof, except the bargain and sale be made by writing indented, sealed, and within six months inrolled in one of the king's courts of record at Westminster; or else within the county where the lands lie, before the clerk of the peace, and one or more justices. But by fifth Elizabeth, c. 26, in the counties palatine, they may be inrolled at the respective courts there, or at the assizes. Every deed before it is inrolled is to be acknowledged to be the deed of the party, before a master of chancery, or a judge of the court wherein it is inrolled, which is the officer's warrant for inrolling it; and the enrollment of a deed, if it be acknowledged by the grantor, it will be a good proof of the deed itself' upon trial. But a deed may be enrolled without the examination of the party himself; for it is sufficient if oath be made of the execution. If two are parties, and the deed be acknowledged by one, the other is bound by it. And if a man live abroad, and would have lands here in England, a nominal person may be joined with him in the deed, who may acknowledge it here, and it will be binding. There have been plans proposed for the inrolling all conveyances of lands, and registering them, in order to secure men's titles; but this has been objected to by the landed interest in

in aqua-regia, when diluted, affords an ink which becomes green when held to the fire, but disappears again when suffered to cool. This has been used in fanciful drawings of trees, the green leaves of which appear when warm, and vanish again by cold. This effect has not been explained. If the heat be continued too long after the letters appear, it renders them permanent. 7. If oxide of cobalt be dissolved in acetous acid, and a little nitre added, the solution will exhibit a pale rose colour when heated, which disappears on cooling. 8. A solution of equal parts of sulphate of copper and muriate of ammonia gives a yellow colour when heated, that disappears when cold.

Sympathetic inks have been proposed as the instruments of secret correspondence. But they are of little use in this respect, because the properties change by a few days remaining on the paper; most of them have more or less of a tinge when thoroughly dry; and none of them resist the test of heating the paper till it begins to be scorched.

INNS and innkeepers. If one who keeps a common inn refuse either to receive a traveller as a guest into his house, or to find him victuals or lodging, upon his tendering a reasonable price for them, he is not only liable to render the damages for the injury in an action on the case, at the suit of the party grieved, but also may be indicted and fined at the suit of the king. In return for such responsibility, the law allows him to retain the horse of his guest until paid for his keep; but he cannot retain such horse for the bill of the owner, although he may retain his goods for such bill; neither can he detain one horse for the food of another. An innkeeper, however, is jiot bound to receive the horse unless the master lodge there also. Neither is a landlord bound to furnish provisions, unless paid beforehand. If an innkeeper make out unreasonable bills, he may be indicted for extortion; and if either he or any of his servants knowingly sell bad wine, or bad provisions, they will be responsible in an action of deceit. Keeping an inn is not a trading to make a man a bankrupt; hut where an innkeeper is a chapman also, and buys and sells, he may on that account be a bankrupt. Innkeepers are clearly chargeable for the goods of guests stolen or lost out of their inns, and this without any contract or agreement for that purpose. But if a person come to an innkeeper, and desire to be

entertained by him, which the innkeeper refuses, because, in fact, his house is already full; whereupon the party says- he will shift among the rest of his guests, and there he is robbed, the host shall not be charged. If a man come to a common inn to harbour, and desire that his horse may be put to grass, and the host put him to grass accordingly, and the horse is stolen, the host shall not be charged; because by law the host is not bound to answer for any thing out of his inn, but only for those things that are infra hospitium. Innkeepers may detain the person of the guest who eats till payment. By the custom of London and Exeter, if a man commit an horse to aa hostler, and he eat out the price of his head, the hostler may take him as his own, upon the reasonable appraisement of four of his neighbours; yet he cannot justify the taking him to himself at the price it was appraised at.

INNATE ideas, thosa snpposed to be stamped on the mind from the first moment of its existence, and which it constantly brings into the world with it: a doctrine which Mr. Locke has abundantly refuted. See Idea.

INNOMINATA osso, in anatomy, three bones, which compose the extreme part of the trunk of a human body.

INNUENDO, is a word used in declarations and law pleadings, to ascertain a person or thing which was named before; as to say he (innuendo the plaintiff) did so and so, when there was mention before of another person. Innuendo may serve for an explanation, where there is precedent matter, hut never for a new charge; it may apply what is already expressed, but cannot add or enlarge the importance of it. The doctrine of innuendoes is strangely misunderstood, in the opinion of the writer of this article, and has been confounded by too much learning and technical distinction being applied to it. The meaning of the word is ' limiting, suggesting, or meaning.' All words have different meanings, according to the manner, time, and other circumstances under which they are used. If the words are used in their plain sense they need no explanation; if in any other sense, then all the circumstances by which that sense is to be made out to be the meaning of the party must be stated, and then the pleader may suggest the true meaning in the indictment under an innuendo; but before the innuendo is used, the circumstances must be stated to which it applies. This it

the plain and simple clue to solve all the difficulties that have occurred upon the subject.

INOCARWUS, in botany, a genus of the Decandria Monosyniu clan and order. Natural order of Duraosa>. Sapotae, Jus•ieu. Essential character: calyx Bifid; "orolla funnel form ; stamens in a double row; drupe one-seeded. There is but one species, viz. I. edulis, a native of the Society, Fiiendly, New Hebrides Isles, ice. in the South Seas; also in Amboyna.

INOCULATION, in medicine, the art of transplanting a distemper from one subject to another, by incision, particularly used for ingrafting the small-pox. See VacCination.

Inoculation. See Budding.

INORDINATE proportion, is where there are three magnitudes in one rank, and three others proportional to them in another, and you compare them in a different order. Thus suppose the numbers in one rank to be 2, 3, 9; and those of the other rank 8, 24, 36; which are compared in a different order, rtz. * : 3 :: 24 : 36; and 3: 9 :: 8 : 24. Then rejecting the mean terms of each rank, you conclude 2 : 9 :: 8 : 36.

INQUEST, in law, an inquisition by jurors, or a jury, which is the most usual trial of all causes, both civil and criminal, within this realm.

INQUISITION, in law, a manner of proceeding by way of search and examination, and used in the king's behalf on temporal causes and process, in which sense it is confounded with office. This inquisition is upon an outlawry found, in case of treason and felony committed; upon a ftlo de se, &c. to entitle the king to a forfeiture of lands and goods; and there is no sneb nicety required in an inquisition as in pleading: because an inquisition is only to inform the court bow process shall issue for the king, whose title accrues by the attainder, and not by the inquisition; and yet in cases of the king and a common person, inquisitions have been held void for uncertainty. Some of the inquisitions are in themselves convictions, and cannot afterwards be traversed or denied, and therefore the inquest ought to hear all that can be alledged on both sides. Of this nature are all inquisitions otftlo dtse; of flight, in persons accused of felony; of deodands, and the like; and presentment of petty offences in the sheriff's term, or court leet, whereupon the presiding officer may set a fine. Other inquisitions may be afterwards traversed and

examined; as particularly the coroner's inquisition of the death of a man; for in snch cases the offender may be arraigned upon the inquisition, and dispute the truth of it.

INROLLMENT, in law, is the registeriug, recording, or entering in the rolls of the Chancery, King's Bench, Common Pleas, or Exchequer, or by the clerk of the peace in the records of the quarter sessions, of any lawful act; a statute or recognizance acknowledged, a deed of bargain and sale of lands, and the like. But the inrolling a deed docs not make it a record, though it thereby becomes a deed recorded; for there is a difference between a matter of record and a thing recorded to be kept in memory; a record being the entry In parchment of judicial matters controverted in a court of record, and whereof the court takes notice, whereas an inrollment of a deed is a private act of the parties concerned, of which the court takes no cognizance at the time of doing it, although the court permits it. By statute 27 Henry VIII. c. 16, no lands shall pass, whereby any estate of inheritance or freehold shall take effect, or any use thereof be made, by reason only of any bargain and sale thereof, except the bargain and sale be made by writing indented, sealed, and within six months inrolled in one of the king's courts of record at Westminster; or else within the county where the lands lie, before the clerk of the peace, and one or more justices. But by fifth Elizabeth, c. 26, in the counties palatine, they may be inrolled at the respective courts there, or at the assises. Every deed before it is inrolled is to be acknowledged to be the deed of the party, before a master of chancery, or a judge of the court wherein it is inrolled, which is the officer's warrant for inrolling it; and the inrollment of • deed, if it be acknowledged by the grantor, it will be a goad proof of the deed itself' upon trial. But a deed may be inrolled without the examination of the party himself; for it is sufficient if oath be made of the execution. If two arc parties, and the deed be acknowledged by one, the other is bound by it And if a man live abroad, and would have lands here in England, a nominal person may be joined with him in the deed, who may acknowledge it here, and it will be binding. There have been plans proposed for the inrolling all conveyances of lands, and registering them, in order to secure men's titles; but this has been objected to by the landed interest in

parliament, chiefly from motives of delicacy.

INSCRIBED, in geometry. A figure is aid to be inscribed in another, when all its angles touch the sides or planes of the other figure.

INSCRIPTION, a title or writing carved, engraved, or affixed to any thing, to give 'a more distinct knowledge of it, or to transmit some important truth to posterity. The inscriptions mentioned by Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, sufficiently shew that this was the first method of conveying instruction to mankind, and transmitting the knowledge of history and sciences to posterity; thus the ancients engraved upon pillars both the principles of sciences, and the history of the world. Pisistratns carved precepts of husbandry on pillars of stone; and the treaties of confederacy between the Romans and Jews were engraved on plates of brass. Hence, antiquarians have been very curious in examining the inscriptions on ancient ruins, coins, medals, &c.

INSECTS, in natural history. We have, under the article Entomology, given an account of the Linnaean system of this department of natural history. We shall, in this place, enumerate some of those circumstances which form the line of distinction between insects and other animals. Insects are not furnished with red blood, but instead of it their vessels contain a transparent lymph. This may serve to distinguish them from the superior animals, but it is common to them with many of the inferior; though Cuvier has lately demonstrated the existence of a kind of red blood in some of the vermes. They are destitute of internal bones; but, in place of them, are furnished with a hard external covering, to which the muscles are attached, which serves them both for skin and bones; they are likewise without a spine formed of vertebrae, which is found in all the superior classes of animals. They are furnished with articulated legs, six or more; this circumstance distinguishes them from all other animals destitute of a spine formed of vertebra?. A very great number of insects undergo a metamorphosis: this takes place in all the winged insects. They frequently change their skin in the progress of their growth. A very great number of insects are furnished with jaws placed transversely. The wings, with which a very great number of insects are furnished, distinguish them from all other animals which are not furnished with a spine composed of verte

bras. Insects are generally oviparous; pious and aphides, during the summer months, are viviparous. Insects have no nostrils, are destitute of vsice: they are not furnished with a distinct heart, composed of ventricle and auricle. Incubation is not necessary for hatching their eggs- Insects, like all other organized bodies, which form the animal and vegetable kingdoms, are composed of fluids and solids. In the four superior classes of animals, viz. quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, and fishes, the bones form the most solid part, and occupy the interior part both of the trunk and limbs; they are surrounded with muscles, ligaments, cellular membrane, and skin. The matter is reversed in the class of insects; the exterior part is most solid, serving at the same time both for skin and bones; it encloses the muscles and internal organs, gives firmness to the whole body, and, by means of its articulations, the limbs, and different parts of the body, perform their various motions. In many insects, such as the crab, lobster, &c, the external covering is very hard, and destitute of organization; it is composed of a calcareous earth, mixed with a small quantity of gelatine, formed by an exudation from the surface of the body. As its great hardness would check the growth of the animal, nature has provided a remedy; all of these crustaceous insects cast their shell annually. See Crusts. The skin of most of the other insects is softer and organized, being formed of a number of thin membranes, adhering closely to one another, and putting on the appearance of horn. It owe, its greater softness to a larger proportion of gelatine. The muscles of insects consist of fibres formed of fasciculi; there are commonly bat two muscles to produce motion in any of their limbs, the one an extensor, the other a flexor. These muscles are commonly attached to a tendon, composed of a horny substance, connected to the part which they are destined to put in motion. In most insects, the brain is situated a little above the oesophagus; it divides into two large branches, which surround the oesophagus, and unite again under it, from which junction a whitish nervous cord proceeds, corresponding to the spinal marrow of the superior animals, which extends the whole length of the body, forming in its course twelve or thirteen knots or ganglions, from each of which small nerves proceed to different parts of the body. Whether insects be endowed with any senses different from those of the superior animals, cannot easily be ascertained. It appears pretty evident, that they possess vision, hearing, smell, and touch; as to the sense of taste we are left to conjecture, for we are acquainted with no facts, by which we can prove that insects do or do not enjoy the sense of taste. The eyes of insects are of two kinds; the one compound, composed of lenses, large, and only two in number; the other are small, smooth, and vary in number from two to eight. The small lenses which form the compound eyes are very numerous; they amount, in some insects, to many hundreds. The far greater number of insects have only two eyes, but some have three, as the scolopendra; some four, as gyrinus; some six, as scorpions; some eight, an spiders. The eyes of insects are commonly immoveable; crabs, however, have the power of moving their eyes. That insects are endowed with the sense of hearing, can no longer be disputed, since froghoppers, crickets, &c. furnish us with undeniable proofs of the fact. Nature has provided the males of these insects with the means of calling their females, by an instrument fitted to produce a sound, which is heard by the latter. The male and female death-watch give notice of each others' presence, by repeatedly striking with their mandibles against old wood, &c, their favourite haunts. Their ears have been discovered to be placed at the root of their antenna', and can be distinctly seen in some of the larger kinds, as the lobster. That insects enjoy the faculty of smelling, is very evident; it is the most perfect of all their senses. Beetles of various sorts, the different species of dermestes, flies, &cc. perceive at a considerable distance the smell of ordure and dead bodies, and resort in swarms to the situations in which they occur, either for the purpose of procuring food, or laying their eggs. Insects feed on a great variety of substances ; there are few things either in the vegetable or animal kingdoms which are not consumed by some of them. The leaves, flowers, fruit, and even the ligneous parts of vegetables afford nourishment to a very numerous class; animal bodies both dead and alive, even man himself, is preyed on by many of them; several species of the louse, of the acarus, of the gnat, and the common flea, draw their nourishment from the surface of his body; the puiex ulrerans penetrates the cuticle, and even enters his flesh. A species of gadfly, ostrus hoiuinis, deposits its eggs under

his skin, where the larva? feed. Other Caterpillars insinuate themselves into different cavities of his body. All the inferior animals have their peculiar parasitical insects, which feed on them during their life. There are some insects which can feed only on one species. The caterpillars, both of moths and butterflies, feed on the leaves of some particular vegetable, and, it is said, would die, could they not obtain this. There are others which can make use of two or three kinds of vegetables, but which never attain full perfection, except when they are fed on one particular kind; for example, the common silk-worm, which eats readily all the species of mulberry, and even common lettuce, neither attains so great a size, nor produces so much silk, as when fed on the white mulberry. There are a great many which feed indiscriminately on a variety of vegetables. Almost all herbivorous insects eat a great deal, and very frequently; and most of them perish, if deprived of food for but a short time. Carnivorous insects can live a long while without food, as the carabus, dytiscus, &c. At many insects cannot transport themselves easily in quest of food, to places at a distance from one another, nature has furnished the perfect insects of many species with an instinct, which leads them to deposit their eggs in situations where the larvae, as soon as hatched, may find that kind of food which is best adapted to their nature. Most of the butterflies, though they flutter about, and collect the nectarious juice of a variety of flowers, as food for themselves, always deposit their eggs on or near to those vegetables destined by nature to become the food of their larvae. The various species of ichneumon deposit their eggs on the bodies of those insects on which their larvae feed. See Ichneumon. The sirex and sphex are likewise careful to deposit their eggs in situations where their larvae, when hatched, may find subsistence. The sphex figului deposits its eggs on the body of spiders, which it has killed, and encloses it in a cell composed of clay. Some insects, at different periods of their existence, make use of aliment of very different properties: the larva of some are carnivorous, while the perfect insect feeds on the nectareous juice of flowers : e. g. sirex, ichneumon, &c. The larvae of mast of the lepidopterous insects feed on the leaves and young shoots of vegetables, while the perfect insects either take no food at all, or subsist on the sweet juice which they extract from flowers : in

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