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drawn upon paper to be measured, produce one of the sides of the angle backwards behind the angular point; then with a pair of fine compasses describe a pretty large semicircle from the angular point as it centre, cutting the sides of the proposed angle, which will intercept a part of the semicircle. Take then this intercepted part very exactly between the points of the compasses, •nd turn them successively over upon the arc of the semicircle, to find how often it is contained in it, after which there is commonly some remainder: then take this remainder in the compasses, and in like manner find how often it is contained in the last of the integral parts of the first arc, with again some remainder: find in like manner how often this last remainder is . contained in the former; and so on continually till the remainder become too small to be taken and applied as a measure. By this means is obtained a series of quotients, or fractional parts, one of another, which being properly reduced into one fraction, give the ratio of the first arc to the semicircle, or of the proposed angles to two right angles, or 180 degrees, and consequently that angle itself in degrees and minutes. Thus, suppose the angle B A C (Plate VI. Miscel. fig. 4.) be proposed to be measured. Produce B A out towards /', and from the centre, A, describe the semicircle a b e f, in which a b is the measure of the proposed angle. Take d 6 in the compasses, and apply it four times on the semicircle, as at b, c, d, and e; then take the remainder f e, and apply it back upon t d, which is but once, ri«. at g; again, take the remainder g d, and apply it five times on g t, as at //, i, k, I, and m; lastly, take the remainder m e, and it is contained just two times in m (. Hence the series of quotients is -4, 1, 5, t; consequently the fourth, or last arc, e of, is } the third, m I of
g d, and tbereforethe third arc, g d, is —, or rJ,ths of the second arc, if; and theretore, again this second arc, cf, is —, or u of the first arc, a b; and consequently this first arc, a A, is —, or JJds of the whole
semicircle a f. But fjds of 180° are S7^ °, or 37° 8 34}", which therefore is the measure of the angle sought.
GONIUM, in natural history, a-genus of the Vermes Infusoria. Worm very simple, flat, angular, invisible to the naked eye.
There are five species, of which G. pectorale is quadrangular, pellucid, with sixteen spherical molecules. It is found in pure water: molecules oval, nearly.equnl in size, set in a quadrangular membrane like diamonds in a ring, the lower ones larger than the rest GONORRHOEA. See Medicine. GOODENIA, in botany, so called in honour of the Rev. Samuel Goodenough, F. R. S. a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and order. N antral order of Campannlacese, Jussieu. Essential character: corolla longitudinally cloven on the upper side, exposing the organs of fructification; border five-cleft, leaning one way; anther linear; stigma cup-shaped, ciliated , capsule . two-celled, two-valved, with a parallel partition; seeds many, imbricated. There are nine species. These plants are all natives of New South Wales, about Port Jackson. GOOD behaviour, in law. Surety for good behaviour, is the bail for any person's good conduct for a certain time ; as surety for the peace is a recognizance taken by a competent judge of record for keeping the King's peace. ,
Justices of the peace may also bind persons of evil fame to their good behaviour, Ne. 3-kJEdward III. c. 1. This statute being penned in such general words, seems to empower justices, not only to bind over those, who seem to be notoriously troublesome, and likely to break the peace, as eves-droppers, &c, but also those who are publicly scandalous, or con turners of justice, &c. as haunters of bawdy-houses, or keepers of lewd-women in their own houses, common drunkards, or those who sleep in the day, and go abroad in the night, or such as keep suspicious company, or such as are generally suspected as robbers, or sueh»as speak contemptuous words of inferior magistrates, as justices of the peace, mayors, &c. not being in the actual execution of their offices ; or of inferior officers of justice, as constables, &c. being in the actual execution of their office; but it seems that rash, quarrelsome, or unmannerly words, spoken by one private person to another, unless they directly tend to a breach of the peace, are not sufficient cause to bind a man to his good behaviour.
GOOGINGS, in naval affairs, certain clamps of iron or other metal, bolted on the stern-post, on which to hang the rudder; for this purpose there is a hole in each of them to receive a correspondent spindle, bolted on the back of the rudder, which
turns thereby as on hinges. There are several googings on a ship's posts and rudder, according to her size, and on these the rudder is supported and traverses.
GOOLE, in law books, signifies a breach in a sea-hank, or wall.
GOOSE. See Anas.
Goose berry. See Kibes.
Goose neck, in a ship, a piece of iron fixed on the end of the tiller, to which the laniard of the whip-staff, or the wheel rope comes for steering the ship.
Goose wing, in the sea-language. When a ship sails' before, or with, a quarter-wind on a fresh gale, to make the more haste, they launch out a boom, and sail on the lee-side ; and a sail so fitted, is called a goose-wing.
GORDIUS, in natural history, kair-worm, * a genus of the Vermes lntestiua class and order. Body round, filiform, equal, smooth. There arc tive species. G. aquaticus is from four to six inches long, of a pale brown colour, but dai ker at the extremities: it is found in stagnant waters, and twists itself into various contortions and knots, and it is said that if it is handled without caution, it will inflict a bite that occasions the whitlow. G. liliim is found in the bark of old wooden water-pipes. G. lactens is white and opaque; found in stagnant waters; when touched it contracts itself in a moment, and afterwards expands as suddenly.
GORDONIA, in botany, loblolly-bay, so called from Mr. James Gordon, an eminent nursery man, a genus of the Monadelphia Polyandria class and order. Natural order of Columnifera?. Malvacex, Jussien. Essential character: calyx five-leaved; petals five, united at the base by means of the nectary ; filament inserted into the nectary; capsule superior, five-celled; seeds winged. There are three species.
GORE, in heraldry, one of the abatements, which, according to Guilliin, denotes a coward. It is a figure consisting of two arch lines drawn one from the sinister chief, and the other from the sinister base, both meeting in an acute angle in the middie of the fess point.
GOREING, in the sea-language, sloping. A sail is cut goreing, when it is cut sloping by degrees, and is broader at the clue, than at the earing, as all top-sails and top-gallant sails are.
G6rge, in fortification, the entrance of the platform of any work.
GORGED, in heraldry, the bearing of a crown, coronet, or the like, about the neck of a lion, a swan, &r. and in that case it is said, the lion or cygnet is gorged with a ducal coronet, &c. Gorged is also used when the gorge, or neck of a peacock, swan, or the like bird, is of a different colour or metal from the rest.
GORGON1A, in natural history,a genus of the Vermes Zoophyta class and order. Animal growing in the form of a plant; stem coriaceous, vorky, woody, horny, or bony, composed of glassy fibres, or like stone, striate, tapering, dilated at the base, covered with a vascular or cellular flesh or bark, and becoming spongy and friable when dry; mouths or florets covering the surface or the stem and polype bearing. There are about forty species, of which the following are found in the European seas, viz. G. placomus: branching' both ways, with flexuous, rarely anastomosing branches, covered with conic florets. The stem is erect, the branches flatfish, bending towards each other; florets surrounded at the top with small spines. G. anceps: slightly branched, with compressed stem and branches, each with rows of florets along both margins. It inhabits the American and British coasts, nearly two feet high; flesh calcareous; bone of horny leathery texture; when recent of a tine violet colour, but when dry, yellowish or white. G. flabcllum, Venus's fan: reticulate with the branches compressed on the inner side; bark yellow or purplish; bone black and horny. It inhabits most seas, and is often several feet high, and expanded into a large surface ; trunk and branches pinnate, and by means of the smaller branches blending together, forming an elegant kind of net work; polype with eight claws. See Zohphytes.
GORTERIA, in botany, so named in honour of David de Gorter, a genus of the Syngeuesia Polygamia Frustranea class and order. Natural order of Composite Capitals. Corymbiferte, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx imbricate, with spiny scales , corolla of the ray Isolate; down woolly, receptacle naked. There are thirteen species, mostly shrubby plants from the Cape of Good Hope.
GOSHAWK, the English name of the yellow-legged falcon, with a brown back, and a white variegated breast. See Fal
GOSSAMER is the name of a fine filmy substance, like cobweb, which is seen to float in the air in clear days in autumn, and is more observable in stubble-fields, and upon tin /.f and other low bushes. This is probably formed by the flying-spider, which, in traversing the air for food, shoots out these threads from its anus, which are borne down by the dew, &c.
GOSSYPIUM, in botany, English cotton, a genus of the Monadelphia Polyandria class and order. Natural order of Colnmniferae. Malvaceae, Jussien. Essential character: calyx double, outer trifid; capsule four-celled; seeds wrapped in cottou. There •re six species. See Manufacture of Cotton.
GOTHIC style, in architecture. The characteristic* of this manner of building are pointed arches, greater height than breadth in the proportions, and profuse ornament chiefly derived from an imitation of the leaves end flowers of plants. The word gothic, by which it has king been distinguished in England, has lately been considered by its admirers as a term of reproach applied by architects, who were at a loss how to imitate its excellence,in order to bring it into disrepute, the former therefore now call it the pointed style. If we were to judge wholly from the complete oblivion which involves the origin of gothic architecture, it must follow that architects were held in as little estimation about the time of Henry III. as common masons are at present; but this inference is doubtful, and the cause that the names of the most eminent have not reached in may be more correctly attributed to the then and subsequent neglect of literature. Writing was almost exclusively confined .to the cloister, yet the monks who could best inform us of their architects and the changes in their styles were unaccountably silent on the subject, an instance may be cited from Malcolm's "Londiniuin ftcdivmim," in which that author introduces a legend of the building of tire priory of St. Bartholomew, Smithfield, written immediately after the death of Kahere the founder, by a monk resident there. This person describes the manner in which the money was raised, and many miracles performed, but not a word occurs relating to the architect: Habere died in 1174, and the monk adds, "And with moor ampliant buildings were the skynnys of our tabemacuiys dylatid;" we may therefore suppose that'the arches under the tower which are partly circular in the Saxon style, and partly pointed,
were some of the first essays in the new mode of building, and erected about 1300.
Westminster Abbey was begun by Henry IH. in 1245, this beautiful edifice is a complete and regular specimen of the purest pointed style, it is consequently perfectly fair to suppose, that the interval between the above dates was the period when gothic architecture superseded its heavy and tasteless predecessor. That it soon became the favourite mode may be concluded from its adoption in all the additions made to old churches at that time, which is discoverable in an instant by the total disagreement of the proportions and ornaments. There is every probability that the first principles of the style in question were derived from the eastern nations, now partially under the dominion of the East India Company, where there are many buildings dedicated to their mode of worship that might almost be called gothic, and those are certainly very antient. The Romans had explored the coasts of those countries, and their remote descendants may have seen representations of the structures alluded to left by their ancestors and adopted them with alterations in some few of the earliest specimens of Christian churches. When a people of so much importance, in the history of the world, as the successors of its conquerors introduced any peculiarity in their manners or buildings it is reasonable to suppose that they were eagerly imitated throughout Europe; hence we find that a few centuries produced a vast number of churches, in the painted style, in the Italian States, Germany, France, Spain, &C. &C. though it must be admitted that the latter country being conquered by the Moors, may have in some measure operated to introduce an imitation of their mosques, which are very like gothic architecture.
Such are the conjectures which naturally follow the consideration of this subject, and yet they may be altogether erroneous, as much might be said to induce a supposition that the pointed style was gradually invented by the abherration of the pencil and compasses, or similar instruments of ingenious architects, who having observed intersected arches in some very antient Roman buildings, of Grecian architecture, admired their effect and followed them as fundamental principles in new designs. This speculation may be supported by referring to an engraving by Marco Sadeler, representing the ruins of the Tcrme di Diocletiano, which shews the perspective of a long passage very similar to the aile of a church, where the roof is made completely and decidedly gothic by the intersection of arches throughout.
Some enquirers as to the origin of the style, have thought that the first idea of high pointed ailes was taken from avenues of lofty trees, the branches of which interweaving suggested the rich ribs and tracery of the later specimens of the art, but this is mere conjecture and fancied resemblance.
One of the most plausible reasons for supposing the invention gradual, is the finding of interlaced arcades on the sides of Saxon buildings, intimating an inclination to deviate from the semicircle of that style. (See plate Gothic Architecture, fig. l.) The pointed arch, as has been mentioned, intermingled with the circular in the ribs or groins of the roof, and lastly occurred the plain and positive pointed manner, the earliest instances of which have very little decoration compared with the more modern; indeed thcrapid increase of ornament may be traced in our numerous and magnificient cathedrals, till their introduction operated to render the gothic style' too expensive for continuance.
That this taste was imported into England from the Continent will not admit of a doubt, but it is absurd to suppose that architects and masons were imported with it, as certain authors have imagined ; it would be just as erroneous to say that because Somerset House has a general resemblance to continental palaces the architect and his masons came from thence.
It is impossible to treat this subject methodically, as the principles of the gothic are simply those mentioned at the commencement of the article; indeed the varieties and caprices often observable in the same building set all rules at defiance, and yet there are numbers of regular structures, the parts of which correspond exactly.
One of the arcades in the choir of Gloucester cathedral is seventeen feet wide, the columns on its sides are fiftyseven feet high, and the arch from the capitals to the point twenty-one feet; a circular arch, aperture, or window into another part of the church, in the same arcade, has the following proportions, width twelve feet, and the height fifteen feet The west front of the same church has a great central window, and two lateral, those certainly
should be of the same dimensions to preserve the necessary uniformity, but that is not the fact, one being sixteen feet wide and thirty-one high, and the other twentynine feet high and twelve wide.
Two segments of a circle meeting at the tops make the pointed arch, (see fig. 2.) to improve the nakedness of this figure, the inventors introduced the section of a quatrefoil, or figure formed of four leaves, within the arch, (see fig. 3.) and ribs or borders sometimes raised, and at others excavated; each of those were afterwards enriched by pierced tracery, see fig. 4.
The windows were bounded by numerous pillars with beautiful capitals of foliage, and intersected by perpendicular and horizontal bars or mullions, the former of which turned into delicate ramifications and filled the arch, (see fig. 5.); painted glass rendered those extremely grand when viewed within the structure, mouldings or cornices almost universally divided the different ranges of windows, the doors of the casement nearly reach the lower, and the angles above the arch are adorned with tracery, see fig. 6.
The windows are separated by buttresses, which vary in breadth, depth and solidity, according to the fancy of the architect, and are frequently very magnificent, as they admit of being pierced into an arch, as (in fig. 7.), in order that they may contribute to the support of two walls on different lines, and are decorated with niches under fretted canopies, statues and pinnacles, see fig. 8.
Battlements extend along the summits of the walls, those are of different kinds, see fig. 9, 1£,
The interior generally exhibits three ranges of arches in each arcade, the lowest are bounded by a strong pillar, with others more slender filleted round it, from the capitals of those arise the first arch, three of the small pillars ascend to the spring of the roof; the second range of arches open into a gallery, and the upper are window i (see fig. 11.) which exhibit the tracery or ribs from the pillars on the roof. Fig. 19,13, 14, 15, 16, 17, shew a variety of ornaments peculiar to the gothic or pointed style of architecture.
GOUANIA, in botany, so called in honour of Antoine Gouan, M. I), a genus of the Polygamia Monoecia class and order. Natural order of Rhamhi, Jussieu. Essential character: hermaphrodite, calyx fivedeft; corolla none ; anthem five, nndcr a veil ; style three-cleft; fruit inferior, tripartite: male, similar, but without germ and stigma. There is only one species, viz. G. domingcnsis, chavstick, a native of St. Domingo in the woods.
GOVERNMENT, in general, is the polity of a state, or an orderly power constituted for the public good.
Civil government was instituted for the preservation and advancement of mens' civil interests, and for the better security of their lives, liberties, and properties. The use and necessity of government is such, that there never was an age or country without some sort of civil authority; but as men are seldom unanimous in the means of attaining their ends, so their difference in opinion, in relation to government, has produced a variety of forms of it. To enumerate them would be to recapitulate the history of the whole earth. But they may, in general, be reduced to one of these heads; either the civil authority is delegated to one or more, or else it is still reserved to the whole body of the people; whence arises the known distinction of government into monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy. See Aristocracy, Constitution, Demo• Cracv, Sec.
A mixed government is composed by the combination of the simple forms of government which have already been, or will hereafter be, described; and, in whatever proportion each form enters into the constitution of a government, in the same proportion may both the advantages and evils, which have been attributed to that form, be expected. The government of this country is unquestionably a mixed government, though by some writers it is denominated a limited monarchy. It is formed by a combination of the three regular species of government; the monarchy residing in the King, the aristocracy in the House of Peers, and the republic, being represented by the House of Commons. The perfection intended, and, with regard to the United Kingdoms, in a considerable degree effected, is to unite the advantages of the several simple forms, and to exclude the inconveniencies. "For, as with us," says Sir William Blackstone, "the executive power of the laws is lodged in a single person, they have all the advantages of strength and dispatch that are to be found in the most absolute monarchy; and as the legislature of the kingdom is entrusted to three distinct powers, entirely independent of
each other: first, the King; secondly, the Lords, spiritual and temporal, which is an aristocratical assembly of persons selected for their piety, their birth, their wisdom, their valour, or their property; and, thirdly, the House of Commons, freely chosen by the people from among themselves, which makes it a kind of democracy; as this aggregate body, actuated by different springs, and attentive to different interests, composes the British Parliament, and has the supreme disposal of every thing; there can be no inconvenience attempted by either of the three branches, but will be withstood by one of the other two; each branch being armed with a negative power sufficient to repel any'innovation which it shall think inexpedient or dangerous." See MoNarchy.
GOUGE, an instrument or tool used by divers artificers, being a sort of round hollow chisel for cutting holes, channels, grooves, &c. either in wood or stone.
GOUST, or Gout, signifies taste or skill in poetry, painting, &c.
GOUT. See Medicinb.
GRACE, in music, either in vocal or instrumental performances, consists not only in giving due place to the decorative additions, but in that easy, smooth, and natural expression of the passages, which best conveys the beauties of the composition, and forms one of the principal attributes of a good performer.
GRADUATE, a person who has taken a degree in the university. See Degree.
GRADUATION, in mathematics, the act of graduating or dividing any tiling into degrees, or equal parts
GRAFT, or Graff, in gardening, a scion or shoot of a tree inserted into another, so as to make it yield fruit of the same nature with that of the tree from whence the graft was taken. See Gardening, Budding, Arc.
■ GRACULA, the grakle, in natural history, a genus of birds of the order Pleas. Generic character: the bill convex, thick, sharp-edged, somewhat naked at the base; nostrils small, near the base of the bill, tongue entire, rather sharp at the endj claws hooked and sharp. No species of this bird is found in Europe. There are thirteen species, of which we shall notice the following: G. kelegiosa, or the minor grakle, is of the size of a blackbird, is found in various districts of the East Indies, and almost, in every island beyond the Ganges. It is rendered familiar with the